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From the collection of the 

z m 



o Prelinger 


San Francisco, California 

1845 1847 






Semi-Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


JANUARY 1 TO JUNE 16, 1900 






ANIMAL AND PLANT, MYTH AND FANCY OF Frederick Starr ..... 279 


ASIA, IN CENTRAL Ira M. Price 247 




BIOLOGICAL QUESTIONS OF TO-DAY Charles A. Kofoid .... 280 

BOER AND BRITON Wallace Rice 42 



CICERO, LETTERS OF W. H '. Johnson 278 

CIVIL WAR, SCHOULER'S HISTORY OF THE Francis Wayland Shepardson . 461 





DIAL, THE, 1880-1900 327 






EPISCOPAL RACONTEUR, AN Arthur Howard Noll . . . 432 

EUROPE, RACES OF Frederick Starr . . , . . 202 


FICTION, RECENT William Morton Payne . . 84, 400 


FREEDOM, THREE GREAT CHAMPIONS OF Francis Wayland Shepardson . 395 


GARDENS AND THEIR PRAISES John J. Holden . . . . . 251 

GOETHE, BYRON'S INFLUENCE UPON Anna M. Bowen . . . . . - 144 

HAUPTMANN, FOUR BEST PLAYS OF Edward E. Hale, Jr. . . . 430 

HEROINE AND FOIL IN MODERN FICTION . Annie Russell Marble . . . 269 


HOWE, MRS., REMINISCENCES OF Sara A. Hubbard . ... 79 



IDEAL, REALITY OF THE Henry C. Payne 191 



LIBRARIES, AMERICAN William H. Brett 346 


LITERATURE, AMERICAN . William P. Trent .... 334 

LITERATURE, TRANSATLANTIC William Morton Payne . . . 329 




MASTER OF BALLIOL, MORE LETTERS OF THE Josiah Renick Smith . . . 195 

MERIVALE, DEAN Percy Favor Bicknell . . . 150 


MONASTIC INSTITUTIONS, HISTORY OF James Westfall Thompson . . 463 




PERIODICALS, AMERICAN Henry Loomis Nelson . . . 349 



POETRY, RECENT William Morton Payne ... 48 













SHIP OF STATE, BUILDING THE James Oscar Pierce . . . . 153 

SOCIAL DISCUSSION AND REFORM Charles R, Henderson . . . 436 






THOMPSON RIVER INDIANS, STORIES OF THE . .... . Frederick Starr 467 

THOREAU AS A HUMORIST George Beardsley 241 

TRAVEL, RECENT BOOKS OF Hiram M. Stanley . . . . 154 

TREES, BROOKS, AND BOOKS Anna Benneson McMahan . 47 

" WHEN WE DEAD AWAKE " William Morton Payne . . . 109 




BRIEFS ON NEW BOOKS 20, 53, 88, 124, 156, 203, 253, 285, 404, 440, 469 

BRIEFER MENTION 24, 57, 92, 127, 160, 207, 257, 290, 408, 444, 472 

NOTES 25, 58, 93, 127, 161, 208, 257, 291, 409, 444, 472 


LISTS OF NEW BOOKS 26, 59, 95, 128, 162, 258, 292, 409, 446, 473 



Abbott, Evelyn, and Campbell, Lewis. Letters of 

Jowett 195 

Adams, C. F. Charles Francis Adams . . . 396 
Adeane, Jane H. Early Married Life of Lady 

Stanley 273 

Adeane, Jane H. Girlhood of Maria Holroyd . 273 
Alden, R. M. Rise of Formal Satire in England 161 

Allen, Grant. White's Selborne 128 

Archer, William. America of To-Day .... 89 
Arnold, Howard P. Historic Side-Lights ... 92 
Arnold, Thomas. Passages in a Wandering Life 398 
Atterbury, Ansen P. Islam in Africa .... 470 
Austen, Jane, Works of, " Temple " edition . . 93 
Austin, Henry. Poe's Tales, " Raven " edition . 56 
Baedeker's Guides to Austria, Central Italy, the 

Rhine, and Switzerland, revised editions . . . 472 
Bailey, L. H. Cyclopedia of American Horticul- 
ture, Vol. 1 274 

Baillie-Grohman, W. A. Fifteen Years' Sport 

and Life 393 

Baker, T. S. Hauptmann's Die Versunkene Glocke 430 
Baldock, T. S. Cromwell as a Soldier .... 54 
Barnum, Martha R. Two Minor Works of Goethe 151 
Barrett, Wilson, and Barron, Elwyn. In Old New 

York 85 

Barton, Alma H. History of the United States . 208 
Bateman, Newton, and Selby, Paul. Historical 

Encyclopaedia of Illinois 125 

Bates, F. G. Rhode Island and Formation of the 

Union 408 

Bax, E. Belfast. Peasant's War in Germany . . 205 
Beeching, H. C. Poetical Works of Milton . . 408 
Bellamy, Blanche W. Twelve English Poets . . 58 
Benson, A. C. Poems by Matthew Arnold . . 59 
Benton, Joel. Emerson as a Poet, new edition . 56 
Bentzon, Th. Malentendus ....... 467 



Bergen, Fanny D. Animal and Plant Lore . . 279 

Besant, Sir Walter. The Orange Girl .... 85 
Bicknell, Edward. Territorial Acquisitions of the 

United States 24 

Biological Lectures from Marine Biological Lab- 
oratory, Wood's Holl 282 

Bishop, Mrs. J. F. The Yangtze Valley and Beyond 154 

Blanchan, Neltje. Nature's Garden 404 

Blok, Petrus J. History of People of Netherlands 434 

Boers, Story of the 406 

Boname, L. C. Handbook of French Pronunciation 445 

Bookwalter, J. W. Siberia and Central Asia . . 156 

Boothby, Guy. Love Made Manifest .... 87 
Bothmer, Countess A. von. Sovereign Ladies of 

Europe 287 

Bourinot, Sir J. G. Builders of Nova Scotia . . 256 

Bowman, Isa. Story of Lewis Carroll .... 290 

Boyd, Alex. J. The Shellback 90 

Bradford, Gamaliel. Lesson of Popular Govern- 
ment 113 

Brady, C. T. For the Freedom of the Sea . . 85 

Briton and Boer 45 

Brooke-Hunt, Violet. Prisoners of the Tower of 

London 290 

Brooke, Stopford A. The Gospel of Joy ... 19 

Brown, Mary W. Development of Thrift . . . 439 
Bruce, A. B. Moral Order of the World . . .252 

Budde, Karl F. R. Religion of Israel to the Exile 255 

Bunyan's Mr. Badman, illus. by Brothers Rhead . 25 

Burke, William M. Central Labor Unions . . 122 

Burnet, John. Platonis Operis, Tomus I. ... 291 

Burns, J.J. English Kings according to Shakespeare 207 

Burton, Richard. Literary Likings 159 

Burton, Richard. Lyrics of Brotherhood ... 52 

Butler, Howard C. Scotland's Ruined Abbeys . 23 

Byington, E. H. Puritan as Colonist and Reformer 53 



Cadell, Mrs. H. M. Ruba'yat of Omar Khayam 257 
Caffin, C. H. How to Tell a Good Picture . . 257 
Caird, John. Fundamental Ideas of Christianity 251 
Callahan, J. M. Cuba and International Relations 160 
Campbell, W. Wilfrid. Beyond the Hills of Dream 50 
Capes, Bernard. Our Lady of Darkness ... 86 

Carman, Bliss. A Winter Holiday 51 

Carus, Paul. Kant and Spencer 161 

Carus, Paul. Soul of Man, second edition . . 257 
Cary, Rosa N. Twelve Notable Good Women . 289 

Castle, Egerton. Light of Scarthey 400 

Chamberlain, Joseph . John Brown .... 253 

Chambers, G. F. Story of Eclipses 127 

Chandler, F. W. Picaresque Novel in Spain . . 127 
Channing, Edward. Short History of the U. S. . 472 
Chapin, Anna A. Wotan, Siegfried, and Briinnhilde 58 
Chapman, J. J. Practical Agitation .... 406 
Charbonnel, Victor. Victory of the Will . . . 252 
Chestnutt, C. W. Frederick Douglass .... 92 
Cheyne, T. K., and Black, J. Sutherland. Ency- 
clopaedia Biblica, Vol. 1 152 

Chisel, Pen, and Poignard 127 

Choiseul-Gouffier, Comtesse de. Historical Me- 
moirs of Alexander 1 428 

Choral Songs in Honour of Queen Victoria . . 208 
Churchill, G. B. Richard III. up to Shakespeare 409 
Churchill, Helen C. How Women May Earn a 

Living 256 

Churchill, Lady. Anglo-Saxon Review . . 24, 160 

Churchill, Winston S. Savrola 400 

Churchill, Winston S. The River War .... 40 
Civil Service Examination, How to Prepare for a 291 
Clark, J. Willis. Old Friends at Cambridge . . 397 
Clarke, W. N. Can I Believe in God the Father ? 252 
Clarke, W. N. What Shall We Think of Chris- 
tianity? 252 

Cloete, Henry. History of the Great Boer Trek 43 
Clover, Sam T. Glimpses across the Sea . . . 208 
Clowes, W. Laird. The Royal Navy, Vol. IV. . 89 
Colby, F. M. Outlines of General History . . 58 
Coler, Bird S. Municipal Government .... 283 
Collins, Laura G. By-Gone Tourist Days . . . 156 
Cook, A. S. The Christ of Cynewulf .... 408 
Cooke, C. Kinloch. Memoir of Duchess of Teck 440 

Coolidge, Katharine. Voices 53 

Corson, Hiram. Introduction to Milton . . . 204 
Cory, Charles B. Birds of North America . . 92 

Coulter, John M. Plant Structures 127 

Craigie, Mrs. Osbern and Ursyne 249 

Crawford, F. Marion. Via Crucis 84 

Cripps, Wilfrid J. Old English Plate, 6th edition 159 

Crockett, S. R. lone March 86 

Cross, W. L. Development of the English Novel 203 

Cruttwell, Maud. Luca Signorelli 470 

Cunynghame, Henry. Art-Enamelling upon Metals 58 
Curtis, Elizabeth A. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam 257 

Dana, John M. The Wider View 93 

Davenport, C. B. Experimental Morphology, 

Part II 24 

Davenport, C. B. Statistical Methods .... 93 
Davis, C. H. Life of Charles Henry Davis . . 406 
Davis, G. B. International Law, new edition . 409 
Davis, H. W. Car less. Charlemagne .... 469 
Dawson, W. J. Makers of Modern Prose . . . 161 
Deans, James. Tales from the Totems .... 442 
Deluscar, Horace. Deluscar's Merris .... 50 
Demoor, Jean, Massart, Jean, and Vandervelde, 
Emile. Evolution by Atrophy 281 

Dennis, John. Shakespeare's Works, " Chiswick " 

edition 257, 444 

Devereux, Roy. Side Lights on South Africa . 45 
Dimock, Arthur. St. Paul's Cathedral .... 409 

Dobson, Austin. Oliver Goldsmith 90 

Dole, Charles F. Theology of Civilization . . 252 
Dole, N. H. FitzGerald's Salaman and Absal . 25 
Donaldson, A. B. Five Great Oxford Leaders . 398 

Douglas, Sir George. James Hogg 205 

Drahms, August. The Criminal 439 

Drew, Mrs. John, Autobiographical Sketch of . 91 
Drummond, Henry. Stones Rolled Away . . . 253 
Drummond, Henry. The New Evangelism . . 253 
DuBois, W. E. B., and Eaton, Isabel. The Phil- 
adelphia Negro 439 

D wight, Timothy. Thoughts of and for the Inner 

Life 252 

Dyde, S. W. Plato's Thsetetus 58 

Earle, Mrs. C. W. More Potpourri from a Surrey 

Garden 405 

Eaton, Dorman B. Government of Municipalities 284 

Elton, Oliver. The Augustan Ages 91 

Ely, Richard T. Monopolies and Trusts . . . 442 
Emerson, Edwin, Jr. Pepys's Ghost .... 207 
Ewart, K. Dorothea. Cosimo de Medici ... 23 
Farmer, James E. The Grand Mademoiselle . 85 

Federal Census, The 201 

Fenollosa, Mary McN. Out of the Nest ... 53 
Ferris, Alfred J. Pauperizing the Rich . . . 123 
Fields, Mrs. Annie. Nathaniel Hawthorne . . 92 
Finn, Joseph. Kipling Birthday Book .... 25 
Fisher, Mary. General Survey of American Lit- 
erature 160 

Fisher, Sydney G. The True William Penn . . 91 

Fiske, John. A Century of Science 119 

Fiske, John. Through Nature to God .... 19 

Fitch, Clyde. Nathan Hale 250 

Fitchett, W. H. How England Saved Europe 124, 442 
Fletcher, Alice. Indian Story and Song . . . 407 
Forbes, W. H., and Abbott, Evelyn. Jowett's 

Thucydides 127 

Fortescue, J. W. History of the British Army . 148 

Foster, Michael. Claude Bernard 158 

Fowler, W. Warde. Roman Festivals .... 118 

Francis, M. E. Yeoman Fleetwood 401 

Freneau, Philip. Capture of the Ship " Aurora " 290 
Fruit, J. P. Mind and Art of Poe's Poetry . . 56 
Funck-Brentano, F. Legends of the Bastille . . 468 
Furchheim, Frederick. Bibliografia del Vesuvio 94 
Furst, Clyde. A Group of Old Authors ... 54 

Galdos, B. Perez. Saragossa 403 

Gardner, E. G. Dante's Ten Heavens, 2d edition 257 
Gardner, Percy. Exploratio Evangelica . . . 441 
Garnett, Richard. Essays in Librarianship and 

Bibliography 286 

Gautier, E. L'Anne"e Scientifique et Industrielle, 

1899 473 

Gerard, Frances. Romance of Ludwig II. . . 22 
Gibson, C. D. My Lady and Allan Darke . . 85 
(ill mail, Daniel C. Life of James D wight Dana 245 
Gilman, Nicholas P. A Dividend to Labor . . 122 
Glazer, Richard. Manual of Historic Ornament 93 
Gollancz, Israel. Shakespeare's Works, " Larger 

Temple " edition 254, 472 

Gollancz, Israel. " Temple Classics " . . 59, 209 
Goodrich, A. L. Topics on Greek and Roman History 472 
Gorden-Cumming, Miss C. F. Inventor of Numeral 
Type for China 290 




Grant, Robert. Art of Living, new edition . . 21 
Grant, Robert. Searchlight Letters . . . . . 21 

Gras, Fe"lix. The White Terror 403 

Gray, Elisha. Nature's Miracles 127 

Greenidge, A.H. J . Smith's Smaller History of Rome 408 
Greg, W. W. English Plays Written before 1643 409 
Grenier, Edward, Literary Reminiscences of . . 158 
Griffis, W. E. The American in Holland . . .156 
Griggs, Edward H. The New Humanism . . . 443 
Grinnell, W. M. Regeneration of the U. S. . . 440 
Guiney, Louise Imogen. The Martyr's Idyl . . 52 
Hadden, J. Cuthbert. Thomas Campbell . . . 404 
Hall, F. S. Sympathetic Strikes and Lockouts . 121 

Hall, John L. Old English Idyls 57 

Hamerton, P. G. Paris, new edition .... 444 
Hamilton, Lord Ernest. Perils of Josephine . . 86 
Hand, J. E., and Gore, Charles. Good Citizenship 440 

Harley, Lewis R. Francis Lieber 206 

Harper's Guide to Paris and the Exposition . . 291 
Harrison, Frederic. Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill . . 206 
Hart, Albert Bushnell. Salmon P. Chase . . . 395 
Harte, Bret. Mr. Jack Hamlin's Mediation . . 87 
Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. X. . 128 
Hatfield, J. T. Goethe's Hermann uud Dorothea 288 
Hauptmann, Gerhart. Lonely Lives .... 430 
Hauptmann, Gerhart. The Sunken Bell . . . 430 
Hauptmann, Gerhart. The Weavers .... 430 

Hay, James. Sir Walter Scott 408 

Hazard, Caroline. Narragansett Friends' Meeting 13 

Hazlitt, W. C. Lamb and Hazlitt 407 

Headlam, James W. Bismarck 156 

Heckethorn, Charles W. London Souvenirs . . 287 
Henderson, T. F. Scottish Vernacular Literature 82 
Herford, C. H. Shakespeare's Works, "Evers- 

ley " edition 58, 93, 254, 444 

Herringham, Christiana J. Cennini's Art of the 

Old Masters 90 

Herron, G. D. Between Caesar and Jesus ... 20 
Hewlett, Maurice. Earthwork out of Tuscany, 

new edition 291 

Hiatt, Charles. Sir Henry Irving 206 

Higginson, T. W. Contemporaries 57 

Hill, G. F. Greek and Roman Coins . . . .117 
Hill, Janet McK. Salads, Sandwiches, and Chafing- 

Dish Dainties 57 

Hillis, Newell D. Great Books as Life-Teachers 47 
Hobson, J. A. The War in South Africa . . . 277 
Holden, E. S. Elementary Astronomy .... 58 

Holden, E. S. Family of the Sun 58 

Hooker, Le Roy. The Africanders 159 

Hopkins, Tighe. An Idler in Old France . . . 471 

Howe, Julia Ward. Reminiscences 79 

Hubert, P. G., Jr. Stage as a Career .... 205 
Hudson, T. J. Divine Pedigree of Man . . . 252 
Kuril, Estelle M. Riverside Art Series . . . 291 
Hutton, F. W. Darwinism and Lamarckism . .281 
Hyde, W. DeWitt. God's Education of Man . 253 
Hyslop, J. H. Syllabus of Psychology .... 59 
Inge, William R. Christian Mysticism . . . 252 
Ireland, Alleyne. Tropical Colonization ... 14 
Jacobs, H. E., and Haas, J. A. W. Lutheran 

Encyclopaedia 91 

James, C. C. Bibliography of Canadian Poetry . 24 
Jebb, R. C. Humanism in Education .... 25 
Jekyll, Gertrude. Home and Garden .... 251 

Johnson Club Papers 288 

Jokai, Mauris. Debts of Honor 403 

Jokai, Maurus. The Poor Plutocrats .... 402 

Jones, Henry A. Carnac Sahib 24 

Jones, Jenkin Lloyd. Jess 47 

Keightley, S. R. Heronford 86 

Keith, G. S. Plea for a Simpler Life .... 409 

Kemble, E. W. Coontown's 400 93 

Kent, C. B. Roylance. The English Radicals . 194 
Kent, Charles F. History of the Jewish People . 22 
King, Charles R. Life of Rufus King, Vol. VI. 291 

Kinney, Coates. Mists of Fire 58 

Kipling, Rudyard, Works of, " Outward Bound " 

edition 160 

Kittredge, G. L., and Arnold, Sarah. The Mother 

Tongue 472 

Knowles, Frederick L. A Kipling Primer . . 25 
Knowlton, Helen M. Art Life of W. M. Hunt . 20 
Koren, John. Economic Aspects of the Liquor 

Problem 439 

Krausse, Alexis. Russia in Asia 248 

Kropotkin, P. Memoirs of a Revolutionist . . 9 
Lafleur, Paul T. Illustrations of Logic ... 58 
Lanciani, R. Destruction of Ancient Rome . . 470 
Lang, Andrew. The Homeric Hymns . . . .118 

Lanier, Sidney, Letters of 55 

Lapsey, G. L. County Palatine of Durham . . 289 

Latimer, Elizabeth W. Judea 288 

Laughton, J. Knox. From Howard to Nelson . 255 
Lazarus, Josephine. Madame Dreyfus .... 161 
Le Bon, Gustave. Psychology of Socialism . . 120 
Le Conte, Joseph. Outlines of Comparative Phy- 
siology and Morphology of Animals .... 208 
Lee, Albert. The Gentleman Pensioner . . . 400 
Lee, F. S. Huxley's Lessons in Elementary Phy- 
siology 257 

Lee, Guy Carleton. The World's Orators . . . 473 
Lee's American Tourist's Map of Paris .... 58 

Lees, J. A. Peaks and Pines 156 

Le Gallienne, Richard. George Meredith, revised 

edition 472 

Leland, C. G. Unpublished Legends of Virgil . 117 

Lent, William B. Holy Land 156 

Lidgey, Charles A. Wagner 290 

Lloyd, A. B. In Dwarf Land and Cannibal Country 154 
Lloyd, H. D. A Country without Strikes . . . 437 

Long, W. H. Naval Yarns 92 

Loria, Adeille. Economic Foundations of Society 437 
Lounsberry, Alice. Guide to the Trees .... 445 
Loup, M. de. American Salad Book .... 472 

Lubin, David. Let There Be Light 440 

Lucas, C. P. Historical Geography of Africa . . 43 

Lucas, E. V. The Open Road 286 

Luther, Mark L. The Favor of Princes ... 85 
Mac Bride, T. H. North American Slime-Moulds 57 
MacDougal, D. T. Nature and Work of Plants 282 
Macfarlane, C. W. Value and Distribution . . 120 
Mackay, Thomas. English Poor Law, Vol. III. . 161 
Maclay, E. S. History of American Privateers . 126 
Macmillan, Conway. Minnesota Plant Life . . 92 
Macquoid, Katharine S. A Ward of the King . 87 
Mahan, A. T. Lessons of the War with Spain . 198 
Marlin, Jane. Reminiscences of Morris Steinert 289 
Marot, Helen. Handbook of Labor Literature . 124 
Marvin, W. T. Syllabus of Introduction to Phil- 
osophy 59 

Mason, A. E. W. The Watchers 87 

Maspero, G. Passing of the Empires .... 399 
Mathew, Frank. One Queen Triumphant . . . 401 
Mathews, W. S. B. Songs of All Lands . . .127 
Mau, August. Pompeii, its Life and Art . . . 465 




Maulsby, D. L. Growth of Sartor Resartus . . 93 
Mayo-Smith, Richmond. Statistics and Economics 200 
McChesney, Dora. Rupert, by the Grace of God 87 
M c Kim, W. Duncan. Heredity and Human Progress 438 
Meigs, W. M. Growth of the Constitution in the 

Federal Convention of 1787 . . ... .153 

Merivale, Judith A. Autobiography of Dean 

Merivale 150 

Merriman,. Helen B. Religio Fictoris .... 253 

Merwin, Henry C. Aaron Burr 92 

Metcalfe, James S. Mythology for Moderns . . 93 
Mifflin, Lloyd. Echoes of Greek Idylls . . . 286 
Mill, Hugh R. International Geography . . . 471 
Millet, F. D. Expedition to the Philippines . . 288 
Milman, Helen. Outside the Garden .... 251 
Miln, Louise J. Little Folks of Many Lands . . 407 
M'Kendrick, J. G. Hermann von Helinholtz . . 158 

Moliere's Works, " Oxford " edition 208 

Moments with Art 25 

Moore, Charles. Northwest under Three Flags . 404 
Moore, J. Howard. Better- World Philosophy . 438 
Morison, William. Alexander Melville . . . 158 
Morley, Margaret W. The Honey-Makers . . 282 
Morris, Charles. Man and his Ancestor . . . 282 
Moulton, Louise C. At the Wind's Will ... 52 

Municipal Program, A 284 

Murison, A. F. Robert Bruce 158 

Musgrave, G. C. Under Three Flags in Cuba . 160 

Narfon, Julien de. Pope Leo XIII 254 

National Educational Association, Journal of 1899 

Meeting 127 

Newbigging, Thomas. The Scottish Jacobites . 92 

Newbolt, H. C. E. Religion 20 

Newman, George. Bacteria 283 

Nijhoif, M. Catalogue of Works on History of 

the Netherlands 472 

Noble, F. P. The Redemption of Africa . . .157 
Noll, A. H. History of the Church in Diocese of 

Tennessee . 289 

Nutt, Alfred. Popular Studies in Mythology 208, 445 
Orr, Charles. Richard de Bury's Philobiblon . 153 
Osgood, C. G. Classical Mythology of Milton's 

English Poems 409 

Oxenham, John. Rising Fortunes 87 

Parker, Joseph. A Preacher's Life 290 

Parker, T. J., and Haswell,. W. A. Manual of 

Zoology 208 

Pattee, F. L. Foundations of English Literature 291 
Patten, S. N. Development of English Thought . 436 
Pearson, Karl. Grammar of Science, revised ed. 472 
Pemberton, T. Edgar. The Kendals .... 276 
Perry, Bliss. The Powers at Play ..... 88 
Phillips, J. Campbell. Cupid Calendar ... 25 
Phillips, Mrs. Lionel. South African Recollections 44 
Phillips, Stephen. Paolo and Francesca ... 49 
Pike l G. H. Cromwell and his Times .... 24 
Pike, Granyille R. The Divine Drama ... 19 
Poe's Works, " Ingram " edition, reissue of . . 25 
Pollard, A. W. Library English Classics 208, 257, 291 

Pollok, Walter H. Jane Austen 55 

Potter, M.E. Cumulative Book Index for 1898-99 409 
Powell, Aaron M. Personal Reminiscences . . 207 
Presbrey, Frank. The Empire of the South . . 94 
Press, Mrs. Muriel. The Laxdale Saga . . . 59 
Quackenbos, J. D. Enemies and Evidences of 

Christianity 252 

Quiller- Couch, A. T. Historical Tales from 

Shakespeare 207 


Quiller-Couch, A. T. The Ship of Stars ... 87 
Randolph, Spencer. Who Ought to Win ? . . 255 
Rankin, Reginald. Wagner's Nibelungen Ring . 290 
Rawnsley, II. D. Life and Nature at the English 

Lakes 23 

Rawson, E. K. Twenty Famous Naval Battles . 255 
Reid, Robert. In Summertime ...... 25 

Reid, William J. Through Unexplored Asia . . 155 
Ribot, Th. Evolution of General Ideas ... 57 
Richmond, Mary E. Friendly Visiting . . . 439 
Rideout, H. M. Letters of Thomas Gray . . .161 

Riis, Jacob A. A Ten Years' War 439 

Ripley, William Z. Races of Europe .... 202 

Roberts, Morley. The Colossus 86 

Roberts, W. C. and Theodore, and Elizabeth 

Roberts Macdonald. Northland Lyrics . . 51 
Robinson, Sara T. D. Kansas, new edition . . 208 
Rodbertus, Karl. Overproduction and Crises . . 120 

Roe, Mary A. Life of E. P. Roe 443 

Rogers, W. A. Hits at Politics 25 

Rolfe, W. J. Scott's Poems, " Cambridge " edition 445 
Root, Edward T. Profit of the Many . . . .121 
Rougemont, Louis de, Adventures of .... 126 
Ruskin, John. Giotto and his Works in Padua, 

new edition 472 

Russian Journal of Financial Statistics, 1900 . . 128 
Rylance, J. H. Christian Rationalism .... 19 
St. John, Sir Stephen. Rajah Brooke .... 125 
Sanderson, Lucy F. Birds of the Poets ... 409 
Savage, Minot J. Life beyond Death .... 253 
Scharff, R. F. History of European Fauna . .281 
Schelling, F. E. Seventeenth Century Lyrics . 25 
Scholes, T. E. S. The British Empire and Alliances 44 
Schouler, James. History of the Civil W"ar . . 261 
Scott, Clement. Drama of Yesterday and To-Day 78 
Scott, Leader. The Cathedral Builders ... 21 

Seaman, Owen. In Cap and Bells 50 

Seccombe, Thomas. Age of Johnson .... 207 

Sedgwick, Ellery. Thomas Paine 289 

Seignobos, C. Political History of Modern Europe 88 
Seton-Thompson, Ernest. Biography of a Grizzly 408 
Sbarpless, Isaac. History of Quaker Government 

in Pennsylvania 11 

Sherratt, Harriott W. Mexican Vistas . . . 156 
Shorey, Paul. Selections from Pope's Iliad . . 160 
Shuckburgh, Evelyn S. Letters of Cicero . . . 278 
Shute, D. Kerfoot. First Book in Organic Evolution 280 
Sienkiewicz, H. Knights of the Cross, Part I. . 402 
Sieveking, A. F. Gardens Ancient and Modern . 250 

Silberrad, U. L. The Enchanter 401 

Sill, E. R., Prose Works of 444 

Singleton, Esther. Guide to the Operas ... 58 

Skeat, W. W. The Chaucer Canon 445 

Skeat, Walter W, Malay Magic 407 

Skinner, C. M. Myths and Legends of Our New 

Possessions 207 

Skrine, F. H., and Ross, E. D. Heart of Asia . 247 
Sladen, Douglass. Who 's Who, 1900 . ... 93 
Slicer, T. R. Great Affirmations of Religion . . 18 
Smith, F. Hopkinson. The Other Fellow ... 88 
Smith, Goldwin. Shakespeare, the Man ... 161 
Smith, Goldwin. The United Kingdom . . .124 
Smith, J. H. Troubadours at Home .... 204 
Smithsonian Institution, Report for 1897 . . . 127 
Somerville, E., and Ross, Martin. Some Experi- 
ences of an Irish R. M. 207 

Spencer, Frederic. Primer of French Verse . . 160 
Spencer, Herbert. Principles of Biology, rev. ed. 22, 282 



Spielmann, M. H. Thackeray's Contributions to 

"Punch" 254 

Starbuck, E. D. Psychology of Religion . . . 408 

Steele, James W. Colorado 445 

Steevens, G. W. From Cape Town to Ladysmith 244 

Steevens, G. W. In India 155 

Stickney, Albert. The Transvaal Outlook . . 255 
Stockton, Frank R., Works of, " Shenandoah " 

edition 127, 291, 444 

Stoddard, F. H. Evolution of the English Novel 441 

Storey, Moorfield. Charles Sunnier 396 

Sullivan, W. R. W. Morality as a Religion . . 18 

Sursum Corda 18 

Sweet, Henry. Practical Study of Languages . 290 
Swettenham, Sir F. A. The Real Malay . . .155 

Swift, Benjamin. Siren City 86 

Swift, Lindsay. Brook Farm 405 

Swinburne, A. C. Rosamund 48 

Tarbell, Horace S. The Complete Geography . 291 

Tarbell, Ida M. Life of Lincoln 192 

Tarde, G. Social Laws 438 

Tarr, R. S., and McMurry, F. M. Home Geography 472 
Teit, James. Traditions of the Thompson River 

Indians 467 

Temple Cyclopaedic Primers 208, 471 

Temple, Sir Richard. British House of Commons 256 

Temple Treasury, The 58 

Tennyson, Life and Works of, new edition . . . 161 
Thackeray, F. St. John, and Stone, E. D. Flor- 

ilegium Latinum 127 

Thomas, Emile. Roman Life under the Csesars . 117 
Thomas, Margaret. Two Years in Palestine and 

Syria 156 

Thompson, Vance. French Portraits .... 285 

Thurston, H. W. Economics for Secondary Schools 157 

Titherington, R. H. The Spanish-American War 287 

Todd, Mabel L. Total Eclipses of the Sun, new ed. 409 

Tolstoi, Lyof N. The Christian Teaching ... 19 

Tolstoy, Leo. Resurrection 401 

Topinard, Paul. Science and Faith 252 

Tourgue*nieff, I. The Jew, trans, by Mrs. Garnett 128 

Trist, Nicholas B. American Leads .... 207 

Twentieth Century Cyclopedia Britannica ... 58 


Twombly, A. S. Hawaii and its People . . . 156 
Underbill, John G. Spanish Literature in England 

of the Tudors 127 

Underwood, L. M. Moulds, Mildews, and Mush- 
rooms 57 

Urdahl, T. K. Fee System in the United States . 123 
Van Dyke, Henry. Gospel for a World of Sin . 19 
Veblen, Thorstein. Theory, of the Leisure Class 437 
Ver Beck, Frank. Animal Calendar .... 25 
Waldstein, Charles. Expansion of Western Ideals 55 
Waldstein, Charles. The Surface of Things . . 88 
Walker, F. A. Discussions in Economics and 

Statistics 16 

Wallis, Alfred. Poems of Robert Stephen Hawker 256 
Walton's Compleat Angler, Oxford " Thumb " ed. 208 
Ward, A. W. Great Britain and Hanover . . 159 
Ward, May A. Prophets of Nineteenth Century 472 
Ward, Mrs. Humphry. Works of the Bronte 

Sisters, " Haworth " edition . . .93, 257, 444 
Washington, B. T. Future of the American Negro 440 
Waters, Robert. Selden and his Table Talk . . 58 
Watson, H. B. Marriott. The Princess Xenia . 86 
Watson, Thomas E. The Story of France . .116 

Weber, Adna F. Growth of Cities 283 

Welsh, Charles. Publishing a Book .... 161 

West, Sir Algernon. Recollections 203 

Wharton, Anne H. Salons Colonial and Republican 443 
Wheeler, Benjamin I. Alexander the Great . . 440 
Wheeler, Charles G. Woodworking for Beginners 291 
Whipple, Henry B. Lights and Shadows of a 

Long Episcopate 432 

White, Horace. Roman History of Appian . . 57 
Whitman, Sidney. Brief History of Austria . . 405 
Wicksteed, Philip, and Oelsner, H. Dante's Paradiso 209 
Wildman, Rounsevelle. As Talked in the Sanctum 408 
Willson, Beckles. The Great Company . . .197 

Wilson, Robert. Laurel Leaves 50 

Wilson, S. Law. Theology of Modern Literature 471 

Wilson, Thomas. Bluebeard 23 

Winter, William. Plays of Edwin Booth ... 57 
Wishart, A. W. Monks and Monasteries . . . 463 
Woodberry, George E. Makers of Literature . 444 
Woodberry, George E. Wild Eden 51 


Andreas, Captain Alfred T., Death of .... 127 

Appleton & Co., D., Failure of 257 

Art for Morality's Sake. Wallace Rice . . . 272 
Austen, Jane, and Thackeray. Albert Matthews . 113 
" Austen, Jane, and Thackeray." W . R. K. . . 147 
Blackmore, Richard Doddridge, Death of ... 94 
Book Reviews, Honey or Vinegar in. W. R. K. 391 

Bowen, Anna M., Death of 161 

Brinton Memorial Chair in University of Pennsyl- 
vania. Helen Abbott Michael 272 

Chicago and London as View Points of Literature. 

Walter Besant 391 

Cohn, Henry, Death of 257 

College Management, Stage -Coach Theory of. 

Dobbin 461 

Cones, Elliott, Death of 25 

Desire, A Long. (Poem.) Ralph Olmsted Williams 8 
Douce, Francis: A Query. A. H. N. . . . . 243 
Godkin and The Evening Post." W. H. Johnson 77 

Hovey, Richard, Death of 161 

International Association for the Advancement of 
Science, Art, and Education, Prospectus of . 209 

Japanese Scholar and Educator, Death of a. 

Ernest W. Clement 392 

Lincoln, Norman Hapgood's Life of. Henry B. 

Hinckley 8 

Literature, The Absorption of. (Poem.) F. L. 

Thompson 392 

Martineau, James, Death of 93 

Misspelling and Morals 39 

Papyri, More. William C. Winslow 8 

Poetry, French and English. Rudolph Schwill . 76 
Propriety, A Question of. Martin Odland . . . 147 
Rogers, Henry Wade, Resignation of .... 473 
Ruskin. (Poem.) Lewis Worthington Smith . .113 
" Spelling Reform," University. Wallace Rice . 77 
Swedish Authors, Two Modern. Aksel G. S. 

Josephson 445 

" Troubadours at Home, The." A Word from the 

Author. Justin H. Smith 273 

Wood-Thrush, The. (Poem.) John Vance Cheney 271 
Wordsworth and Mr. Markbam. F. L. Thompson 1 
World's Congresses (Chicago) Papers, Presenta- 
tion of, to Chicago Public Library .... 472 



Crifirism, gbotssbn, atttr Jfntenrattan. 

EDITED BY ) Volume XXVIII. /"trJT/"i A C*C\ T A XT 1 1 QAA 10 efe. a copy. ( FlNE ARTS BUILDING 

FRANCIS F. BROWNE. J No. 325. ^Xllt^AljU, J AJN . 1, lyUU. 82.ayear. ( Rooms 610-630-631. 




TJAKPER'S MAGAZINE, with the December Number, entered upon its 
* * One Hundredth Volume, the latter half of its Fiftieth Year. At no time 
in the history of the MAGAZINE has the outlook been more auspicious, and 
never has a stronger list of contributors appeared in its prospectus. 


If you are an old subscriber, now is the time to renew. If you have not been a 
subscriber, now is the time to begin. Send your subscription at once, and the 
Christmas Number will be included, in order that you may have the volume 

The prospectus, which will be sent you on application, will tell 
you, among other things, that there will be serials by 




It will point out the fact that all of the most famous contemporary writers, 
including Mark Twain, Rudyard Kipling, Stephen Crane, Captain 
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and Gilbert Parker, will be among its contributors. It will show that, as 
heretofore, both in literary and artistic qualities, the highest standard is to be 

HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, New York City 

THE DIAL [Jan.l, 

atlantu $lontl)lj>, 1900 

MESSRS. HOUQHTON, MIPPLIN & COMPANY take pleasure in announcing to the many friends of 
lfl THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY that during the last year the growth of public interest in the magazine has 
been greater than at any time in its long history. The present subscription list is the largest on record, 
and the magazine is reaching month after month hundreds of new readers in every State in the Union. 


Mr. Stillmau's career as artist, editor, and newspaper correspondent in various foreign countries has brought 
him into touch with many of the most striking personages and events of the last fifty years. The early papers 
of the series give singularly interesting characterizations of Dr. Nott, the famous President of Union College, 
of Ruskin, Turner, and other English and American artists, of Kossuth, whom Mr. Stillman served as secret 
agent, of Emerson, Holmes, Lowell, Agassiz, and other members of the Adirondack Club. 


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as modified in a generation of freedom. 
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The School Days of an Indian Girl, will describe her experiences as a pupil in the Government Schools. 
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One of the distinctive features of THE ATLANTIC for 1900 will be the appearance at regular intervals of 
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The January Atlantic 


The opening instalment of THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF W. J. STILLMAN. 
The first of Zitkala-Sa's Papers, IMPRESSIONS OF AN INDIAN CHILDHOOD. 


This paper, when read at International Council Congregational Ministers, became the storm-centre of discussion. 


England in 1889 . . . . R. Brimley Johnson 
Between Elections John J. Chapman 

Disarming the Trusts . . . John Bates Clark 
The Future of the Chinese People D. Z. Sheffield 

Three Stories, Seven Sonnets, and The Contributor's Club. 

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Some of the Notable Books Published in 1899 by 


ADAMS. European History: An Out- 
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BURTON ADAMS, Yale University. $1.40 net. 

APPI AN. The Roman History of Appian 
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BLACKMAN. The Making of Hawaii. 

A Study in Social Evolution. By WILLIAM 
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BOTSFORD. A History of Greece for 
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BRADFORD. The Lesson of Popular 
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BRANDES. William Shakespeare. A 

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BROWN. The Development of Thrift. 
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CASTLE, E. " Young April." By ED- 
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CHURCHILL. Richard Carvel. By WINS- 
in lest than seven months. $1.50. 

England for High Schools and Acad- 
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CRAWFORD. Via Crucis. A Romance 
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CROSS. The Development of the En- 
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DAVENPORT.-Experlmental Morphol- 
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Part II. Effect of Chemical and Phys- 
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DIX.- Soldier Rlgdale: How he Sailed 
in the "Mayflower," and How he 
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MARIE DIX, author of "Hugh Gwyeth; a 
Roundhead Cavalier." Illustrated by REG- 
INALD B. BIRCH. $1.50. 

DUTTON. Social Phases of Education 
in the School and the Home. By Supt. 
SAMUEL T. DUTTON, Brookline, Mass. $1.25. 

EARLE. Child Life in Colonial Days. 
Written by ALICE MORSE EARLE, author of 
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EATON. The Government of Munici- 
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FRASER. Letters from Japan. A Rec- 
ord of Modern Life in the Island Empire. 
By Mrs. HUGH FRASEB, author of " Palladia," 
etc. Two vols. Superbly illustrated. $7.50. 

QANONQ. The Teaching Botanist. A 
Manual of Information upon Botanical In- 
struction, together with Outlines and Direc- 
tions for a Comprehensive Elementary 
Course. By WILLIAM F. GANONG, Ph.D., 
Smith College. $1.10 net. 

GARLAND. Boy Life on the Prairie. By 

HAMLIN GARLAND, author of "Main-Trav- 
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DEMING. $1.50. 

GILBERT. The Revelation of Jesus. A 
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HANDS. Educational Aims and Educa- 
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HAPGOOD. Abraham Lincoln: The 
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HEWLETT. Little Novels of Italy. By 
MAURICE HEWLETT, author of " The Forest 
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JOHNSON, CLIFTON. Among English 
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JOHNSTON. A History of the Coloniza- 
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HIGGINSON. Old Cambridge. By THOMAS 
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JONES. Jess: Bits of Wayside Gospel. 


LANGE. Our Native Birds. How to Pro- 
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MACDONALD. Select Charters and 
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NASH. Ethics and Revelation. By 

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By EDGAR STANTON MACLAY, A.M., author of "A History of the United States Navy." Uniform with 
" A History of the United States Navy." One volume. Illustrated. 8vo, 83.50. 

After several years of research the distinguished historian of American sea power presents the first comprehensive 
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No. S25. 

JAN. 1, 1900. Vol. XXVIII. 




Wordsworth and Mr. Markham. F. L. Thompson. 
Hapgood's Life of Lincoln. Henry B. Hinclcley. 
More Papyri. Wm. C. Winslow. 

A LONG DESIRE. (Poem.) Ralph Olmsted Williams. 


HISTORY. B.A.Hintdale 11 


Alice Asbury Abbott 14 


ADDRESSES. Max West 16 


John Bascom 18 

Sursura Corda. Sullivan's Morality as a Religion. 
Slieer's The Great Affirmations of Religion. 
Brooke's The Gospel of Joy. Rylance's Christian 
Rationalism. Pike's The Divine Drama. Van 
Dyke's The Gospel of a World of Sin. Tolstoi's 
The Christian Teaching. Fiske's Through Nature 
to God. Newbolt's Religion. Herron's Between 
Caesar and Jesus. 


The art-life of W. M. Hunt. Chapters in the his- 
tory of architecture. A light to warn, more than to 
guide. The mad King of Bavaria. Re-issue of 
Mr. Spencer's Biology. The story of the Jews in 
exile. History and romance of Scottish abbeys. 
The original Bluebeard. The founder of Medicean 
Florence. The historian of the English Lake Conn- 
try. The phenomena of Growth. The printed 
plays of H. A. Jones. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS . .... 26 


With the best will in the world, it is diffi- 
cult to take a hopeful view of the prospects of 
the art theatrical in the United States. That 
the play, rightly considered, may be reckoned 
among the most important of educative influ- 
ences, is a proposition to which no student of 
the history of culture will refuse his assent. 
It has been so in the past, it is so in some parts 
of the world at the present day, it may become 
so in the future even for those countries in 
which the most benighted and degrading con- 
ditions now obtain. As a school of manners, 
of propriety in speech, of historical portrayal, 
and of ethical ideal, its capabilities are as great 
as they ever were ; that these things should 
have been renounced, and that the art which 
might stand for them should be content to 
wallow in the slough of its present vulgarity 
and depravity as for the most part it un- 
doubtedly does wallow in the United States 
is one of the most saddening of facts. We are 
not, however, content to dismiss the fact with 
Mr. Henry Fuller's airy assumption that 
America as a nation is incapable of artistic 
endeavor ; we believe, rather, that a people 
having the English language and Shakespeare 
for its inheritance is better furnished than any 
other with the fundamentals of dramatic art, 
and that the present degradation of our stage 
is remediable, although not without such reso- 
luteness of effort as has not thus far been ap- 
plied to the task. 

It has been a favorite theory with moralists 
that as our civilization became more settled its 
feverish commercialism would subside, that the 
class of those having enough leisure to take 
thought for the cultural aspects of life would 
grow ever larger, and that the demand for 
mere distraction and entertainment natural 
enough in a population where nervous energy 
is exhausted in the struggle for wealth 
would gradually give place to a demand for 
edification. This theory has not as yet been 
borne out by the event. As far as a leisure 
class has differentiated itself in our society, 
it affords a conspicuous example of the inju- 
dicious use of its freedom. It exalts athletics 
above art, it prefers horse-shows to literature, 


[Jan. 1, 

and it dissipates its opportunities for culture 
in the pursuit of frivolous aims and worthless 
social ambitions. The still larger class of those 
whose circumstances are such as to admit of a 
considerable degree of relaxation from the 
cares of business does not avail itself of the 
freedom it might so easily enjoy ; so far from 
aiming at the old ideal of plain living and high 
thinking, it seeks rather to achieve greater 
luxury in its living, although at the cost of the 
lowering of its thinking to a plane upon which 
there is no room for serious literature, or music, 
or the dramatic presentation of the deeper 
workings of the human soul. 

A comparison between America and Europe, 
as respects the current production of dramatic 
literature intended for actual performance, 
offers results which reflect upon us a striking 
national discredit. In Germany, the two fore- 
most writers among those now living are writers 
for the stage. The two greatest of living Scan- 
dinavians are likewise dramatists. In France 
there is at least the poet of " Cyrano " to 
reckon with, besides the men who have passed 
away during the closing quarter of the century. 
Italy offers one contemporary name of much 
significance, and the like statement is true of 
Spain and of Belgium. Even England has her 
present-day group of highly respectable play- 
wrights, men of serious purpose and substan- 
tial performance, if not exactly writers of 
genius. The works of all the men here men- 
tioned belong distinctly to the literatures of 
their respective countries, and in some cases 
they constitute the best literature that is now 
being produced in those countries. Has Amer- 
ica anything of the sort to show ? Well, we 
have Mr. Bronson Howard, and Mr. Augustus 
Thomas, and Mr. Clyde Fitch. But who would 
think of reckoning the productions of these 
men among the noteworthy things of our mod- 
ern literature? The mere suggestion is an ab- 
surdity. We have poets and novelists and 
essayists fairly comparable with those of the 
European countries ; but of dramatic writers, 
in the European sense, we have not one, nor 
have we ever produced one. 

The reasons for our national poverty in the 
production of good dramatic literature are not 
difficult to point out, but the task lies outside 
of our present purpose, which is rather that of 
calling attention to a recent development of 
our theatrical life which cannot help casting a 
blight upon any possible upgrowth of this 
species of composition in the United States. 
A good deal has been said of recent years, 

chiefly in the newspapers, concerning the or- 
ganization of a " theatrical trust " for the pur- 
pose of controlling our playhouses, and of 
practically monopolizing the supply of our 
theatrical entertainment. In the opening num- 
ber of the new " International Monthly " there 
is an article by Mr. Norman Hapgood entitled 
"The Theatrical Syndicate," which presents 
the most circumstantial account of that organi- 
zation which has come to our attention. It is 
an article deserving of wide circulation and 
close attention, for it reveals a grave menace 
to the best interests of American play- writing 
and the American stage. 

About four years ago, it seems, half a dozen 
theatrical managers joined themselves together 
for the purpose of acquiring control of the 
leading actors and the leading theatres of the 
country. Within a few months the work of 
organization had become so effective that thirty- 
seven first-class theatres had been secured, and 
the cooperation enlisted of a large proportion 
of the best companies and individual actors. 
" The essence of the system, from that day to 
this, with constantly increasing scope and 
power, has been that the theatres take only 
such plays as the syndicate desires, on the 
dates which it desires, and receive in return 
an unbroken succession of companies, with 
none of the old-time idle weeks." To the actor, 
on the other hand, the system offers an un- 
broken succession of engagements in the most 
desirable places, so arranged as to secure the 
greatest economy in transportation. The con- 
trol thus gained was almost absolute, both in 
the large cities and in many of the smaller 
ones. " There is not even a barn free in Cleve- 
land," says Mr. Hapgood significantly. To 
the theatre owner the syndicate could say, and 
does say in substance : "If you do not do busi- 
ness with us, on our own terms, we will not let 
you have first-rate attractions. If you do, we 
will destroy your rival, or force him to the 
same terms. For the bookings we will take a 
share of the profits." It was inevitable that, 
having once acquired the needed initial head- 
way, the power of this combination should be- 
come almost irresistible, and that the desired 
play-houses should one by one succumb, until 
the present monopoly was constituted. 

Again, the power of such a combination to 
force the actor to terms was equally irresist- 
ible. The alternative became a precarious se- 
ries of bookings, largely in undesirable houses, 
and arranged along an expensive route. But 
for a time many actors held out against the 



combination. Among these were Mr. Wil- 
son, Mr. Goodwin, Mr. Mansfield, Mr. Daly, 
and Mrs. Fiske. The most melancholy feature 
of Mr. Hapgood's article is the account of the 
weak fashion in which nearly all of these op- 
ponents of monopoly succumbed, one after 
another, to the combined threats and allure- 
ments of the system, and exchanged their 
sturdy-seeming independence for a supine ac- 
ceptance of the syndicate yoke. The death of 
Mr. Daly, who was the most dangerous foe of 
the syndicate, left Mrs. Fiske to oppose its 
aims almost single-handed. What this means 
is that " she may be able to play but a few 
weeks each season in America, or not at all." 
But she will have the respect and active sup- 
port of all true friends of the stage because she 
represents the most vital principle now at stake 
in her profession, a principle so important that, 
if it failed, the condition of theatrical art in 
America will become even more hopeless than 
it has ever been before. 

For concerning the malign influence of the 
syndicate upon our dramatic art there must be 
no delusion. Its predominance means com- 
mercialism, and nothing else. It means the 
same thing for the theatre that the most dis- 
reputable of our sensational newspapers mean 
for journalism. It means simply that all artistic 
considerations will be swept away in the mad 
purpose of coining money from the stage. But 
we do not need to theorize as to what it means. 
The last two years have brought the matter out 
of the region of theory into that of fact. Never 
before have we had so large a proportion of 
trivial, empty, and vulgar productions among 
the entertainments offered our public. Decency 
has never before been defied in so wanton and 
brutal a fashion. Intelligence has never be- 
fore been flouted by such a parade of what is 
inane and imbecile. Never in recent years has 
the outlook seemed so dark as it has been made 
by the conscienceless activity of this league of 
speculators, with their two-fold appeal, on the 
one hand to the greed of actors and managers, 
on the other to the least worthy, if not actually 
the lowest, instincts of the theatre-going public. 

Is there no remedy for this desperate condi- 
tion of affairs ? Mr. Hapgood seems to think 
that the syndicate will run its course and soon 
suffer disintegration. He anticipates having 
to relate, within a few years, the story of its 
decline and fall. But as long as actors and 
managers are money-makers first of all, the 
conditions will remain which make possible our 
present plight. It is not too much to assume 

that among our actors there will always be some 
who will elect to be artists as their primary 
aim, although the number of these is at present 
small. But theatrical management will con- 
tinue to be essentially commercial until the 
municipal theatre appears, or at least the thea- 
tre dedicated, either by endowment or by the 
disinterested activities of cultivated people, to 
higher aims than those comprised in the idea of 
commercial success. When such theatres come, 
as we believe they will in the near future, we 
may hope for a fair beginning of the educative 
work, necessarily slow at best, whereby in the 
next generation there shall be provided a public 
seeking from the stage something more than 
diversion, and whereby men of literary talent 
may be encouraged to write plays, as they now 
write poems and novels, with the reasonable 
certainty of reward for meritorious work. We 
have no dramatic literature at present, for the 
simple reason that a play possessing literary 
quality has practically no chance of reaching 
the public at all. The avenues of approach are 
so guarded by sordid and uncultivated interest* 
that it would be wasted effort to seek them 
with any work of high character. The pass- 
words are now sensationalism and vulgarity 
rather than literary art or idealism of any sort. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

Among the recent notices of Mr. Markham's poem 
on The Man with the Hoe," I have found that in THE 
DIAL somewhat disturbing. Perhaps the reviewer had 
not Mr. Markham so much in view as some of the lat- 
ter's commentators; but the bald assertion that men 
make themselves instead of being moulded from with- 
out is too summary, and raises the question whether 
the necessary qualifications are not of such burning im- 
portance that they cannot be ignored in the references 
of a leader of thought without mischief being done. 

The issue is not so easily downed. Animal content 
so runs the argument of the quotation from Stevenson 
is better than whining, or animal discontent; animal 
content cannot change to spiritual without passing 
through the stage of animal discontent (true enough, 
possibly); animal discontent is understood to be very 
disagreeable indeed; therefore, let animal content re- 
main as it is, and spiritual content remain confined to 
the few that possess it: t. e., let progression stop. 

Difficulties arise here. How shall the bodily con- 
tented be classified as animals, or men ? If they are 
only a clever sort of animals at present, need we be so 
very much concerned at such wrenching of animal sen- 
sibilities for a few generations as is necessary for that 
humanization which shall last through countless ages ? 
But if men, what does all this mean ? 



[Jan. 1, 

" Thou may'st not rest in any lovely thing, 

Thou, who wert formed to seek and to aspire ; 
For no fulfilment of thy dreams can bring 
The answer to thy measureless desire." 

" Whether we be young or old, 
Our destiny, our being's heart and home, 
Is with infinitude, and only there ; 
With hope it is, hope that can never die, 
Effort, and expectation, and desire, 
And something evermore about to be." 
" Not a having and a resting, but a growing and a becoming." 
In the interest of fair play, let us acknowledge that 
Mr. Markbam is in good company. It will be found 
interesting to compare portions of the eighth and ninth 
books of Wordsworth's " Excursion." I make a few 
pertinent quotations. After a personal description 
which anticipates Mr. Markham's, the Solitary says: 
" This torpor is no pitiable work 
Of modern ingenuity : no town 
Nor crowded city can be taxed with aught 
Of sottish vice or desperate breach of law 
To which (and who can tell where or how soon?) 
He may be roused. This Boy the fields produce ; 
His spade and hoe, mattock and glittering scythe, 
The carter's whip that on his shoulder rests 
In air high-towering, with a boorish pomp, 
The sceptre of his sway ; his country's name, 
Her equal rights, her churches and her schools 
What have they done for him ? And, let me ask, 
For tens of thousands uninformed as he ? 
In brief, what liberty of mind is here ?" 

And the Wanderer replies, in part: 
"To every Form of being is assigned 
An active principle. . . . 
This is the freedom of the universe ; 
Unfolded still the more, more visible, 
The more we know ; and yet is reverenced least, 
And least respected in the human Mind, 
Its most apparent home. The food of hope 
Is meditated action ; robbed of this 
Her whole support, she languishes and dies. 
We perish also ; for we live by hope 
And by desire ; we see by the glad light 
And breathe the sweet air of futurity ; 
And so we live, or else we have no life." 

" No one takes delight 
In this oppression ; none are proud of it ; 
It bears no sounding name, nor ever bore ; 
A standing grievance, an indigenous vice 
Of every country under heaven." 

If Wordsworth and Mr. Markham really beg the 
whole question, culture is a failure, educational work 
(among the non-elect) quixotic, and, among other mo- 
mentous consequences, literary journals cannot increase 
their subscription lists faster than the ratio of increase 
of population among the aristocracy of mind. More: 
republican imperialism, inflated currency, and the like, 
should in consistency be suffered to flourish as green 
bay trees; for these exist largely by sufferance of the 
ale-and-tobacco consuming class, and to dower it with 
political or other wisdom means also to inflict the ca- 
pacity and inclination for whining which will never do. 

Denver, Col., Dec. SO, 1899. 


(To the Editor of THK DIAL.) 

Will you permit one who has read Mr. Hapgood's 
" Abraham Lincoln, The Man of the People " with great 
interest and approval to comment on the notice of that 
book in your issue of Nov. 16. The reviewer expresses 

himself moderately and courteously, but has evidently 
found the book deficient in emphasis of the ideal ele 
ment in Lincoln's character. Now, it has seemed to 
others that one of the special attractions of the book is 
that Mr. Hapgood, while quite as willing to look facts in 
the eye as Herndon, has yet a feeling for the greatness 
and grandeur of the man which Herndou lacked, or at 
least failed to express in his biography of Lincoln. Mr. 
Hapgood dwells much upon Lincoln's humble origin and 
his close sympathy with the people; and he rightly 
makes the power of comprehending the people an impor- 
tant element of the President's greatness. This power 
Lincoln shared with innumerable successful politicians. 
But what in the latter was mere cleverness, in Lincoln 
was genius. There are hundreds of thousands of " men 
of the people." But Lincoln was a great " man of the 
people." It is hard to understand how anybody can 
read Mr. Hapgood's book through without feeling that 
it is pervaded by a noble seriousness, and that it ends 
in a note that is at once lofty and genuine. 

New York City, Dec. 18, 1899. 

(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

May I call the attention of your readers to the vol- 
ume of the " Grace-Roman Branch " of our Egypt 
Exploration Fund, now nearly ready for subscribers? 
Among its contents are St. John I. and XX., from one 
to two hundred years older than any known text; por- 
tions of St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians; 
much of an unknown play by Menander; also a treatise 
on metre and on the twenty-first Book of the Iliad; 
portions of a lost epic poem, of a comedy, history, ora- 
tions, etc. ; of Euripides, Plato, Xenophon, etc., etc. A 
list of victors in the Olympian games, the most com- 
plete for any given period so far known, and evidence 
bearing upon the date of the birth of Christ, are among 
the treasures of such a book. But a most captivating 
feature is the verbal picture of society and life during 
the earliest centuries of our era. The social and busi- 
ness correspondence will interest every reader. All 
subscribers or donors of not less than five dollars will 
receive the annual volume, also the Archaeological Re- 
port and Annual Report. The society depends abso- 
lutely upon subscriptions for support. I donate my 
services. Circulars furnished. WM. C. WINSLOW 

Vice Pres't and Hon'y Sec'y. 

525 Beacon St., Boston, Dec. 2S, 1899. 


I put my money where 't would be secure ; 

And safe it is: from me it is, I'm sure. 

I had a friend that suited well, I said; 

He lives abroad now, ah, how long since dead ! 

I loved a woman: sweet and fair she seemed, 

And true, as heaven has made or love has dreamed. 

Come here, my books These were my earliest life ; 
These to the end shall be wealth, friends, and wife. 
Whether the wrong was mine or theirs, let be: 
'T is long gone by, nay, mine then, all in me. 
But grant me these: these spare, while age assaults: 
Dante and Shakespeare have endured my faults. 







It is easy to understand how a man who has 
passed his most impressionable years under an 
extremely harsh and extremely arbitrary gov- 
ernment should be predisposed, when the time 
came for adopting a definite political creed, to 
favor the views of that school of political 
thought (if one may so term it) which preaches 
the abolition of all government and all govern- 
ors whatsoever. Thus, a youth bred in the 
doleful seclusion of Dotheboys Hall, under the 
knout of Mr. Squeers and the brimstone-and- 
treacle despotism of his terrible spouse, might 
likewise find nothing especially startling or 
preposterous in a formal proposal for the doing 
away with all schools and the summary execu- 
tion of all schoolmasters. On the other hand, 
people who have passed through a long and san- 
guinary period of mob-rule will commonly not 
only warmly agree with M. Taine that " how- 
ever bad a particular government may be, there 
is something still worse, namely, the suppres- 
sion of all government," but will be prepared to 
welcome the iron rule of some despotic saviour 
of society as the realization of the ideal polity. 
In short, the Russia of Nicholas I. bred Nihil- 
ists as naturally and inevitably as the Paris of 
Hebert and Robespierre bred absolutists. 

The vastly interesting portion of Prince 
Kropotkin's memoir which tells the story of his 
life in Russia (embracing about three-fourths 
of the volume) renders his conversion to an- 
archism sufficiently intelligible. Just why his 
anarchism was not subsequently tempered 
through his long sojourn in free and well gov- 
erned countries like England and Switzerland, 
and just why he should have gone on dreaming 
the dreams of Anacharsis Clootz in a British 
and a Swiss atmosphere of common-sense, does 
not appear, and we shall not try to explain. 
There is a certain unconscious humor in Kro- 
potkin's account of his discouraging encounters, 
as a propagandist, with that same British 
common-sense which persisted in asking embar- 
rassing questions as to practical ways and means, 
and in forcing discussion out of the region of 
flattering generalities and air-castle building 
into the region of hard facts and feasible ex- 
pedients. " General principles," he found, 
"deeply interest the Latin workers." The 

With portraits. Boston : Hough ton, Mifflin & Co. 

British workman bent his mind to the effort to 
figure how this or that flattering scheme of so- 
cial or economic reconstruction would be likely 
to work in practice. 

" ' Well, Kropdtkin, suppose that to-morrow we were 
to take possession of the docks of our town. What 'a your 
idea about how to manage them ? ' would be asked, for 
instance, as soon as we had sat down in a workingman's 
parlor. Or, We do n't like the idea of state manage- 
ment of railways, and the present management by com- 
panies is organized robbery. But suppose the workers 
own all the railways. How could the working of them 
be organized ? ' " 

Kropotkin's account of how his father, dur- 
ing the Turkish compaign of 1828, won the 
cross of Saint Anne " for gallantry " is most 
amusing, and explains in a line the status of 
the Russian serf. 

" The officers of the general staff were lodged in a 
Turkish village, when it took fire. In a moment the 
houses were enveloped in flames, and in one of them a 
child had been left behind. Its mother uttered despair- 
ing cries. Thereupon, Frol (a faithful serf), who always 
accompanied his master, rushed into the flames and 
saved the child. The chief commander, who saw the 
act, at once gave father the cross for gallantry. ' But, 
father,' we exclaimed, ' it was Frol who saved the child! ' 
What of that ? ' he replied, in the most naive way. 
Was he not my man ? It is all the same.' " 

Wealth, in the time of Kropotkin's father, 
was measured in Russia by the number of 
" souls " a landed proprietor owned. " Souls " 
meant male serfs (women did not count), and 
the elder Kropotkin, as the owner of some 
twelve hundred " souls," was accounted a rich 
man. He was, as things went then, a humane 
master decidedly " not among the worst of 
landowners." What, in this relation, one of 
these " worst of landowners " may have been 
can be surmised from the author's reminiscence 
of his childhood, in which, he says, he seeks to 
recall the conditions of serfdom by telling, not 
what he heard of, but what he saw. 

" A landowner once made the remark to another, 
< Why is it that the number of souls on your estate in- 
creases so slowly? You probably do not look after their 
marriages.' A few days later the general returned to 
his estate. He had a list of all the inhabitants brought 
him, and picked out from it the names of the boys who 
had attained the age of eighteen, and the girls just past 
sixteen, these are the legal ages for marriage in Rus- 
sia. Then he wrote, ' John to marry Anna, Paul to 
marry Parashka,' and so on with five couples. ' The 
five weddings,' he added, must take place in ten days, 
the next Sunday but one.' A general cry of despair 
rose from the village. Women, young and old, wept 
in every house. Anna had hoped to marry Gregory; 
Paul's parents had already had a talk with the Fedo- 
toffs about their girl, who would soon be of age. . . . 
Dozens of peasants came to see the landowner; peasant 
women stood in groups at the back entrance of the es- 
tate, with pieces of fine linen for the landowner's spouse 



[Jan. 1, 

to secure her intervention. All in vain. The master 
had said that the weddings should take place at such a 
date, and so it must be. At the appointed time, the 
nuptial processions, in this case more like burial pro- 
cessions, went to the church. The women cried out 
with loud voices, as they are wont to cry during buri- 
als. . . . Half an hour later, the small bells of the 
nuptial processions resounded at the gate of the man- 
sion. The five couples alighted from the cars, crossed 
the yard, and entered the hall. The landlord received 
them, offering them glasses of wine, while the parents, 
standing behind the crying daughters, ordered them to 
bow to the earth before their lord." 

The barbarous social system which such 
stories but faintly serve to illustrate could not 
long withstand the rising tide of popular en- 
lightenment. A sense of the dignity of hu- 
manity, long latent in Russia, was quickened 
into lively resentment of the daily spectacle of 
human beings held and driven as cattle, before 
the middle of the century. The French popular 
movements of 1789 and 1830 were not without 
a responsive echo in the upper strata of Rus- 
sian society ; even the dull ear of the Russian 
peasant caught the sound of the explosion of 
1848. The years 1857-60 were years of rich 
and comparatively general intellectual growth. 
The ideas that permeate the pages of Turgue- 
nieff, Tolstoy, Herzen, Bakunin, Dostoevsky, 
and that before had been canvassed with bated 
breath in the secrecy of friendly meetings, be- 
gan now to leak out in the press and to find 
advocacy in places where such ideas were as 
sparks among tinder. The abolition of serfdom 
became the question of the hour. Alexander 
II., not at heart averse to the measure, saw its 
necessity, and in 1856 spoke to the reactionary 
nobility of Moscow the memorable words (bor- 
rowed perhaps from Herzen): " It is better, 
gentlemen, that it should come from above 
than to wait till it comes from beneath." The 
law was passed in 1861. What the abolition 
of serfdom meant to the peasant is prettily 
illustrated by the author in the following story. 
Eleven years after the passage of the law he 
visited an estate of his father's, and found a 
middle-aged man, an ex-serf, "sitting on a 
small eminence outside the village and reading 
a book of psalms." 

" He was reading now a psalm of which each verse 
began with the word ' rejoice.' ' What are you read- 
ing? ' he was asked. ' Well, father, I will tell you,' 
was his reply. Fourteen years ago the old prince came 
here. It was in the winter. I had just returned home, 
almost frozen. A snow-storm was raging. I had 
scarcely begun undressing, when we heard a knock at 
the window : it was the elder, who was shouting, ' Go to 
the prince ! He wants you ! ' We all my wife and 
our children were thunderstruck. What can he 
want of you ? ' my wife cried in alarm. I signed my- 

self with the cross and went; the snowstorm almost 
blinded me as I crossed the bridge. Well, it ended all 
right. The old prince was taking his afternoon nap, 
and when he woke up he asked me if I knew plaster- 
ing work, and only told me, ' Come to-morrow to repair 
the plaster in that room.' So I went home quite happy, 
and when I got to the bridge I found my wife standing 
there. What has happened, Savelich ? ' she cried. 
Well,' I said, ' no harm; he only asked me to make some 
repairs.' That, father, was under the old prince. And 
now, the young prince came here the other day. I went 
to see him, and found him in the garden, at the tea- 
table, in the shadow of the house; you, father, sat with 
him, and the elder of the canton, with his mayor's chain 
upon his breast. Will you have tea, Savelich ? ' he 
asks me. ' Take a chair.' Petr Grigdrieff,' he says 
that to the old one, ' give us one more chair.' And 
Petr you know what a terror he was for us when he 
was the manager for the old prince brought the chair, 
and we all sat round the tea-table, talking, and he 
poured out tea for all of us. Well, now, father, the 
evening is so beautiful, the balm comes from the prairies, 
and I sit and read ' Rejoice ! Rejoice ! ' " 

Herzen was right, says Kropotkin, when, 
two years after the emancipation of the serfs, 
while the emancipator was drowning the Polish 
insurrection in blood, he wrote : " Alexander 
Nikolaevich, why did you not die on that day ? 
Your name would have been transmitted in 
history as that of a hero." For the tragic fate 
of Alexander II., Kropotkin expresses no sor- 
row. From the beginning of 1862, he thinks, 
the ill-starred Tsar commenced to show himself 
capable of reviving the worst practices of his 
father's reign. 

" To me, who had the chance of witnessing the first 
reactionary steps of Alexander II., and his gradual de- 
terioration, who had caught a glimpse of his complex 
personality that of a born autocrat, whose violence 
was but partially mitigated by education, of a man pos- 
sessed of military gallantry, but devoid of the courage 
of the statesman, of a man of strong passions and weak 
will, it seemed that the tragedy developed with the 
unavoidable fatality of one of Shakespeare's dramas." 

Kropotkin's story is a singularly rich, diver- 
sified, and romantic one, and it is attractively 
told. Nothing more interesting in its way has 
ever been written than the chapters relating his 
prison life and his dramatic escape. The book 
abounds in instructive pictures of Russian life 
and character, done with unconscious art. 
From every page shines the bright humanity, 
the sincere conviction, the simple earnestness, 
the sweet unselfishness of a character which we 
must admire, however much we shrink from 
the creed it stands for. And how few of us 
have taken the trouble to look into that creed, 
and to try to discover what there is in it that 
can possibly recommend it to a good and an 
intelligent man ! Let those who would appre- 
ciate the distinction between the reasoned or 




philosophic Anarchism, rooted in love, of high 
and philanthropic souls like Kropotkin, and 
the merely destructive, bastard Anarchism, 
rooted in hate, of the mere vulgar malcontent 
stung by the sight of superiorities beyond his 
reach, read this little book. E. G. J. 


President Isaac Sharpless' first volume, " A 
Quaker Experiment in Government," when 
published last year, was recognized by com- 
petent authorities as a distinct contribution to 
historical knowledge. The same recognition 
will be extended to his new volume, " The 
Quakers in the Revolution." Together, the 
two volumes present a clear outline of what 
may be called the political history of the 
Quakers in Pennsylvania from the founding of 
the colony to the close of the Revolutionary 
war, and, in one respect, to a still later time. 
Their value lies principally in the fact that 
their author, instead of following the old beaten 
path, merely using over again hackneyed 
authorities, opens up new and valuable sources 
of information. These sources are clearly de- 
scribed in the preface to Volume I. 

" The purpose of the book is to include, with other 
sources of information, the contemporary Quaker view. 
This has been gained by a careful examination of Meet- 
ing Records and private letters of the times, and a 
fairly intimate personal acquaintance with many who 
probably represent, in this generation, in their mental 
and moral characteristics, the Quaker Governing Class 
of the first century of the Province." 

The number of extracts from records and 
letters is unusual in historical writings, but 
their presence, while they constantly break 
the current of the narrative, will not be regret- 
ted by historical scholars. They are clearly 
justified by the facts that they have not, as a 
body, been published before, and that the author 
has not a work of the traditional type before 
him, and by their intrinsic interest and value. 

While both volumes are so good, it may 
seem invidious to discriminate between them ; 
however, we must confess to finding the first 
one the more interesting and informing. For 

VANIA. Volume I., A Quaker Experiment in Government. 
Volume II., The Quakers in the Revolution. By Isaac 
Sharpless, President of Haverford College. Philadelphia : 
T. S. Leach & Co. 

CENTURY. With a Chapter on Quaker Beginnings in Rhode 
Island. By Caroline Hazard. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin 

one thing, it contains a general view of the 
ecclesiastical machinery of the Quakers, as 
well as of the way in which they used it to 
carry on their peculiar work. On these points 
the general reader is much less well informed 
than he is on the Quaker doctrines or prin- 
ciples, and the general tenor of Quaker history. 
In Chapter III. Mr. Sharpless describes the 
main features of the organization, produced in 
England and reproduced in Pennsylvania, 
which was " due to the good sense and practical 
genius of George Fox, and was probably worked 
out during his cruel imprisonment of nearly 
three years in Lancaster and Scarboro jails." 
The Yearly Meeting, which was the highest 
organ in the system, was at first a representa- 
tive body, but " ultimately became an assembly 
of all members of the society, the men and 
women meeting together as different bodies." 
To the Yearly Meeting the Quarterly Meet- 
ings reported, and were in turn divided into 
Monthly Meetings, the real working bodies of 
the organization in matters relating to the in- 
dividual members. Next and last came the 
Preparative Meetings. There was also the 
Meeting for Sufferings, the name of which 
suggests its function, lying apparently outside 
of the original system. The general functions 
of the real working bodies are thus described : 
" The Monthly Meeting undertook to see that justice 
was done between man and man, that disputes were 
settled, that the poor were supported, that delinquents, 
whether as to the Society's own rules or those of the 
State, were reformed, or, if reformation seemed im- 
possible, were ' disowned ' by the Society, that appli- 
cants for membership were tested, and finally, if satis- 
factory, received ; that all the children were educated, 
that certificates of good standing were granted to mem- 
bers changing their abodes, that marriages and burials 
were simply and properly performed, and that records 
were fully and accurately kept." 

We are told further that " the business mat- 
ters of Friends were looked into, where any 
possibility of danger existed," since it "was 
felt that the body was responsible for the con- 
duct of each individual." Advice was first 
offered by " concerned friends," and if this did 
not prove acceptable, " the power of the meet- 
ing was invoked, and only after months of 
earnest labor in the case of a refractory mem- 
ber was ' disownment ' resorted to." " The ad- 
vice of the higher meetings finally crystallized 
into a requirement for each Monthly Meeting 
to answer three times a year, plainly and hon- 
estly, the query, ' Are Friends punctual in 
their promises and just in the payment of their 
debts ? ' ' When we remember the breadth of 
this jurisdiction, the spirit in which it was ad- 



[Jan. 1, 

ministered, the character of the people, and 
the thoroughness of the regimen, we are not 
surprised to find President Sharpless saying: 
" Had all the inhabitants been Friends and amenable 
to their discipline, very little civil government would 
have been needed in internal affairs. The work of the 
Legislature might have been devoted mainly to ques- 
tions involving titles, etc., to property, and courts of 
law would have been shorn of nearly all their criminal 
and much of their civil business, while sheriffs and 
policemen, jails and punishments, might almost have 
been omitted as unnecessary. Indeed, this was prac- 
tically the case for some decades in Pennsylvania in 
country districts where the Quaker element constituted 
nearly the whole population." 

We should have been glad if the author had 
gone into more detail relative to the territorial 
bases or areas of the several Meetings in Penn- 
sylvania. He tells us that the Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting, which dates back to 1681, 
embraced monthly meetings on both sides of 
the Delaware, in New Jersey, Delaware, and 
Pennsylvania, and later some in Maryland. 

If any reader infers from what we have 
written that these volumes are mainly didactic, 
constituting an exposition of the Quaker sys- 
tem, we hasten to reassure him : they rather 
deal, for the most part, with the livest ques- 
tions of the time. Moreover, when their time 
limits are recalled, it will be seen that such 
questions were of constant occurrence. Besides 
those growing out of planting the Quaker body 
in Pennsylvania, and the later ones of a strictly 
internal or domestic sort, there were what may 
be called the foreign relations of the body 
relations to the Indians and to the non-Quaker 
populations that flowed into the Province ; rela- 
tions to neighboring colonies and to the home 
government down to the close of the Colonial 
period, and finally the relations to the govern- 
ment of Pennsylvania itself after it passed 
wholly out of their hands, and to the revolu- 
tionary government when that came to be con- 
stituted. In some form or other, this question 
pressed almost constantly for an answer : " How 
shall the Quaker live in a world of which, in 
some important sense, he is not, and proclaims 
himself not to be, a part ? " Or, changing the 
form of question, " How shall he adjust himself 
to the society that is about him in a manner 
that is even comfortable or even endurable, and 
still remain a Quaker?" It was a difficult 
adjustment to effect ; there are few more diffi- 
cult ones of the kind, all things considered, in 
history. It cannot be claimed that the body as 
a whole solved the problem ; it is easy to dis- 
cover and to parade their inconsistencies ; but 
it must be admitted that, when all is taken into 

the account, their success was something be- 
yond reasonable expectation. A large majority 
of them, in the most trying times, bore a noble 
and a costly testimony to what they held to be 
the truth. Naturally, they resorted to some 
practical casuistry, but fortunately they pro- 
duced no casuistical system, while the Quaker 
conscience retained its simple honesty. 

The most trying period that the Pennsyl- 
vania Quakers passed through was the Ameri- 
can Revolution, which Mr. Sharpless treats in 
his second volume. To a great extent, the 
Revolution involved principles that they held 
most dear ; but it was rebellion against legally 
constituted authority, it was war, and for both 
reasons, if there be not only one, they could 
not give it aid or comfort. Touching the trend 
of their sympathies, the author writes : 

" It is impossible to give a definite answer, but there 
are several guides on which something of a judgment 
may be based. About 400, perhaps, actively espoused 
the American side by joining the army, accepting posi- 
tions under the Revolutionary government, or taking an 
affirmation of allegience to it, and lost their birthright 
among Friends as a result. Perhaps a score in a similar 
way openly espoused the British cause, and also were 
disowned by their brethren. These members very likely 
represented two portions of silent sympathizers. The 
official position was one of neutrality, but individually 
the Friends could hardly be neutral. It seems almost 
certain that the men of property and social standing in 
Philadelphia, the Virginia exiles and their close asso- 
ciates, like the wealthy merchants of New York and 
Boston, were Loyalists, though in their case passively 
so. ... Many of the country Friends were probably 
American in their sympathies. It is very difficult to 
show this in history, and only by slight allusions here 
and there is the idea gained. . . . There were, there- 
fore, a few radical Tories, a much larger number of 
radical friends of the Revolution, and the rest were 
quiet sympathizers with one or the other party. In this 
diversity all the moderate men who were really desirous 
to be faithful to the traditional beliefs of their fathers 
could unite on a platform of perfect neutrality of action 
for conscience' sake." 

If the Quakers in Pennsylvania really num- 
bered 40,000 souls in 1760, it seems almost 
incredible that so few should have overtly taken 
sides with one party or the other, but Mr. 
Sharpless' opinion is entitled to great respect. 
It will be remembered that the body gave to the 
country two such soldiers as Mifflin and Greene, 
and such a statesman as John Dickinson. 

The last chapter is a consise but luminous 
account of the long war that the Quakers waged 
against slavery, until, by force of moral sua- 
sion, they rooted it out of their own community, 
and did much to indoctrinate the nation with 
anti-slavery principles. There is no nobler 
chapter in their history. 




All in all, the story of Pennsylvania is the 
most pathetic of all of the English colonial 
stories. There is Penn's own personal story. 
" In one sense," says our author, " a sadder life 
than his we seldom know. His letters again 
and again, sometimes pathetic, sometimes indig- 
nant, portray the keen disappointment of an 
earnest, conscientious, and sensitive soul." He 
quotes the familiar lamentation : 

"O Pennsylvania, what hast thou cost me! About 
30,000 more than I ever got by it, two hazardous and 
most fatiguing voyages, my straits and slavery here [in 
London], and my child's soul, almost." 

But a still broader view may be taken of the 
matter. Great as the colony became, what a 
contrast the beginning and the end of the " Holy 
Experiment " presents ! For instance, if Penn 
could have foreseen the day when a governor 
under his charter, and that governor his own 
grandson, would offer prizes for Indian scalps, 
male or female, his heart might well have burst. 
The commonwealth bears two lessons on its 
face ; one to the practical time-server, desti- 
tute of all idealism, the other to the utopist, 
equally destitute of common sense. 

Miss Hazard's book moves in a much smaller 
circle than Mr. Sharpless' two volumes. Of 
its kind, however, it is a book of even greater 
interest. Passing by the chapter devoted to 
Quaker beginnings in Rhode Island, we have 
a series of chapters dealing almost wholly with 
the organization and economy of the Quakers 
of Narragansett Bay. It is distinctly an inte- 
rior study of church history. The writer brings 
a small section of a large subject under her 
microscope, revealing the minutest facts of 
ecclesiastical life. Much of the matter is curi- 
ous in the extreme. One not familiar with 
similar facts will here see with surprise, if not 
with astonishment, the ceaseless vigilance with 
which the organization regarded the lives and 
conduct of its members. While this supervision 
was exercised in the name of good morals and 
sound teaching, it often embraced matters that 
free communities generally relegate to the 
sphere of individual action. If any reader is 
in quest of facts with which to prove that the 
Quakers were essentially destitute of the sense 
of humor, we recommend him to read Miss Haz- 
ard's book. For instance, after 1758 all mar- 
riages not among Friends were forbidden by 
the Society, and, as far as possible, the rule was 
strictly enforced. When a brother disobeyed 
the law, and married outside of the body, he 
was required to make " acknowledgement " and 

to " condemn " his action, or be " disowned " in 
the end ; but this does not appear in any way 
to have interfered with his married life. Miss 
Hazard quotes several such acknowledgements, 
and among others the following, which as she 
says, " makes one wonder what kind of a woman 
this man's wife was." 

" I do hereby acknowledge that I have wilfully and 
knowingly transgressed the good Order and Rules of 
the Society in proceeding in marriage with a woman not 
of the Society nor according to the Method allowed of 
amongst Friends for which Transgression I am heartily 
sorry and do desire Friends to forgive and pass by and 
hope that I shall by the Lord's assistance be preserved 
not only from Transgression of so willful a crime but 
also of all others." 

It must indeed have been "rather a bitter 
thing " for a man to present to the meeting 
such a paper as this, but perhaps it was looked 
upon more as a matter of form than anything 

Still Miss Hazard is gracious enough to jus- 
tify this great care for the proper solemnization 
of marriage, on the ground that the looseness 
of the times required it. She says the day of 
marrying in shifts was not long past, and quotes 
two instances of this curious custom found in 
the South Kingstown Records. One of these was 
in 1719, when the man took the woman in mar- 
riage " after she had gone four times across the 
highway in only her shift and hair-lace and no 
other clothing." In the other case, 1724, " the 
woman had her shift and hair-lace and no other 
clothing on that I see," remarked the justice 
who performed the ceremony. These weddings 
were in the months of February and December. 
But, after all, most usages have some reason 
behind them, and this was the reason in the 
present case : " For the object of the curious 
ceremony was the evasion of debt. If the wife 
brought her husband nothing, she could not 
even bring her debts, and he was free from 
paying them, which he would otherwise have 
to do." 

Few religious bodies of equal intelligence and 
character present more curious contradictions 
and anomalies than the Quakers. The doctrine 
of the Inner Light, carried to the length to which 
they first went, is absolutely irreconcilable 
with all organization and formalism in the re- 
ligious sphere. The inspired prophet is supe- 
rior to law, custom, and authority. He has 
no need of rule or canon, bishop or church, 
forms or ceremonies. Fox and his co-laborers 
denounced all such things in the severest terms. 
Of course the end, if it had been reached, would 
have been fatal to all religious organization, 



[Jan. 1, 

control, and permanence. But what was the 
result ? First, an efficient system of ecclesias- 
tical organization, that, as the reader of these 
books will see, obtruded itself into matters that 
are essentially personal and private, though 
without the use of other than moral force ; and 
secondly, a formalism that so distinctly marked 
the Quaker in attire, speech, and manners that 
he was known to be a Quaker wherever he went. 
Fox did show his good sense and practical 
genius in setting up this organization, thus 
proving that he was something very different 
from the ignorant fanatic that most men took 
him to be ; but he did not show either logical 
consistency or fidelity to his great principle. 
As is well known, the system was not im- 
posed upon the body without much resistance 
on the part of other " prophets " who claimed 
the same right to have " openings " and " to 
bring men off " that Fox had so freely asserted 
for himself. It was indeed fortunate that Fox 
was not a logical man, for had it not been for the 
system of " meetings " that he devised, to take 
the place of churches, synods, assemblies, and 
the like, it seems plain that the Quakers would 
have accomplished little in the long run, and 
would even have come to an early end. We 
know of no proof more convincing than that 
furnished by the history of the Quakers of the 
ancient saying, " If you drive out nature with 
a fork, she will return again." 



Mr. Alleyne Ireland, known through his 
articles in recent magazines on various prob- 
lems of colonial government, now appears with 
a more systematic treatise under the title of 
" Tropical Colonization." It is perhaps need- 
less to say that the subject is treated in its 
practical economic and political bearings, and 
not in its ethical relations : a treatment for 
which the author has the qualification of sev- 
eral years' experience in the British colonies 
and dependencies in various parts of the world. 
He modestly calls his work " an introduction 
to the study of the subject." After a lucid 
explanation of the experiments and practice of 
government of colonial possessions by the four 
great colonizing nations, England, France, 
Spain, and Holland, he proceeds to the discus- 

* TROPICAL COLONIZATION. By Alleyne Ireland. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

sion of trade and the labor problem. Valuable 
original tables elucidate his statements. 

Two principal conclusions must be forced 
upon the student from this cool array of facts 
and figures. The first of these is that all col- 
onization which has resulted in the development 
of a stable liberal government, absolutely or 
partially independent of the mother country, 
has been in the Temperate Zones and under the 
control of the Anglo-Saxon race, guided and 
always influenced by the Anglo-Saxon system 
of political and social morality. The astonish- 
ing feature of the times is the curious notion 
which to-day permeates the English as well as 
the French and German mind, that in the pres- 
ent madness for territory these nations expect 
to see a development of their new tropical pos- 
sessions in Africa along these same lines and 
to reproduce the same vigorous growth in the 
Tropics which has characterized that of the 
Temperate Zones, and all this with full 
knowledge of the experience of the past. 

Four hundred years of tropical colonization 
controlled by these four great nations has re- 
sulted in the apparent necessity for policies of 
administration varying but slightly in auto- 
cratic character, as a governor is always ap- 
pointed by the home power, with more or less 
representation of the native races through 
suffrage. There has been no permanent col- 
onization of the white races in the Tropics, 
and the always limited and unstable charac- 
ter of this colonization has affected the possi- 
bility of the growth of an educated spirit and 
of any desire or attempt on the part of native 
races to secure any independence of gov- 
ernment. Sufficient representation in local 
administration has been granted to satisfy an 
indolent people of a low grade of intelligence 
and limited education, and the sordid com- 
mercial spirit has been the controlling influ- 
ence in the past, with its unspeakable outrages, 
and of the present, with its reforms, because 
of the growth among the people of the home 
government of the feeling of the moral ne- 
cessity for a more enlightened policy. During 
these centuries there has always existed the 
necessity of a standing military force of the 
white races, with a small proportion of the 
native or mixed elements, to swell the roll of 
private soldiers. Incipient war has generally 
existed, and the colonies where it has figured 
least aggressively have been those in which 
there has been a shrewd recognition of the 
wiser policy of providing the semi-civilized 
rulers of the illiterate native tribes with an 




assured income as a return for the recognition 
of the sovereignty of the power in control. 

In view of this experience of the past, Mr. 
Ireland approaches the treatment of the colo- 
nial problems in the United States with some 
diffidence. After a recapitulation of condi- 
tions as they exist to-day, he sees little material 
for representative institutions at present among 
the people of our new possessions, with the 
exception of those of Hawaii ; and even here, 
with true British caution, he talks about that 
constitutional impossibility to the American 
mind a judicious limitation of the franchise. 
In consideration of the fact that in the matter 
of education Hawaii might serve as a model 
for the world, and that in few countries is the 
percentage of illiterates so small that the 
inhabitants have largely adopted American 
manners and customs, and (almost of greater 
importance) no foreign nation has established 
a commercial connection to rival that of the 
United States he can see no difficulties in the 
way of self-government with limited represen- 
tative institutions but without that responsible 
government which must lie with the national 
authority. He quite fails to understand our dis- 
tinction between state and national authority. 
He doubts the possibility of any hasty attempt to 
carry out this idea in Puerto Rico, where, with 
a population of 806,000, eighty-five per cent 
or more of whom can neither read nor write, 
the mixed blood and Spanish methods, together 
with custom and heredity, have produced a 
peasantry antagonistic to American civilization. 

When the situation in the Philippines is to be 
treated, the difficulties become enormous. With 
a population of near 9,000,000, where not even 
five per cent can read or write, and where 
ninety-nine hundredths are profoundly igno- 
rant, superstitious, and quite amenable to the 
control of the remaining hundredth, he just 
refrains from predicting ultimate failure for 
the United States when he acknowledges the 
shrewdness of this educated remnant, who are 
familiar with native dialects and customs. 

Mr. Ireland tells us he has met with a cer- 
tain feeling in the United States, which he 
predicts will postpone success ; namely, a pub- 
lic sentiment that the experience of other na- 
tions in the tropics is of no value to us. 
Thereupon he declares the commercial prob- 
lem, or the question of labor, to be the second 
vital difficulty in the case. He recognizes the 
fact that the products of the tropics are, next 
to the breadstuffs of the temperate zones, of 
greatest importance to the human race ; these 

tropical products are sugar, coffee, tea, cocoa, 
spices, and fruits, most of which require, dur- 
ing the important season, continuous labor. 
The ease of life where necessities are obtained 
with but little effort, together with the climatic 
conditions which discourage energy, have made 
it impossible to cultivate profitably any of 
these products without the maintenance of 
slavery or an indentured or coolie system, ab- 
horrent to the American mind. This inden- 
tured system, which prevails in Hawaii, is the 
main problem confronting us there, and every 
day's delay in fixing the status of that island 
allows the increased importation of contract 
laborers from China or Japan to complicate 
the situation. In short, he recognizes the fact 
that if the sordid commercial spirit is to con- 
trol the management of our tropical posses- 
sions, as it does that of all other nations of the 
world, it would be well to disabuse the public 
mind of some popular fallacies. Of these, the 
most melodious to the public ear is the asser- 
tion that trade follows the flag, and that trop- 
ical colonies deal primarily with the sovereign 
country. England, with her supreme advan- 
tages, can only sell to her tropical subjects 
" seventy-one cents' worth of goods each a year, 
and she draws from each only sixty-six cents' 
worth of supplies. This is the result of a 
century's work in increasing the purchasing 
and the productive power of the people of the 
British colonies. . . . The United States is of 
more value as a source of supply to the United 
Kingdom than the whole of the British Em- 
pire." The trade between the United King- 
dom and her colonies is not increasing, but 
assumes a smaller relative proportion year by 
year ; the colony, as it developes, seeking the 
open market more and more. 

So far as it is possible to judge from the 
valuable tables presented in the book, Mr. Ire- 
land concludes that it may safely be asserted 
that the flag has very little influence upon 
trade ; that in non-tropical colonies whatever 
advantage might once be attributable to the 
flag is fast disappearing, and in tropical colonies 
the trade is so small relatively that an increase 
of thirty persons in their population is less 
profitable to the United Kingdom than an 
increase of one person in the population of 
Australia or Canada. The politician and the 
statesman of the United States cannot ignore 
the experience of the enlightened nations of the 
world. If we enter the sordid contest for 
supremacy in trade, ignoring the great moral 
principles which we have claimed to dominate 



[Jan. 1, 

our national economic and social system, we 
will be compelled to follow in great measure 
the methods of these nations. There cannot 
longer logically exist those restrictions upon 
trade which are the foundation of the destruc- 
tion of the permanent peace of nations ; and in 
the great rivalry, compulsory labor can alone be 
counted upon. ALICE ASBURY ABBOTT. 


Professor Dewey has brought together into 
two octavo volumes a mass of General Francis 
A. Walker's miscellaneous articles and ad- 
dresses which would otherwise be comparatively 
inaccessible to the general reader ; and in so 
doing he has performed a real service to the 
public, as well as to the memory of his late 
chief. General Walker was a fluent and pro- 
lific writer. Besides serving in the army dur- 
ing the war, teaching in seminary and univer- 
sity, administering the Bureau of Statistics 
and the Indian Office for short periods, man- 
aging two censuses, representing his country 
at an international monetary conference, and, 
finally, administering the great Institute of 
Technology, he found time in the intervals of 
writing nearly a dozen books to contribute fre- 
quently to periodical literature, from the scien- 
tific quarterlies to the religious weeklies, and 
for a time to the daily press, but more especially 
to the popular monthlies ; and also to prepare 
addresses for delivery before various bodies of 
which he was either the president or the hon- 
ored guest. In the present collection the editor 
has not included everything General Walker 
ever wrote, but has aimed, so far as possible, 
to avoid repetitions of thought. 

The papers composing these two volumes 
are divided into six groups, dealing respect- 
ively with Finance and Taxation, Money and 
Bimetallism, Economic Theory, Statistics, Na- 
tional Growth, and Social Economics. Under 
the first head there are some discussions of the 
national finances in the period following the 
Civil War, which have a timely as well as his- 
torical interest at the present time. This is 
especially true of an article written when the 
country began to be confronted with a surplus, 
dealing with the manner of reducing the war 
revenues. The taxes on gross receipts of cer- 

A. Walker, Ph.D., LL.D. Edited by Davis R. Dewey, Ph.D. 
In two volumes. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

tain corporations, on legacies and successions, 
on banks, insurance companies and gas com- 
panies, together with the documentary stamp 
duties, the writer considered ought to be re- 
tained " in justice alike to the treasury and to 
individual taxpayers." On the other hand, he 
advised giving up the licenses on occupations, 
the proprietary stamp taxes, the taxes on sales 
and on private carriages and family silver. The 
income tax he properly called a war tax, but 
he advised retaining it in time of peace at a 
reduced rate. At the same time, he urged the 
abolition of certain unimportant customs duties 
which produced more annoyance than revenue. 

When writing of the census, General Walker 
was to a large extent virtually writing his auto- 
biography as a statistician ; but he subordinated 
the personal to the scientific interest, and was 
disposed to give almost too much of the credit 
to others. Yet, both before and after taking 
charge of the Census Office in 1870, he seemed 
to take especial satisfaction in exposing the 
crudities and adsurdities of the census of 1860, 
especially in so far as it related to manufac- 
tures and to occupations. There seems to have 
been no attempt at that census to secure uni- 
formity of nomenclature ; the same occupation 
would be reported under a variety of names, 
and divided up accordingly in the published 
report. For example, those necessary evils 
known as " domestics " in certain states were 
elsewhere enumerated simply as " servants "; 
while several thousands in certain sections pre- 
ferred to describe themselves as " housekeep- 
ers," and a much smaller number of specialists 
in domestic manufacture were reported as 
" cooks." But, we are told, " the considerable 
States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Missouri, and Massachusets, had, 
if we may trust this account, no cooks in 1860. 
The universal consumption of raw food by such 
large communities cannot fail to excite the as- 
tonishment of the future historian." 

To improve the census was General Walker's 
work for many years, and his experience can- 
not fail to be of interest to the present genera- 
tion. Some of his suggestions were carried 
out while he himself was in charge, but not all 
of them. In 1870 he found it highly unsatis- 
factory to have the census taken by assistant 
marshals appointed with partisan motives and 
subject to no control by the Census Office, and 
reporting to marshals already overburdened 
with duties of an entirely different character. 
In 1880, under an improved law, enumerators 
and supervisors were appointed specially for 




census work, with some reference to their qual- 
ifications for that work, and from either polit- 
ical party ; while expert special agents were 
commissioned to collect information concerning 
manufactures and various other matters not 
included in the population schedule. The re- 
sult was a vast gain in both the quantity and 
quality of the work done, with an increase of 
cost amounting to less than one cent per capita. 
At first, jndeed, General Walker made the 
mistake of undertaking the very elaborate cen- 
sus of 1880 with actually smaller appropria- 
tions than had been made for the much simpler 
census of 1870 ; but he concluded that the 
million or two of dollars which he attempted to 
save to the treasury would have been a very 
poor compensation to him personally for the 
additional labors and distress he thus brought 
upon himself. 

The impossibility of tabulating, analyzing, 
and publishing the results of all the investiga- 
tions undertaken by the Census Office within 
a reasonable time led General Walker to pro- 
pose that the census proper should be confined 
to the statistics of population and agriculture, 
to be collected, preferably, once in five years ; 
and that all the other inquiries should be car- 
ried on during the intervals of the quinquen- 
nial or decennial censuses. This would involve, 
instead of periodical disorganizations and re- 
organizations, a permanent Census Office, 
which he proposed to create by simply intrust- 
ing the census work to the existing Department 
(then Bureau) of Labor. He was of the opin- 
ion that a census of the United States, being a 
necessary condition of the federal form of gov- 
ernment, and depending for its success upon 
the interest and cooperation of the whole peo- 
ple, was of sufficient importance to be an- 
nounced by executive proclamation ; and when 
first appointed to the head of the Census Office 
he asked the President to open the enumera- 
tion in that auspicious manner. 

" General Grant was not indisposed to do so, but the 
inexorable Department of State interposed its objection. 
There never had been such a proceeding, and therefore 
there never could be. Reasons were nothing as against 
precedents; and so the great national canvass was 
allowed to begin with as little of ceremony and of ob- 
servation as the annual peregrinations of a village 

In economics, General Walker was never an 
extremist. He was a free-trader ; but he care- 
fully distinguished between different kinds and 
degrees of protection, and recognized the evils 
of sudden changes affecting the employment of 
labor and capital ; he was a bimetallist, but he 

held that no government was powerful enough 
to establish bimetallism alone ; he was an un- 
compromising opponent of socialism, but he was 
almost as severe in his criticisms of the laissez- 
faire doctrine of the classical economists. He 
recognized that in some cases immense advan- 
tages had resulted from socialistic measures, 
and he was enough of a socialist himself to be 
decidedly in favor of certain extensions of gov- 
ernmental action for the common benefit. Thus, 
he suggested that a little direction and assist- 
ance from government would have carried hun- 
dreds of thousands of immigrants from Eastern 
ports, where their presence was a misfortune to 
themselves and to the community, to sections 
where they would have added to the strength 
and wealth of the nation. He was not afraid 
of the mere word " socialism "; for though he 
once wrote of the " frightfully socialistic char- 
acter " of a certain theory of taxation, he inti- 
mated that he would not hesitate to approve of 
sanitary inspection and regulation if they were 
as socialistic as anything ever dreamed of by 
Marx or Lasalle. " For such good as I see 
coming from this source," he said, " I would, 
were it needful, join one of Fourier's ' pha- 
lanxes,' go to the barricades with Louis Blanc, 
or be sworn into a nihilistic circle." To the 
objection against the regulation of industrial 
corporations as a violation of the laissez-faire 
principle, he replied that the very institution 
of the industrial corporation was for the pur- 
pose of avoiding that primary condition upon 
which alone true and effective competition could 
exist ; that combination was directly in contra- 
vention of competition. He agreed with the 
French socialists that the state might rightfully 
interfere with freedom of contract to secure a 
reduction in the hours of labor, improvement 
in the sanitary conditions of workshops, proper 
limits to the work required of women and 
minors, and prohibition of child-labor. When 
he wrote of " this precious Constitution of ours, 
which is never heard of except to prevent some 
good thing from being done," he had reference 
to a progressive income tax ; but he might 
easily have said the same thing about attempts 
to have eight-hour laws declared unconstitu- 
tional. His article on " Socialism " would be 
a good starting-point from which to develope a 
a science of public economy. He was not above 
discussing such subjects with fairness and can- 
dor, any more than he was above pointing out 
the errors of newly-fledged doctors of philos- 
ophy. It was only when he wrote of Mr. Bel- 
lamy's " Looking Backward " that he resorted 



[Jan. 1, 

much to ridicule, and even in that case he gave 
sound reasons as well. 

Economics in the hands of this master was 
no dismal science, because of his broad sympa- 
thies, his healthy, conservative optimism, his 
belief in the efficacy of effort ; and in a more 
superficial sense, because of his saving sense of 
humor and his happy way of putting things. 
Unlike many economists, he was the fortunate 
possessor of a very pleasing literary style ; and 
he had the rare faculty of making even such 
difficult subjects as public indebtedness and 
the money question clear and interesting to the 
general reader, as well as instructive to the 
careful student. There could have been no 
more fitting monument to his memory than 
these two volumes, together with the other vol- 
ume of " Discussions in Education." The ed- 
itor has supplied brief explanatory notes con- 
cerning many of the papers, besides giving the 
place and date of publication ; and the whole 
is accompanied by an excellent portrait. 



One may readily be puzzled by the diversity of 
beliefs shown in the scores of books appearing on 
religious topics. A rationalizing tendency has found 
its way, feebly or powerfully, into most of them ; 
and yet the greatest variety of conflicting conclu- 
sions is reached. One might easily infer from this 
result that hopeless confusion and inadequacy are 
associated with all statements of faith. We believe 
a sounder conclusion is to be found in the undying 
energy of this class of convictions. The complexity 
of the data involved in the exposition of the spirit- 
ual world is exceedingly great. All one's own per- 
sonal life, emotional and intellectual ; his observation 

*SURSUM COBDA. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

MORALITY AS A RELIGION. By W. R. Washington Sullivan. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Slicer. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

THE GOSPEL OF JOT. By Stopford A . Brooke. New York : 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

York : Thomas Whittaker. 

THE DIVINE DRAMA. By Granville Ross Pike. New York: 
The Macmillan Co. 

D.D. New York: The Macmillan Co. 

York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

THROUGH NATURE TO GOD. By John Fiske. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

RELIGION. By the Rev. H. C. E. Newbolt, M.A. New 
York: Longmans, Green, & Co. 

New York : Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

and interpretation of the world about him, both 
physical and spiritual ; the entire sweep of historic 
facts and hereditary tendencies which are either 
buoying up or submerging his thoughts, these 
constitute the basis of his opinions. Faith is the 
very last region in which we ought to expect con- 
current or final conclusions. The constant return 
of the mind to the task shows how vital and inevit- 
able are the forces which underlie all religious 

The book entitled " Sursum Corda" will be found 
by many very enjoyable. It is a vigorous reasser- 
tion of the primary truths of our spiritual nature, 
with a scornful exposure of the superficial convic- 
tions associated with prevalent empirical philosophy. 
It is characterized by freshness and insight, and 
will impart new courage to those whose hope is suf- 
fering relapse. It is not to be expected, however, 
that its presence will make even an eddy in the 
current of materialism. That movement must fulfil 
itself and disprove itself in the spiritual sterility 
associated with it. As implied just now, each ten- 
dency is too complex, and, to the opposed tendency, 
too obscure, to be very directly operative, either in 
restraint or guidance. That to which the author 
would have us lift our hearts is the fulness and 
gladness and genetic force of the life which envelops 
us. The flood is likely to leave at least this slight 
fertilizing residuum a renewed sense of the phys- 
ical as the most adequate and direct expression of 
the spiritual. 

The volume on " Morality as a Religion " im- 
presses us anew with the strangeness and the unwar- 
rantable nature of the fact that men's religious 
thoughts and ethical thoughts separate themselves 
from each other, and are even brought at times into 
violent collision. The ethical law is the spiritual 
law of the world, and nothing more affirms and 
defines a Supreme Spiritual Presence in the world 
than this same law. Ethics, therefore, should be 
the support of religion, and religion the ripe fruit- 
age of ethics. While we are astonished at the folly 
of the religious faith which turns away from ethics, 
we are also disturbed at any ethical presentation, 
clear and forceful and needful as it may otherwise 
be, which is not made to lead directly to a personal 
belief in God. The volume before us has a good 
share of that discrimination and fundamental va- 
lidity of thought which characterize the ethical 
school. It is made up of seventeen discourses, de- 
livered in London to the Ethical Religion Society. 
There is much more in these discourses to which 
the liberal reader will be inclined to assent than 
there is to which he will dissent ; and it is put in so 
vigorous a way as to command his attention. 

' l The Great Affirmations of Religion " is a vol- 
ume of sermons preached in a Unitarian pulpit in 
New York. Sermons ought to be held to a high 
standard of criticism. The supply is large, and the 
market for truly stimulating discourses is unfavor- 
ably affected by the presence of inferior ones. The 
present sermons show an earnest and independent 



spirit, and that speculative and aggressive temper 
which is so often present in the Unitarian pulpit. 
The thought, however, is more crude, the expres- 
sion less exact, the knowledge less digested, than 
we have a right to expect in published discourses. 

" The Gospel of Joy " indicates by its title the 
prevailing temper of the sermons the volume con- 
tains. Mr. Stopford A. Brooke has, in unusual 
degree, the essential characteristic of a good preacher 
unwavering belief. When this is united, as in his 
case, to a liberal creed and to insight and taste, it pre- 
eminently fits the preacher for persuasive discourse. 
He descends to the sluggish or distrustful listener 
from an altitude of invincible faith. One might 
offer this criticism that the author more frequently 
awakens spiritual emotion and brings it to life, than 
so interprets life as to make it the direct occasion 
and support of spiritual emotion. We need, as far 
as possible, to turn to those lines of action which 
call out and interweave the thoughts and feelings 
in the most self-sustained and living products. 

" Christian Rationalism " is a well-balanced and 
effective presentation, in a half dozen essays, of the 
points of contention and difficulty which lie be- 
tween belief and unbelief. The work is done from 
the standpoint of liberal faith, and shows, on the 
part of the author, a clear and discriminating pos- 
session of the topic. It can be cordially commended 
to those who are disturbed by current unbelief, and 
do not apprehend its ultimate drift. 

"The Divine Drama" is an effort to bring the 
parts of man's spiritual life into a coherent dra- 
matic whole under the idea of the immanency of 
the Divine Spirit. The conception is a good one, 
but it is pursued in a method so abstract in thought 
and terminology as to make the perusal laborious 
and to many unfruitful. This is the more observ- 
able as a fervor pervades the work which would 
naturally seek concrete expression. The spirit of 
the book is every way commendable, and there are 
portions of it to which the above criticism is less 

Dr. Henry Van Dyke's " Gospel for a World of 
Sin " is an impassioned rendering of the orthodox 
dogma of sin, the mission of Christ, the atonement. 
The author escapes all intellectual difficulties by 
denying that any final definition of our relation to 
God in Christ is possible. " Its fulness makes it inde- 
finable." It is a mystery of life. Those are most 
helpful who waive the logical relation, and give us 
their own experience of the saving power of Christ. 
It is quite true that the most valued and significant 
element in the doctrine of the atonement has been 
the spiritual life that has oftentimes gone with it 
and been nourished by it. The dogma has been 
the frame-work over which the emotional experi- 
ences of men's souls have spread themselves in lux- 
urious growth. There are those still ready to infer 
the intellectual validity of the underlying assertions 
because of the force and redemptive power of the 
feelings which have gone with them. This is the 
significance of the present volume. A truly pro- 

found and life-giving experience is once more spread 
along these lines of technical faith, hiding beneath 
it the naked statements which can no longer bear 
the light. The book will give satisfaction to many, 
and much satisfaction to those who will trace under 
it their own favorite dogma. 

" The Christian Teaching," by Count Tolstoi, is 
the skeleton of a book rather than a book ; a sketch 
of what the author proposed, rather than the ful- 
fillment of that purpose. The assertions follow 
each other in close interdependence, but with no 
effort to illustrate them, enforce them, or make 
them plausible. The temper of the book is one of 
vigorous self-abnegation. It seems to be the pro- 
duct of a violent reaction against the indulgences 
and vices of the world. Many things are thrust 
aside which we are accustomed to regard, not 
merely as sources of physical pleasure, but as an 
expression of spiritual life and as aids to it. Count 
Tolstoi at times implies that priests mislead the 
people by deceptive doctrines and rites. Whatever 
may be true of individuals, it is never true of a 
great system of faith that it rests on an organized 
effort to mislead the masses. What is deception 
in reference to the people is first darkness in the 
mind of the teacher. Like priest, like people; like 
people, like priest. If the blind lead the blind, 
both will fall into the ditch. The point is import- 
ant, for if we regard the error as purely voluntary 
we shall think the remedy correspondingly direct 
and speedy. The book is one of a noble purpose, 
and oftentimes of things soberly put with much 

Through Nature to God," by Mr. John Fiske, 
is made up of three discussions : " The Mystery of 
Evil," "The Cosmic Roots of Love and Self- 
Sacrifice," " The Everlasting Reality of Religion." 
The conclusion is strongly theistic. In the line of 
argument, and in its issue, we warmly concur. The 
work is characterized by that clear and coherent 
thought which we have come to associate with the 
writings of Mr. Fiske. We are not equally satis- 
fied with his premises. These seem to us to remain 
too narrow for the superstructure he builds upon 
them. Natural selection, the survival of the fittest, 
the cosmic process, efficient causes, retain precisely 
their old relation. Mr. Fiske drank at the begin- 
ning from the fountains of empirical philosophy so 
freely that he still shows something of the paralysis 
incident to such draughts. We must feel that 
Mr. Harrison as opposed to Mr. Spencer, and Pro- 
fessor Huxley as opposed to Professor Fiske, have 
had the keener sense of what is and what is not, 
involved in rigidly evolutionary premises. The 
immanence of God demands as much a modification 
of the notion of efficient causes as it does of the 
notion of God. In strictly eternal and efficient 
causes, there is no room left for Deity. Immanence 
in such causes means nothing. Mr. Fiske seems to 
admit freely final causes ; but final causes exclude 
efficient causes, and efficient causes exclude final 
causes as absolute terms. The two, as in human 



[Jan. 1, 

liberty, must blend along a line of perpetual inter- 
action. It is amusing to see with what heartiness 
the orthodox are wont to pat Mr. Fiske on the 
shoulder as a doughty champion from the camp of 
the enemy whose dictum finishes discussion. We 
think Mr. Fiske is hardly entitled to the assumption 
that " his argument is advanced for the first time." 

" Religion " is the first volume of the " Oxford 
Library of Practical Theology." The purpose of 
this library is " to supply some carefully considered 
teaching on matters of religion to that large body 
of devout laymen who desire instruction but are not 
attracted by the learned treatises which appeal to 
the theologian." Its notion of " carefully considered 
teaching " is somewhat rigid. " Christianity, . . . 
as enshrined in a teaching and dogmatic Church, is 
so precise and clear in its definition and outline that 
it does not hesitate to state that a right faith is nec- 
essary to salvation." The purpose of this opening 
volume may be concisely defined as a statement of 
the claims of religion, its forms, dangers, and aids. 
It is the fulfilment of this purpose, rather than the 
purpose itself, that we are inclined to criticise. The 
style of the book lacks clearness and elegance, and, 
still more, a warm personal sympathy. It seems 
like the effort of one whose conceptions are natu- 
rally dogmatic and abstract, to approach the com- 
mon mind, when not really sharing its experiences. 
There is no want of conviction and fervor, but they 
have been begotten in a narrow theological realm, 
not in the large and manifold life of the world. The 
old antithesis remains between the processes of daily 
life and the divinely ordained product offered for 
their correction. 

" Between Caesar and Jesus " is the title of a vol- 
ume containing the condensed expression of much 
writing and speaking by Prof. George D. Herron. 
One can be in very close sympathy with the general 
purpose aimed at, and still dissent decidedly from 
the manner in which it is pursued. Professor Herron 
has an ardent but not a sober mind. His state- 
ments are not true, in the impression they make, to 
the facts. He relates the evil, and that in a some- 
what extreme form, and omits for the most part 
the vast amount of good associated with it. His 
discourses are pervaded with the idea that the world 
can be precipitated into the Kingdom of Heaven by 
a sudden and radical change of methods. " When 
Christian experience becomes elemental, individual 
ownership becomes sacrilegious" (p. 135). Now, 
giving can only depend on having. If we own 
nothing, we can confer nothing. We can render no 
service if we have no right to withhold service. We 
are slaves. Our service must be the freedom of a 
spiritual nature which the recipient cannot over- 
ride. But if we own service, if we own our own 
powers, we may own property, which is, or may be, 
only a tangible expression of those powers. Our 
goodness, our love, can only find play in a world not 
altogether unlike our own, in which the limits of 
ownership are one thing and the uses of ownership 

We have, in the three books last noticed, a very 
diverse conception of the world. Mr. Fiske is wait- 
ing patiently, perhaps too patiently (are we not our- 
selves a part of Nature?), on natural forces for 
renovation. Mr. Newbolt is urging a new enforce- 
ment of dogma. Mr. Herron wishes to enter into 
life by a violent change of its forms. What the 
last method gains in intention, it loses in wisdom. 
We are to work with God, not outwork Him. When 
one's changes become immediate and radical we- 
much prefer to wait on natural law. 



One easily forgives the somewhat too 
constant an d high-pitched strain of 
eulogium in Miss Helen M. Knowl- 
ton's lively and sympathetic sketch of the " Art- 
Life of William Morris Hunt" (Little, Brown, & 
Co.). The author is a former pupil of this capable 
and for a long time not duly appreciated American 
painter, and her vigorous advocacy of his artistic 
merits seems a little belated now that those merits 
have had ample recognition. Hunt's diversified 
life, striking personality, and interesting list of 
clients and acquaintances made him a promising 
subject for the biographer, and Miss Knowlton has 
produced a decidedly readable book. Hunt studied 
abroad, and was for some time a pupil of the then 
reigning Paris favorite, Couture, who finally de- 
clared that his diligent and enthusiastic American 
pupil had so absorbed his manner of painting that 
he had carried it as far as it could go. Couture 
was presently supplanted in Hunt's admiration by 
Millet, then comparatively a pictor ignotus, whose 
devoted admirer and intimate Hunt became, and 
whose now priceless canvasses he bought for a song. 
He acquired, for instance, that masterpiece "The 
Sower" for sixty dollars, and "The Sheep-Shear- 
ers " for the amount of an outstanding color-bill of 
the master's (about ninety dollars). "I bought," 
he says, " as much of Millet's work as I could, and 
after a while the idea was started that a rich En- 
glishman was buying up all his pictures." The 
effect upon the " peasant-painter's " fortunes of this 
rumor may be imagined. Millet, said Mr. Hunt, 
" had so little money in his life that he never owned 
a hundred-dollar bill until I gave him the money 
for one of his pictures. . . . When I handed it to 
him he did not say much ; but he told me next day 
that he could not try to thank me, but I might like 
to know that he had never before had a hundred- 
dollar bill." It is amusing to know that Hunt's 
purchases of Millet's pictures gained him at Paris 
the sobriquet of " the mad American." Hunt's 
subsequent career in America, especially as por- 
trait-painter, brought him in contact with many 
celebrities. Lincoln, Justice Shaw, Holmes, Emer- 
son, Whittier, Sumner, Governor Andrew, Dr. 
J. F. Clarke, and many others known to fame, sat to 




him ; and his intercourse with the leading lights of 
his day and place gave rise to a fund of anecdotage 
of which his biographer has duly availed herself. 
The story of Hunt's active and checkered life is 
told graphically and in due detail down to the 
tragic finale at Mrs. Thaxter's retreat, " Apple- 
dore," in 1879 ; and supplementary chapters re- 
lating to the Hunt exhibitions of 1879, 1880, and 
1881 (at London) are added. The illustrations 
form an attractive feature of the book, and show 
conclusively that Hunt's forte lay in portraits, 
rather than in the ambitious compositions he often 

Chapters in ^ n ^* s l earne d aQ d elaborate volume 

the history of entitled " The Cathedral Builders " 
architecture. (Scribner's importation), Mr. Leader 
Scott tells the story of a great mediaeval guild of 
Freemasons (Liberi Muratori), and essays to show 
that this guild, the Comacine Masters, formed a link 
between Classic and Renaissance art. In most his- 
tories of Italian art there is a hiatus of several cen- 
turies between the ancient classic art of Rome 
which was in its decadence when the Western Em- 
pire ceased in the fifth century after Christ and 
that early rise of art in the twelfth century which 
led to the Renaissance. During this period of sub- 
mergence of the ancient civilization of Rome, classic 
architectural and sculptural art has been generally 
supposed to have utterly vanished and died out, its 
corpse lying entombed, so to speak, in its Byzan- 
tine cerements at Ravenna. This suspicious break 
in the unity and continuity of European architectu- 
ral history has inspired Mr. Scott to the researches 
and speculations which have led to his very plausi- 
ble if not conclusively established theory that classic 
structural art, in point of fact, was at no time ex- 
tinct, but was continuously conserved and practised, 
however obscurely, by the Magistri Comacini, and 
really passed without break through Romanesque 
forms up to the Gothic, and hence to the full Ren- 
aissance. In fine, the productions of the Comacine 
Masters must be regarded, if we accept Mr. Scott's 
view, as linking the art of the Classic schools to 
that of the Renaissance, just as the transitional Ro- 
mance languages of Provence and Languedoc link 
the Latin of classic times to modern languages. All 
the different Italian styles, argues Mr. Scott, are 
nothing more than the different developments in 
differing climates and ages of the art of one power- 
ful guild of sculptor-builders, who nursed the seed 
of Roman art on the border-land of the falling Ro- 
man Empire, and spread the growth in far-off 
countries. All that was architecturally good in 
Italy between 500 and 1200 A. D. was due to this 
society which sprang from a small island in the 
Lake Como, and ramified, under the patronage of 
the Church, throughout Europe. Through this 
means, architecture and sculpture were carried into 
France, Spain, Germany, and England, and were 
there adapted and developed in accordance with the 
new environment. " The flat roofs, horizontal archi- 

traves, and low arches of the Romanesque, which 
suited a warm climate, gradually changed as they 
went northward into the pointed arches and sharp 
arches of the Gothic ; the steep sloping lines being 
a necessity in a land where snow and rain were fre- 
quent." The well-based and ingenious speculations 
of Mr. Scott merit the attention of all serious stu- 
dents of the history of architecture, and his account 
of the hitherto neglected Maestri Comacini (ne- 
glected, at least, by most English authorities) is most 
interesting. Professor Merzario's voluminous work, 
" I Maestri Comacini," has been freely drawn upon 
as a storehouse of facts, by Mr. Scott, who is also 
to be credited with much painstaking independent 
research. A table of the authorities consulted is 
appended. The volume is handsomely and liberally 
illustrated, and is soundly and elegantly manufac- 
tured throughout. 

In " Searchlight Letters " (Scribner) 

we ou s ht to ha the most p erful 

light known to science cast upon dark 
places, with the result that we see what is to be 
avoided. That, in a way, we do have in Mr. Robert 
Grant's latest book. Mr. Grant writes of the ideal 
possible to young men and women, of the career 
.open to women of society, of the true American, of 
evils in our politics. In every case he plays the 
usual part of the searchlight, as we have stated it. 
There is, however, another use for the searchlight 
which Mr. Grant has also had in mind ; namely, the 
discovery of the right channel, when it is otherwise 
hard to find. Here we incline to think him less 
successful. Mr. Grant first became known in the 
world of letters as a satirist. Time has mellowed 
what once was almost maliciousness, but it has not 
wholly changed his spirit. He is still the observer 
of society, who can make its errors ridiculous. In 
his earlier works, however, Mr. Grant was content 
with the more usual office of the searchlight ; while 
now he is possessed with a further ambition. He 
would be not only a warning but a guide. Hence 
his " Art of Living," which is just now republished 
in the same form as the above, making a very pretty 
pair of books. The earlier volume was one of ad- 
vice on the subject of how best to live on an income 
of ten thousand dollars. The later book is more 
generally directed. Yet, its critical value is greater 
than its power of suggestion. The sketches of peo- 
ple who have missed their aim are excellent ; such 
has often been the case with those who seek to lead 
toward virtue by an exhibition of vice. Mr. Grant 
is as clever as ever in his delineation of error, of 
the city politician, of the society woman. But we 
do not warm up at his propositions for a better life. 
They are very earnest, but, like many other ser- 
mons, they are dull. "The noblest aims of the 
aspiring past," " a keener appreciation of the con- 
ditions of human life," " a compound of independ- 
ence and energy," " allegiance to the eternal femi- 
nine," "broader and wiser humanity," are not 
these phrases that we have heard before, and not 



[Jan. 1, 

infrequently? They have a familiar sound. They 
are good ideas : we approve of them. But we needed 
no searchlight to know how to find them. Even 
with them, indeed, we may still feel that we would 
like one word more, a word just a bit more insist- 
ent on reality. Anything of this sort is quite lack- 
ing here. But Mr. Grant is a well-known writer, 
and everybody who reads his latest book will have 
a fair idea of what is to be found within its covers ; 
we fancy that no one will be more disappointed than 
we have been, and we hope everyone will gain as 
much pleasure. 

Miss Frances Gerard picturesquely 
The mad King recapitulates, in an attractive volume 

of Havana. *" 

of oOO odd pages, the grimly fasci- 
nating " Romance of Ludwig II. of Bavaria " 
(Dodd, Mead & Co.). There is an introductory 
chapter on the "Heredity of the King," after which 
the author proceeds to give an account of Ludwig's 
rather schwarmarisch character and occasional wild 
outbreaks as a boy, which prepares the reader for 
the strangest of all strange historical stories that 
follows, and incidentally makes him wonder at the 
survival, in our unimaginative era of hard sense, of 
a political superstition which makes it possible for 
a great civilized people to be under the rule and at 
the mercy of a known madman for a couple of de- 
cades. The devoted, king-worshipping way in which 
the honest Bavarians endured and even applauded 
the Bedlamite follies and wild expenditures of this 
poor lunatic would almost surpass belief in America, 
were it not for our own almost passive endurance 
of the yoke of such rulers as Platt and Croker. 
But the Bavarians never thought of protesting 
against the political crime and anomaly; we do 
protest, loudly and bitterly, and at intervals effect- 
ively. The mad career of the unhappy Ludwig 
began early. While a boy of twelve he was found 
by' a tutor endeavoring, in the exercise of his pre- 
rogative as Crown Prince, to choke to death with a 
knotted pocket-handkerchief his younger brother 
Otto. Young Otto was discovered in a fainting 
condition, lying upon the grass, gagged, and bound 
hand and foot, while the Prince was twisting the 
handkerchief with a piece of stick, in the approved 
Chinese and Turkish fashion. When interfered 
with by the officious tutor, this precious sprig of 
mediaeval royalty imperiously bawled : " This is no 
business of yours ; this is my vassal, and he has 
dared to resist my will. He must be executed ! " 
The Potsdam form or phase of megalomania has 
scarcely reached this pitch. The author tells her 
story interestingly, with many anecdotes, strange, 
tragic, and tragico-comic, down to the final and ter- 
rible finale by Starnberg Lake. An interesting 
chapter is devoted to the mad king's building 
mania and the gorgeous structures he erected, and 
all in all the book must be pronounced a very read- 
able one of its kind. It is profusely and hand- 
somely illustrated, and should prove a good satchel 
companion for the tourist to Munich. 

Reissue of Thirty-five years have elapsed since 
Mr. Spencer's the appearance of the first edition of 
"Biology." Mr Spencer's " Principles of Biol- 
ogy" years that have witnessed an unparalleled 
development of the biological sciences both in the 
discovery of data and in the elaboration of theory. 
They have seen the application of these discoveries 
to the detection of the factors of organic evolution 
and to the fuller correlation of biology with the 
physical sciences. The comprehensiveness and pre- 
vision of the earlier work of Mr. Spencer in this 
field is evidenced by the fact that the author finds 
but little to modify in the new edition (Appleton), 
the principal changes taking the form pf additions 
and supplementary discussions. Thus, we find a 
chapter on metabolism in which the relation of or- 
ganic chemistry to vital processes is treated at length. 
Under the caption, " The Dynamic Element in Life," 
the author introduces a discussion of the essential 
element in vital phenomena " a certain unspeci- 
fied principle of activity " which cannot be conceived 
in physico-chemical terms. It is not an independent 
vital principle, nor can it be represented as a prin- 
ciple inherent in living matter. The ultimate reality 
behind vital phenomena, as behind all manifesta- 
tions, transcends conception. A chapter upon struc- 
ture has been added ; and another all too brief 
upon cell-life and cell-multiplication lays under 
tribute the marvellous discoveries of the past decade. 
The accumulation of facts has necessitated an entire 
revision of the chapter on the embryological evi- 
dences of organic evolution. The author's theory 
of physiological units is extended and more fully 
applied to the problems of heredity and variation 
in a supplementary discussion introduced in this 
edition ; while a few pages at the close of the book 
are devoted to answers to recent criticisms and to a 
brief consideration of new theories. Among the 
appendices we find reprinted from " The Contem- 
porary Review " a series of four controversial essays 
on Weismannism, a discussion of animal fertility, 
and a summary of the evidence favoring the inher- 
itance of acquired characters. This new edition is 
indispensable for all who wish information on cur- 
rent themes of biological discussion. It is a matter 
for regret that the health of the author did not per- 
mit a fuller treatment and a more complete incor- 
poration of his views on the controverted questions 
of the day. 

" A History of the Jewish People " 
(Scribner), covering the Babylonian, 
Persian, and Greek periods, is the 
third volume in a series especially intended for 
Bible students and scholars, and hence cannot justly 
be reviewed as a work for popular reading, or indeed 
for any who have not already gone far in modern 
higher criticism. It is distinctly a scholar's book 
for scholars of Bible history and interpretation. In 
his preface, the author, Mr. Charles Foster Kent, 
of the chair of Biblical History and Literature in 
Brown University, states that the period covered in 

The story of 
the Jews 
in exile. 




the work has until recently been regarded as the 
least important and most uninteresting of any con- 
stituting the background of the Bible. Yet, if action 
is lacking in Jewish history for the four centuries 
that followed the destruction of Jerusalem, modern 
interest and study have been stimulated by the rec- 
ognition that it was in this period, more than in any 
other, that the leaders of the Jewish race meditated 
and wrote. The author does not claim that his 
findings are in any sense final, for upon many points 
material is as yet too scarce to warrant more than 
a supposititious conclusion. His analyses of his- 
torical conditions influencing the writing of various 
portions of the Old Testament are, however, most 
lucid ; and his arguments everywhere indicate fair- 
mindedness and scholarship. The biblical litera- 
ture of the period is interpreted in the light of 
history, with just enough of the latter to present 
the setting, and without unnecessary recapitulation. 
In addition to the customary index, special refer- 
ences are inserted for the use of the student. Of 
these, the most valuable are the list, with criticisms 
by the author, of books of reference upon Jewish 
history, and the Bible references, by chapter and 
verse, to historical events of the period covered. 

History and ^ n * ne P etr y an d fiction for which 

romance of Scotland long has been so famous, 

Scottish abbeys. her abbey8 cla ; m no gmall share of 

the romantic interest. It is not enough to know 
the history and the architectural motives of these 
ecclesiastical structures : one must also be somewhat 
familiar with their traditional and romantic lore, 
before one can feel the full charm of these pict- 
uresque ruins of North Britain. Each has its own 
peculiar point of interest, some feature or detail 
which the others do not possess, or at least do not 
present in an equally interesting way. In one case 
it may be the vaulting; in another, the majestic 
Norman work ; in another, the recollection of some 
poetic halo, as at Melrose " by the pale moonlight " ; 
in another, the site, or the precious bones entombed 
within, as at Dryburgh. Dealing with such matters 
as these, skilfully blending the architectural, the 
historic, and the poetic interest, Mr. Howard 
Crosby Butler has made of " Scotland's Ruined 
Abbeys" (Macmillan) an exceedingly fascinating 
book. Added to the discriminating and compact 
text are copious illustrations, mostly drawn by him- 
self on the spot, together with plans of the original 
structures. Eighteen of these ruins are thus de- 
scribed and illustrated with a completeness and 
brilliancy that is very welcome in a field where the 
material hitherto has existed only in a form too 
bulky and technical for general use. 

The original 

Gillas de Retz must have been much 
worse than Bluebeard, if we rightly 
estimate the evidence presented by 
Mr. Thomas Wilson in his monograph on the his- 
tory of that worthy, " Bluebeard, a Contribution to 
History and Folklore " (Putnam). We have never 

heard anything worse of Bluebeard than that he 
had many wives and killed them. Of course this 
is not a good thing to do, but even Perrault shows 
that Bluebeard had provocation : his wives were 
disobedient. Henry VIII. does not seem always to 
have had this excuse. Gilles de Retz killed no wives : 
his specialty was the murder of young men and wo- 
men, and he appears to have done more killing than 
Bluebeard did. Mr. Wilson, in giving a careful 
historical account of his subject, gives no notion of 
how it came to pass that the mediaeval baron who 
decoyed children to his castle, and murdered them 
for his experiments on the philosopher's stone or 
the elixir of life, became the fearful personage with 
the blue beard who had that closet with the horrible 
contents. It is a good deal of a change. Taking 
the book for what it is, however, we may read with 
interest this study of one of the dark and horrible 
episodes of the Middle Ages, one of the strange ele- 
ments in a history that we sometimes pass over too 
lightly, sometimes indue with too great a glamor, 
but rarely appreciate for just what it was. 

The founder 
of Medicean 

Cosimo de Medici is the subject of 
the latest addition to the " Foreign 
Statesmen "series (Macmillan). The 
author, Miss K. Dorothea Ewart, in a scholarly 
monograph maintains the high standard previously 
fixed by other contributors to this series. Miss 
Ewart's portrait of the Florentine statesman shows 
him as the ruler of the city, not by virtue of hold- 
ing an important office, nor by assumed or inherited 
authority. Cosimo's power and influence were due 
to political sagacity in the use of his great wealth, 
to a steady purpose, an even temper, and a not too 
scrupulous conscience. He was the real government 
of the city of Florence, controlling all branches of 
administration, yet holding no office of importance. 
He was called vindictive, was accused of all manner 
of corruption, of interference with justice, of the 
manipulation of public funds. Yet when the worst 
has been said, it remains true that Florence owed 
to his wisdom and diplomatic skill all her import- 
ance in foreign relations, and that the great mass 
of the people of the city regarded him with admir- 
ation and had confidence in his ability. While there 
is no attempt to veil the shortcomings nor to con- 
done the evils in the life of the founder of Medi- 
cean Florence, the work, taken all in all, presents 
the better side of his character. 

The historian In the Reverend H. D. Rawnsley, 
of the English Honorary Canon of Carlisle, the 
Lake Country. Lake Country of England has its 
historian, its eulogist, and its literary and descrip- 
tive expounder. The latest of his series of books 
on this subject is called " Life and Nature at the 
English Lakes" (Macmillan). As in his preced- 
ing books, a thorough and intimate personal ac- 
quaintance with his subject is everywhere evident. 
The present volume deals rather with the simple 
and everyday life of the humble folk living than 



[Jan. 1, 

with the illustrious dead. We have here chapters 
on " May Day by Greta Side," " At the Grasmere 
Sports," " The Sheep- Dog Trials at Troutbeck," 
" A North Country Eisteddfod," " Daffodil Day at 
Cockermouth," etc. But familiarity has bred no 
contempt in our author's case, and it is with the 
utmost sensitiveness and enthusiasm that he deals 
with such subjects as " Purple and Ivory at the 
Lakes," " The Rainbow Wonders of Windermere," 
" St. Luke's Summer at the Lakes," and " A Sun- 
rise over Helvellyn." It is a matter for gratitude 
that this beautiful region, beloved by the poets, has 
escaped the fate that often befalls literary shrines, 
and remains for the most part still undespoiled and 
uncontaminated by greedy and unscrupulous money- 
makers. The tourist finds the natural surroundings 
remaining much the same as when the great dead 
here wrote and sang ; the dust of two Laureates 
hallows its soil ; and everywhere the genius loci 
puts him in touch with the thoughts and visions of 
its glorious past. 

The second part of Dr. Davenport's 
" Experimental Morphology " (Mac- 
millan) is devoted to the effect of 
chemical and physical agents upon growth. The 
author has compiled from original sources a well 
developed and skilfully arranged summary of the 
results of scientific investigation in this field of 
widening interest. The general reader will find in 
its pages a concise but lucid discussion of the phe- 
nomena of normal growth, of the effect of chemical 
agents upon the rate and the direction of growth, of 
the effect of water, of the density of the surround- 
ing medium, of molar agents, of gravity, of elec- 
tricity, of light, and of heat. The work is timely 
and has been much needed, occupying as it does a 
field common to botany, zoology, and physiology. 
Students and specialists will appreciate this dis- 
criminating resume drawn from widely scattered 
sources which are fully indicated in the extensive 
bibliographies appended to the various chapters. 
The critical analysis of the results is supplemented 
at times from the author's own work, and suggest- 
ions of lines for the future development of the 
science are freely given. The book is thus a mine 
of information, an inspiration to the student, and an 
incentive to the investigator. 

The publication of the plays of Mr. 
Henry Arthur Jones continues, and 
we have in " Carnac Sahib " (Mac- 
millan ) a play which we believe is little known, and 
which, if it become known more widely, we think 
will raise the reputation of its author. We have 
several times had occasion to say that the plays of 
Mr. Jones, however well fitted for the stage, do not 
impress one who reads them as being excellent. 
They usually seem earnest and conventional. " Car- 
nac Sahib " is not a great play, but it has in it pas- 
sages which are more real than anything of Mr. 
Jones's that we have previously read. That is not 

much, perhaps, but still it is something. To come 
on a passage or two that give you a real thrill, an 
opening, as it were, into wider vistas, a feeling dif- 
ferent from that inspired by the common run of 
dramatic situations, that is something worth hav- 
ing. One who reads much nowadays is apt not to 
get this feeling too often ; or, perhaps we should 
say, is apt to be a little hardened to the usual means 
of producing it. In reading " Carnac Sahib " you 
miss the red coats and Indian scenery and firing of 
guns that would have been exciting on the stage, so 
that it is well to have something to make it up. 


Those who are looking for an account of the enlarge- 
ment of American territory, told in a brief and plain 
way, will find what they want in Mr. Edward Bicknell's 
" Territorial Acquisitions of the United States " (Small, 
Maynard & Co.). The general reader and the teacher 
of the history of the United States in the common 
schools should find the little book useful, and will no 
doubt do so. The ground covered is from Louisiana to 
Hawaii. The results of the Spanish war seem not to 
be regarded by the author as coming within the scope 
of his book. 

" A Bibliography of Canadian Poetry," prepared by 
Mr. C. C. James, is a pamphlet publication of the Vic- 
toria University Library, and is printed by Mr. William 
Briggs of Toronto. Although only English verse is 
considered, the titles run up to something like five or 
six hundred, arranged alphabetically under the names of 
their authors, and the notes supplied in each case make 
the work a valuable one for purposes of reference. The 
total showing is such as to occasion no little surprise at 
the amount of Canadian verse, and at the number of 
names that stand for a more than local reputation. 

The 300th anniversary of Oliver Cromwell's birth 
(April 25, 1599) has given opportunity for many pub- 
lications treating of the man or of his times. Among 
the less ambitious works of this character, Mr. G. H. 
Pike's "Cromwell and his Times" (Lippincott) fur- 
nishes the reader with a brief sketch of the political and 
military life of the hero. The book is chatty and read- 
able, without any attempt at argumentation or novelty. 
The author has selected from various authorities the 
customary view of Cromwell, his associates, arid his op- 
ponents, and has presented this view in pleasant form. 

The second volume, dated September, of " The Anglo- 
Saxon Review " (Lane) has a binding after an example 
by Derome, dated about 1770-80. The portraits include 
Zuccaro's Elizabeth, Van Dyck's Countess of Sunder- 
land, Antonio Moro's William the Silent, Mr. Gordon 
Craig's Sir Henry Irving, and others. While the liter- 
ary contents of the volume hardly equal the menu of its 
predecessor, they offer excellent and substantial fare. 
There are stories by Miss Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler 
and Mr. William J. Locke, poems by Mr. Stephen 
Phillips and Mr. F. B. Money Coutts, and essays by 
Mr. Silvanus P. Thompson, Mr. L. F. Austin, Mr. Cyril 
Davenport, Mr. W. Brook Adams, and the Earl of 
Crewe. There is a review of the affaire Dreyfus, and 
nearly sixty pages of letters by the Duchess of Devon- 
shire, the latter an altogether disproportionate feature 
of the volume. 





Mr. John Lane has just published a second edition of 
" Mademoiselle Blanche," a novel by Mr. J. D. Barry. 

" Moments with Art," published by Messrs. A. C. 
McClurg & Co., is an anthology of brief descriptive 
bits, mostly in verse, about the great painters and 
sculptors. It is a companion volume to the " Musical 
Moments " of the same publishers. 

The first part of Henryk Sienkiewicz's new historical 
romance, "The Knights of the Cross," is announced 
for immediate publication by Messrs. Little, Brown, 
& Co. The work is now appearing as a serial in Poland, 
and the second part is still unfinished. 

FitzGerald's translations of " Salaman and Absal " 
and the " Bird Parliament " have just been republished 
in a neat volume by Messrs. L. C. Page & Co. The 
work is issued under the editorial care of Mr. Nathan 
Haskell Dole, who contributes an introduction. 

The family of the late Dr. Daniel Garrison Brinton 
have requested Mr. Stewart Culin of the University of 
Pennsylvania to prepare a memoir of the distinguished 
Americanist. Mr. Culin is desirous of obtaining copies 
of Dr. Brinton's letters and other literary materials, 
which may be sent to him at the University of Penn- 

The " Book of Seventeenth Century Lyrics " which 
Professor Felix E. Schelling has edited for Messrs. 
Ginn & Co. brings together upwards of two hundred 
examples of the English lyric from 1625 to 1700, pro- 
viding them with notes and an elaborate introductory 
essay. The work is very well done, and will prove a 
boon to students of the subject. 

Dr. Ibsen's new play was announced for publication 
in Copenhagen on the nineteenth of December, and 
will soon be obtainable in this country. The title is 
' Naar Vi Dode Vaagner " (When We Dead Awaken), 
which excites much curiosity. It is now three years, 
instead of the usual two, since there has been a new 
Ibsen play, which whets our appetite all the more. 

A new issue of the Ingram edition of " The Works 
of Edgar Allan Poe," in four volumes, has been pub- 
lished by the Macmillan Co. While this edition has 
been completely superseded for critical purposes by the 
work of Messrs. Woodberry and Stedman, its low price 
and neatness of execution will no doubt continue to 
secure for it the favor of the uncritical general reader. 

The Romanes Lecture for 1899 was given by Pro- 
fessor R. C. Jebb, who chose for his subject " Human- 
ism in Education." After a brief historical survey, the 
author sets forth in admirable language the reasons 
why classical studies still continue to provide the best 
type of education for the modern world, and discourses 
hopefully of their future. The lecture is published in 
.pamphlet form by the Macmillan Co. 

" The Journal of Theological Studies " is the name 
of a new quarterly periodical published by the Macmil- 
lan Co. It is dignified in appearance, and the names 
of the contributors inspire confidence. They include, 
for example, Canon Sanday, the Master of Balliol, and 
Mr. Robert Bridges. If it be asked what the latter is 
doing in that galley, we reply that he is discoursing 
most sensibly and instructively upon the principles of 
hymn-singing, of which subject so true a singer surely 
ought to know something. 

The " Cupid Calendar " for 1900, published by Mr. 
R. H. Russell, is an imposing affair, consisting of twelve 

large reproductions, about 16 x 23 inches in size, of 
pen-and-ink drawings by Mr. J. Campbell Phillips. As 
may be inferred from the title, each of the drawings 
represents a scene in which " Dan Cupid " plays a lead- 
ing part. Another attractive calendar issued by the same 
publisher is Mr. Frank Ver Beck's " Animal Calendar," 
made up of a dozen drawings in Mr. Ver Beck's well- 
known and inimitable manner, with accompanying verses. 

The first number of "The International Monthly," 
edited by Mr. F. A. Richardson, and published by the 
Messrs. Macmillan in New York and London, has just 
made its appearance, and offers a substantial table of 
contents. The papers are five in number, as follows: 
" Later Evolutions of French Criticism," by M. Edouard 
Rod ; " Influence of the Sun upon the Formation of the 
Earth's Surface," by Professor N. S. Shaler; "Recent 
Advance in Physical Science," by Professor John Trow- 
bridge; "Organization among American Artists," by 
Mr. Charles DeKay; and "The Theatrical Syndicate," 
by Mr. Norman Hapgood. 

" The Kipling Birthday Book " (Doubleday), com- 
piled by Mr. Joseph Finn and illustrated by Mr. J. 
Lockwood Kipling, presents the collection of tags in 
verse and prose usually found in books of this sort, and 
has the usual blank spaces designed to entrap the un- 
wary into confessing their ages. " A Kipling Primer " 
(Brown & Co.), by Mr. Frederick Lawrence Knowles, 
includes a biography, a critical appreciation, some bib- 
liographical matter, and a rather useful " index to Mr. 
Kipling's principal writings," the latter alphabetically 
arranged, and provided with descriptive notes. But the 
notion of making Mr. Kipling the subject of a primer indi- 
cates an altogether exaggerated view of his importance. 

Dr. Elliott Coues, who died at Baltimore on Christ- 
mas evening, was one of the most distinguished of Amer- 
ican scientists. Born in Portsmouth, N. H., in 1842, 
he crowded into his life of fifty-seven years a great 
variety of activities, and died with more work to his 
credit than may be claimed by many scholars even at 
the most advanced age. He was first and foremost an 
ornithologist, but several other branches of science oc- 
cupied a share of his attention, and in later life he took 
up the subject of early Western history, applying to it 
the energy that characterized all of his undertakings. 
His scientific reputation was for a time somewhat 
clouded by his espousal of certain vagaries connected 
with " psychical research," but the solidity and value 
of his true scientific work remains unquestionable. As 
an old-time contributor to this journal, we have special 
reason to mourn his death. 

From Mr. R. H. Russell we have received, too late 
for consideration among the notices of Holiday publica- 
tions in our last issue, three books of the pronounced 
" Holiday " type which should not go without a word of 
mention. " In Summertime," the most imposing volume 
of the trio, is a collection of carefully-printed reproduc- 
tions of Mr. Robert Reid's beautiful paintings of young 
girls and out-door life. Next in importance is a sump- 
tuous edition of Bunyan's little-known " Life and Death 
of Mr. Badman," with twelve full-page illustrations and 
numerous decorations by Messrs. George and Louis 
Rhead, whose edition of " The Pilgrim's Progress " met 
with much favor last year. Finally, we have a hand- 
some volume entitled " Hits at Politics," containing a 
collection of seventy-one of the best of Mr. W. A. 
Rogers's well-known cartoons, most of which have ap- 
peared on the front cover of " Harper's Weekly " dur- 
ing the past few years. 



[Jan. 1,. 


[The following list, containing 165 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


Lights and Shadows of a Long Episcopate : Being Remi- 
niscences and Recollections of the Right Reverend Henry 
Benjamin Whipple, D.D., Bishop of Minnesota. Illus., 
large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 576. Macmillan Co. $5. 

Reminiscences, 1819-1899. By Julia Ward Howe. Illus., 8vo, 
gilt top, pp. 465. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $2.50. 

Memoirs of a Revolutionist. By P. Kropotkin. With por- 
trait, 12mo, gilt top.pp. 519. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $2. 

Kate Field: A Record. By Lilian Whiting. With portraits, 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 610. Little, Brown, & Co. $2. 

E. P. Roe : Reminiscences of his Life. By his sister, Mary A. 
Roe. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 235. Dodd, Mead 
& Co. $1.50. 

Chisel, Pen, and Poignard; or, Benvenuto Cellini, his 
Times and his Contemporaries. By the author of " The 
Life of Sir Kenelm Digby." Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 159. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.75. 

ane Austen : Her Contemporaries and Herself. An essay 
in criticism. By Walter Herries Pollock. 12mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 125. Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.25. 

Oliver Goldsmith: A Memoir. By Austin Dobson. With por- 
trait, 16mo, gilt top,uncut, pp. 270. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.25. 

Hugh Latimer. By R. M. Carlyle and A. J. Carlyle. With 
portrait, 12mo, pp. 177. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 

Aaron Burr. By Henry Childs Merwin. With portrait, 
24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 150. "Beacon Biographies." 
Small, Maynard & Co. 75 cts. 

Frederick Douglass. By Charles W. Chesnntt. With por- 
trait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 141. " Beacon Biogra- 
phies." Small, Maynard & Co. 75 cts. 


The United Kingdom: A Political History. By Goldwin 

Smith, D.C.L. In 2 vols., 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan 

Co. $4. 
The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the 

Present. By Wm. Laird Clowes, assisted by others. 

Vol. IV.; illus. in photogravure, etc., 4to, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 624. Little, Brown, & Co. $6.50 net. 
The Great Company: Being a History of the Honourable 

Company of Merchants- Adventurers Trading into Hudson's 

Bay. By Beckles Willson ; with Introduction by Lord 

Strathcona and Mount Royal. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, 

pp. 541. Dodd, Mead & Co. $5. 
History of the Civil War, 1861-1865: Being Vol. VI. 

of A History of the United States under the Constitution. 

By James Schouler. 8vo, pp. 647. Dodd, Mead & Co. $2.25. 
Judea: From Cyrus to Titus, 537B.C.-70 A.D. By Elizabeth 

Wormeley Latimer. Illus., 8vo, pp. 382. A. C. McClurg 

&Co. $2.50. 

The Troubadours at Home : Their Lives and Personalities, 

their Songs and their World. By Justin H. Smith. In 

2 vols., illus., large 8vo, uncut. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $6. 
A Century of Science, and Other Essays. By John Fiske. 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 477. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 82. 
In Ghostly Japan. By Lafcadio Hearn. Illus.. 12mo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 241. Little, Brown, & Co. 82. 
Florilegium Latinum : Translations into Latin Verse of Pre- 

Victorian Poetry. Edited by Francis St. John Thackeray, 

M.A., and Edward Daniel Stone, M.A. 12mo, gilt top, 

uncut, pp. 244. " Bodley Anthologies." John Lane. 82. 
The Decay of Sensibility, and Other Essays and Sketches. 

By Stephen Gwynn. 12mo, uncut, pp. 236. John Lane. 

Nature Pictures by American Poets. Selected and edited 

by Annie Russell Marble, A.M. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 205. Macmillan Co. 81.25. 
Some Account of the Capture of the Ship " Aurora." By 

Philip Freneau. Illus., large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 49. 

M. F. Mansfield & A. Wessels. $1.50 net. 
A Book of Seventeenth Century Lyrics. Selected and 

edited by Felix E. Schelling. 12mo, pp. 314. " Athenaeum 

Press Series." Ginn & Co. 81.25. 

A Group of Old Authors. By Clyde Furst. 16mo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 199. George W. Jacobs & Co. 81. 

Little Books by Famous Authors. First vols.: Cobwebs 
from a Library Corner (Verses), by John Kendrick Bangs ; 
The Woman's Exchange, by Ruth McEnery Stuart. Each 
with frontispiece, 24mo, uncut. Harper & Brothers. 
Per vol., 50 cts. 

Poems by Matthew Arnold. With Introduction by A. C. 

Benson ; illus. by Henry Ospovat. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 376. John Lane. $2.50. 
The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. Edited by John H. 

Ingram. In 4 vols., with portrait, 12mo, gilt tops, uncut. 

Macmillan Co. 84. 
Works of Edward Everett Hale, Library edition. Vol. V., 

Philip Nolan's Friends. With frontispiece, 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 470. Little, Brown, & Co. $1.50. 

The Theeetetus of Plato : A Translation with an Introduc- 
tion. By S. W. Dyde, D.Sc. 12mo, uncut, pp. 172. 

Macmillan Co. $1.40. 

SaUman and Absal : An Allegory translated from the Per- 
sian of Jami : together with a Bird's- Eye View of Farfd- 

Uddfn Attar's Bird Parliament. By Edward FitzGerald. 

"Trinity" edition; with portrait, 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 187. L. C. Page & Co. 75 cts. 
Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard and Ode on a 

Distant Prospect of Eton College. Illustrated by J. T. 

Friedenson. 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 48. "Flowers of 

Parnassus." John Lane. 50 cts. 
Laxdeela Saga. Trans, from the Icelandic by Muriel A. C. 

Press. With map, 24mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 272. " Temple 

Classics." Macmillan Co. 50 cts. 
Romeo and Juliet: Maude Adams Acting Edition. Illus. 

with scenes from the play, 8vo, uncut, pp. 110. R. H. 

Russell. Paper, 25 cts. 


Rosamund, Queen of the Lombards: A Tragedy. By 

Algernon Charles Swinburne. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 81. 

Dodd, Mead & Co. $1 .50. 
Paola and Francesca: A Tragedy in Four Acts. By 

Stephen Phillips. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 120. John 

Lane. 81.25. 
Satan Absolved: A Victorian Mystery. By Wilfrid Sea wen 

Blunt: with photogravure frontispiece by G. F. Watts, 

R.A. 8vo, uncut, pp. 52. John Lane. $1.25. 
Beyond the Hills of Dream. By W. Wilfred Campbell. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 137. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Osbern and Ursyne: A Drama in Three Acts. By John 

Oliver Hobbes. 12mo, uncut, pp. 95. John Lane. 81-25. 
Songs of American Destiny: A Vision of New Hellas. 

By William Norman Guthrie. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp.211. Robert Clarke Co. 82.50. 
In Cap and Bells. By Owen Seaman. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 144. John Lane. $1.25. 
Echoes of Greek Idyls. By Lloyd Mifflin. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 78. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
Living in the World, with Other Ballads and Lyrics. By 

Frank Putnam. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 251. Rand, McNally 

& Co. 81.25. 
A Winter Holiday. By Bliss Carman. 18mo, uncut, pp. 43. 

Small, Maynard & Co. 75 cts. 
Sparks and Flames. By Henry Wilson Stratton; with 

Preface by Hezekiah Butterworth. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 

pp. 87. M. F. Mansfield & A. Wessels. $1.25 
Mists of Fire: A Trilogy; and Some Eclogs. By Coates 

Kinney. With portrait, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 233. 

Rand, McNally & Co. 81.25. 
At Early Candle Light, and Other Poems. By Robert 

Mclntyre Illus., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 156. Curts & Jen- 
nings. 81* net. 


In Connection with the De Willoughby Claim. By 

Frances Hodgson Burnett. 12mo, pp. 445. Charles Scrib- 

ner's Sons. $1.50. 
The Colossus: A Story of To- Day. By Morley Roberts. 

12mo, pp 317. Harper & Brothers. 81.25. 
Tales of Space and Time. By H. G. Wells. 12mo, pp. 358. 

Doubleday & McClure Co. 81.50. 




The Worshipper of the Image. By Richard Le Gallienne. 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 143. John Lane. $1.25. 
For the Freedom of the Sea: A Romance of the War of 

1812. By Cyrus TWnsend Brady. Illus., 12mo, pp. 339. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
The Queen's Twin, and Other Stories. By Sarah Orne 

Jewett. 16mo, pp. 232. Honghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
In Old New York : A Romance. By Wilson Barrett and 

Elwyn Barren. Illus., 12mo, pp. 410. L. C. Page & Co. 

The Man's Cause. By Ella Napier Lefroy (" E. N. Leigh 

Fry"). 12mo, uncut, pp. 343. John Lane. $1.50. 
In Old France and New. By William McLennan. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 320. Harper & Brothers. $1.50. 
Shameless Wayne: A Romance of the Last Feud of 

Wayne and Ratcliffe. By Halliwell Sntcliffe. 12mo, 

pp. 362. Dodd, Mead & Co. $1.50. 
San Isidro. By Mrs. Schuyler Crowninshield. 12mo, gilt 

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[Jan. 16, 

NEVER before, perhaps, in the history of this country has it been possible to reach with a 
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[Jan. 16, 1900. 

Some Notable Books to be Published Early in 1900 



BAILEY. - Botany. A Text-Book for 
Schools. By L. H. BAILEY, Cornell Uni- 


BALDWIN. Dictionary of Philosophy 
and Psychology. Edited by J. MARK 
BALDWIN, Princeton University. 2 volumes. 

BONSAL. The Golden Horseshoe. By 

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New York. Herald, etc. 

CANDEE. How Women May Earn a 

CHANNING. A Short History of the 
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BRAHMS. The Criminal: His Person- 
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By AUGUST BRAHMS, Chaplain of State 
Prison, San Quentin, Cal. Introduction by 


ELY. Monopolies and Trusts. By RICH- 
ARD T. ELY. The Initial volume of The Cit- 
izens' Library of Economics, Politics, and 

the Rev. T. K. CHETNE and J. SUTHERLAND 
BLACK. Vol. II. Cloth, $5.00 ; leather, $7.60. 

of Vegetable Gardening. By L. H. 

BAILEY, Cornell University, Editor of the 
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or garden. By C. E. HUNK and L. H. 
BAILEY, Cornell University. 

GATES. Studies in Literature. Second 
Series. By LEWIS E. GATES, Harvard Uni- 
versity, author of " Three Studies in Liter- 

<i A YLKY .Representative English Com- 
edies. Under the General Editorship of 
CHARLES M. GATLBY, University of Califor- 
nia. Five volumes. 

GIDDINGS. Democracy and Empire. 

By FB ANKLIN H. GIDDINGS, Columbia Univer- 
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GOODNOW. Politics and Administra- 
J. GOODNOW, Columbia University. 

A Municipal Program. Prepared by a 
special Committee of the National Municipal 
League. Edited by FRANK J. GOODNOW. 

GOODSPEED. Israel's Messianic Hope. 
By GEORGE 8. GOODSPEED, University of 

GOODYEAR. The Rennaissance and 
Brooklyn Institute. With over 200 Illus- 

cluding Parts III. and IV. 

HARRISON. Home Nursing, Modern 
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HARRISON. Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill, 
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HART. American History as Told by 
Contemporaries. By ALBERT BUSHNELL 
HART. Harvard University. Parts III. and 

Source Readers of American History. 

Vol. I. Colonial Children. 

HERRICK. The Web of Life. By ROBEBT 
HEBRICK, University of Chicago, author of 
"The Gospel of Freedom." 

KURD. The Bennett Twins. By GBACE 

JONES. European Travel for Women. 


KENDALL. Illustrative Texts on En- 
glish History. By ELIZABETH E. KENDALL. 

LEWIS. Manual of English Composi- 
tion. Second Part by EDWIN HERBERT 
LEWIS, Ph.D., Lewis Institute, Chicago. 

Tale, and the Nonne Preeste's Tale. 

Edited by MARK H. LIDDELL, University of 
Texas. Also in two parts separately. Part I. 
A Middle English Grammar : Introduction 
and Notes. Part II. The Text. 

MACDOUGAL. The Nature and Work 
of Plants. An Introduction to the Study 
New York Botanical Garden. 

MEZES. Ethics Descriptive and Ex- 
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Universities. By SIDNEY E. MEZES, Univer- 
sity of Texas. 

MORRIS. Man and His Ancestor. By 

CHARLES MORRIS, author of "The Aryan 
Race," etc. 

ited by SHAILER MATHEWS, University of 
Chicago. New volumes. 

GOULD. The Biblical Theology of the 
New Testament. By E. P. GOULD. 

MUZZEY. The Rise of the New Tes- 
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OPPENHEIM.-The Medical Diseases of 
Childhood. By Dr. NATHAN OFFENHEIU, 
author of " The Development of the Child." 

ORMOND. Foundations of Knowledge. 

By ALEXANDER T. OSMOND, Princeton Uni- 

OSTROGORSKI. Democracy and the 
Organization of Political Parties. By 

M. OSTBOGOBSKI. Translated by Frederick 
Clarke, with an Introduction by the Right 
Hon. James Bryce. 

PALMER. One Year of Sunday-School 
Lessons for Young Children. By FLOR- 

POWELL. A History of the United 
States for Beginners. By Supt. W. P. 
POWELL, Washington, D. C. 

L. H. BAILEY, Cornell University. 

BAILEY. Principles of Vegetable Gar- 
dening. By L. H. BAILEY, Cornell Uni- 

BREWER. The Principles of Stock 
Breeding. By W. H. BREWER, Tale Uni- 
versity. The Application of Biological 
Laws to the Breeding of Domestic Ani- 
mals, including Poultry. 

FAIRCHILD.- Rural Wealth and Wel- 
fare. By GEORGE T. FAIRCHILD, Berea 

KING. Irrigation and Drainage. By 

F. H. KING, University of Wisconsin, au- 
thor of "The Soil." 

ROBERTS. The Farmstead. The 
Making of the Rural Home and the 
Layout of the Farm. By I. ROBERTS, 
author of "The Fertility of the Land." 

SEARS. An Outline of Political Growth 
in the Nineteenth Century. By EDMUND 
H. SBABS, Prin. of Mary Institute, St. Louis. 

SMITH. The Teaching and Study of 
Elementary Mathematics. By Principal 
DAVID EUGENE SMITH, State Normal School, 
Brockport, N. Y. 

SMITH. Mary Paget. A Romance of 

SPARKS. Men Who Made the Nation. 

By EDWIN E. SPARKS, University of Chicago. 

STODDARD. The Evolution of the En- 
glish Novel. By FBANCIS H. STODDABD, 
University of New York. 

SWIFT. Brook Farm, Its Members, 
Scholars, and Visitors. By LINDSAY 
SWIFT. National Studies in American Letters. 

TARR AND McMURRY. School Geog- 
raphy. A series of 3 vols. By RALPH S. 
TARR, Cornell University, and D. F. Mc- 
MURBY, N. Y. Teachers' Training College. 


Edited by ISRAEL GOLLANCZ. In 12 volumes. 
12mo, illustrated. Vols. I. and II. now ready. 

TITCHENER. First Experiments in 
Psychology. A Manual of Laboratory 
Practice. By EDWARD B. TITCHBNEB, Cornell 

TOLLER. Outlines of the History of 
the English Language. By T. NORTH- 
COTE TOLLER, Manchester College, England. 

WELTON. The Logical Bases of Edu- 
cation. By J. WELTON, Victoria University. 

WILLIAMS. The Elements of the The- 
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book of Household Science for use in schools. 
By MARY E. WILLIAMS, Supervisor of Cook- 
ing, New York Public Schools, and KATH- 

WILSON. A Handbook of Domestic 
Science and Household Art. For use in 

Elementary Schonlt. Edited by LUCY L. W. 
WILSON, Philadelphia Normal School. With 
chapters by other Specialists. 

WOODBERRY. Makers of Literature. 

Being essays on Shelley, Landor, Browning, 
Arnold, Byron, Coleridge, Lowell, Whittier, 
and others. By GBOBGB E. WOODBEBRY, 
Columbia University. 

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No. S26. 

JAN. 16, 1900. Vol. XXVIII. 




. 37 


THE BOER AND THE BRITON. Wallace Eice . 42 
Lucas's Historical Geography of the British Colonies, 
Vol. IV. Brodrick-Cloete's History of the Great 
Boer Trek. Scholes's The British Empire and Alli- 
ances. Mrs. Phillips's Some South African Recollec- 
tions. Miss Devereux's Side Lights on South Africa. 

Briton and Boer. 


McMahan 47 

RECENT POETRY. William Morton Payne ... 48 
Swinburne's Rosamund. Phillips's Paolo and Fran- 
cesca. Deluscar's Merris. Wilson's Laurel Leaves. 

Seaman's In Cap and Bells. Campbell's Beyond 
the Hills of Dream. Carman's A Winter Holiday. 

Roberts's Northland Lyrics. Woodberry's Wild 
Eden. Burton's Lyrics of Brotherhood. Mrs. 
Moulton's At the Wind's Will. Miss Guiney's The 
Martyr's Idyl. Miss Fenollosa's Out of the Nest. 
Miss Coolidge's Voices. 


The Puritan as Colonist and reformer. Cromwell as 
master of the art of war. Early English life. An 
argument for abandoning American ideals. Inti- 
mate letters of Sidney Lanier. A comparative study 
of Jane Austen. An expounder of the poetry of 
Emerson. More of the celebration of Poe. 
Poe's psychology as studied in his poetry. Colonel 
Higginson's sketches of his contemporaries. How 
general ideas evolve. 


NOTES . 58 



The retirement of Mr. Godkin from the ed- 
itorship of the New York " Evening Post " and 
" Nation " has occasioned deep regret on the 
part of those who know how valiantly he has 
been fighting, for forty years or more, in de- 
fence of pure government, intellectual sanity, 
worthy ideals of life and character, and those 
principles of public policy which made our na- 
tion great and may yet save it from the moral 
disintegration with which it is now threatened. 
While we must admit that the veteran editor 
has earned his rest, it is none the less a mis- 
fortune that his voice should be silenced, since 
the struggle to preserve these things which 
are lovely and of good report in our public life 
bids fair to become fiercer than ever before, 
and such inspiration as he has so long given 
us is needed more than ever in the present dark 
hour of the Republic. We are not of those 
who would say that " the struggle nought avail- 
eth," for our faith is still firm in the potency 
of moral ideas, and in the certainty of their 
ultimate triumph ; but we should be blind to 
all the signs of the times did we not realize that 
the nineteenth hundred of Christian years, so 
fair to us in the promise of its dawn, is going 
out in clouded skies. Never were we in such 
need of soldiers, of leaders Ritter vom Geiste 
as at this century- end, when the " forts of 
folly " loom more grimly than ever upon the 

" When was age so crammed with menace ? madness ? 
written, spoken lies ? " 

These are the questions asked a few years ago 
by the wisest poet of our English race, and 
what he further said of England is still more 
applicable to America : 
" Step by step we gain'd a freedom known to Europe, 

known to all; 
Step by step we rose to greatness, thro' the tongue- 

sters we may fall." 

We have been impelled to these reflections 
by reading the intensely interesting chapter of 
personal reminiscences which Mr. Godkin con- 
tributed a few days ago to the newspaper of 
which he was so recently the editor. Reading 
these random jottings, there is brought before 



[Jan. 16, 

us the contrast between the old and the new, 
not in journalism alone, but in several other 
matters which throw light upon the psychology 
of public opinion. For example, that amazing 
illustration of the new diplomacy which was 
offered by Mr. Cleveland's Venezuelan mani- 
festo will be fresh in the minds of most readers, 
and it will be remembered how courageously 
" The Evening Post " faced the hysterical jin- 
goism evoked by that indefensible act, voicing 
with no uncertain sound the sober sense of the 
intelligent in that hour of popular madness. 
Here is a part of what Mr. Godkin writes of 
that unfortunate episode : 

" I was curious to know what was to be said for this 
extraordinary step, and, on the chance of finding some 
argument in its favor in the newspapers, I directed cut- 
tings to be sent to me by Romeike for a month after 
the explosion. I can say, with literal truth, that, among 
the hundreds of extracts I received, I did not find a 
single discussion of the matter. What I did find was 
principally personal abuse of myself, and abuse of the 
kind which one usually hears in bar-rooms or on tenement- 
house stairs. About the highest point reached in it was 
a story that, every day after the work of the ' Evening 
Post ' office was over, I called the staff together, and 
we sang ' God Save the Queen ' in chorus. It was 
startling to fiad that, in a grave crisis, this was the 
way the American press discharged its duties to its 

The humor of this discussion for it has a 
humorous aspect is supplied by the fact that 
only a few years previously the same editor 
had been assailed with equal violence because 
he sympathized with the Parnellite agitation, 
and for that reason had been roundly denounced 
as a Fenian and " an enemy of the British 

The one thing which our modern politicians 
cannot understand is the attitude of a man 
whose activities are based upon fixed principles, 
which he is unwilling to change at the behest 
of a frantic popular demand. The shifty pol- 
itician, with his " ear-to-the-ground " princi- 
ple of action, has become so predominant a 
type in our own day that the statesman who 
really means what he says, dealing sincerely 
and manfully with his constituents, is com- 
monly regarded with curiosity, as a survival 
of an outworn way of thinking. Mr. Godkin 
says : 

" I have never become reconciled to the practice of 
telling your constituents that if they do not like your 
sentiments they can be changed. The change, for 
instance, with regard to England has been startling in 
its suddenness. It occurred about ten o'clock on a sum- 
mer morning. As a good American, it had for many 
years been my duty to bring on a war with England if 
I could, and kill as many Englishmen and damage as 
much property as possible. On the day in question I 

received notice to be friendly with England, without 
being told why. Even war, which I had been abhorring 
for twenty years as the amusement of pampered nobles, 
I now found myself obliged to cherish and foster, as 
the mother's best friend. I also learned from my friend 
Capt. Mahan that without a few forts and islands and 
strong places, which somebody else wanted to take away 
from us, our old men would go down in sorrow to the 
grave. I sincerely hope that there may not be many 
more changes in my lifetime. Few persons are able 
to stand the rack which this nation has gone through 
within thirty years, without damage to their moral con- 
stitution. No man can maintain that black is white 
without straining some vital organ." 

And yet there must still be many serious men 
to whom our modern chameleon-statesmanship, 
which subdues every honest instinct to the base 
uses of partisanship, remains a thing of horror, 
and who would rally eagerly about any leader 
who could be trusted to think for himself, and 
act in accordance with his convictions. And 
from many souls in this opportunist age must 
be reechoed the Tennysonian call : 

" For a man with heart, head, hand, 
Like some of the simple great ones gone 
For ever and ever by, 
One still strong man in a blatant land, 
Whatever they call him, what care I, 
Aristocrat, democrat, autocrat one 
Who can rule and dare not lie." 

Concerning the great change that has come 
over American journalism during the past 
generation, Mr. Godkin is in a position to offer 
expert testimony. The original offender seems 
to have been the elder Bennett, and we are 
given this convincing diagnosis of his case : 

" Bennett found there was more journalistic money to 
be made in recording the gossip that interested bar- 
rooms, work-shops, race-courses, and tenement-houses, 
than in consulting the tastes of drawing-rooms and 
libraries. He introduced, too, an absolutely new fea- 
ture, which has had, perhaps, the greatest success of 
all. I mean the plan of treating everything and every- 
body as somewhat of a joke, and the knowledge of every- 
thing about him, including his family affairs, as some- 
thing to which the public is entitled. This was 
immensely taking in the world in which he sought to 
make his way. It has since been adopted by other 
papers, and it always pays. . . . Even crime and pun- 
ishment have received a touch of the comic. I used to 
hear, at the time of which I write, that Bennett's editors 
all sat in stalls, in one large room, while he walked up 
and down in the morning distributing their parts for 
the day. To one he would say, 'Pitch into Greeley'; 
to another, 'Give Raymond hell'; and so on. The re- 
sult probably was that the efforts of Greeley and Ray- 
mond for the elevation of mankind on that particular 
day were made futile." 

There is much food for reflection in the jnore 
general paragraph that follows : 

" The steady growth of the Bennett type of journal- 
ism, which has ever since continued, and its effects on 



politics and morals, are now at last patent. In all the 
free countries of the world, France, America, and Italy, 
though in a less degree in England, it constitutes the 
great puzzle of contemporary political philosophy. It 
is ever substituting fleeting popular passion for sound 
policy and wise statesmanship. Democratic philosophers 
and optimistic clergymen are naturally unwilling to 
admit that the modern press is what the modern demo- 
cratic peoples call for, and try to make out that it is 
the work of a few wicked newspaper publishers. But 
the solemn truth is that it is a display of the ordinary 
working of supply and demand. Consequently, all dis- 
cussions of the evils of the press usually end either in a 
call for more Bible- reading in the schools, or in general 

Mr. Godkin tells us how lie imbibed his 
political philosophy from the English liberalism 
of the fifties, when Mill and Grote and Ben- 
tham were names with which to conjure. 

" At that period, in England and Ireland, at least, 
political economy was taught as a real science, which 
consisted simply in the knowledge of what man, as an 
exchanging and producing animal, would do, if let alone. 
On that you can base a science, for the mark of a sci- 
ence is, that it enables you to predict. Since then, what 
is called political economy has become something en- 
tirely different. It has assumed the role of an adviser, 
who teaches man to make himself more comfortable 
through the help of his government, and has no more 
claim to be a science than philanthropy, or what is called 

His constant warfare against war, which has 
been so conspicuous a feature of his editorial 
activity, received its impulse from actual con- 
tact with the fighting of the fifties on the 
Danube and in the Crimea. It does not take 
the sight of many battlefields to range a man of 
ordinary sensibilities against warfare, or to put 
him in a position to make effective protest 
against the sophistries by which the practice is 
defended. One battlefield is described for us, 
and the description leads to the following com- 
ment : 

" This, and the scenes in the trenches through which 
I passed that day, gave me a disgust for war which, 
during the forty years that have since elapsed, I have 
never ceased to express whenever an opportunity offered. 
The doctrine of the inheritance of qualities, which now 
plays so large a part in the discussions of modern pub- 
licists concerning the course of history, inevitably sug- 
gests that the fighting instinct which lies latent in the 
breasts of even the most civilized peoples, must be a 
legacy from countless generations of remote ancestors, 
who, even after the dawn of consciousness, must have 
followed rapine and the murder of strangers as their 
daily occupation. It is in these things in reality that 
war consists, in spite of the efforts of the more civilized 
nations to disguise it by fine names, and to get God 
mixed up in it. The passion for it, and interest in it, 
felt by even the more cultivated members of the human 
race, could hardly be as strong as they still are had they 
not been infused into the blood by countless generations 
of savage forefathers. It is a most humiliating thought 

that man is the only animal that rejoices in the destruc- 
tion of its fellows." 

This is plain sober truth, and against it no hot- 
blooded orator, pleading with whatever rhetor- 
ical skill he may for the claims of the " stren- 
uous " life, can possibly win his cause in the 
forum of morals. 

We have done little more than hint at the 
extraordinary interest of Mr. Godkin's auto- 
biographical notes. They ought to be repub- 
lished in some less ephemeral form, and if the 
writer could be persuaded to expand them into 
a running commentary upon the history of the 
last half-century, while preserving the personal 
flavor which gives them so peculiar an interest, 
we have no hesitation in saying that the book 
thus produced would be one of the most val- 
uable that could possibly be written. It would 
be a book of sound economics, of acute politi- 
cal criticism, and of ethical weight. It would, 
moreover, preserve for the next generation the 
image of a man who has done much for his 
own, and who deserves the most grateful re- 
membrance from the citizens of his adopted 


We learn with much regret that the Congregation 
of the University of Chicago, a semi-legislative 
body, has cast a small majority of votes in favor of 
the adoption, in the University publications, of cer- 
tain eccentric spellings among which " thru " and 
" program " are typically objectionable examples. 
This sort of petty tinkering with the English lan- 
guage is absolutely futile, to begin with, and it 
creates an amount of irritation among cultivated 
persons which seems altogether out of proportion to 
the exciting cause, yet which is real enough to react 
harmfully upon those responsible for the ill-advised 
innovation. A university is supposed to be a centre 
of good taste and ripe culture ; this exhibition of 
bad taste and crude culture, as far as it becomes 
known to the general public, cannot fail to injure 
the University of Chicago. As an example of a 
good jest forever, we note that the argument made 
by the leading advocate of this " reform " was based 
chiefly upon a quite original theory of the sinister 
effect which the practice of our historical spelling 
has upon the character. In other words, the habit 
of writing " through," for example, creates a pre- 
disposition to moral obliquity which may result in 
making burglars and confidence men of children 
who would otherwise lead upright lives. To such 
straits are the advocates of '' spelling reform " re- 
duced when called upon to give reasons for the faith 
that is in them. 



[Jan. 16, 


We have been agreeably disappointed in Mr. 
Winston Churchill's rather bulky volumes on 
the reconquest of the Soudan. Knowing that 
the author had accompanied the Sirdar's expe- 
dition to Khartoum partly as a press corre- 
spondent, we were prepared to find in them 
merely an elaborately garnished rechauffe of 
his letters from the front. Passages from those 
letters, it is true, are reproduced passim in the 
chapters detailing military operations which 
the writer saw and shared in as an officer in 
the Twenty-first Lancers, and these have the 
merit which the writer claims for them of re- 
flecting the actual impressions of exciting scenes 
and events. But the letters by no means form 
the substance or the more valuable portion of 
the text. 

Mr. Churchill's book is a sober and pains- 
taking attempt to write, fully and impartially, 
and in the light of the best information obtain- 
able, the history of the rise, decline, and fall 
of Mahdism. In order that the reader may 
understand and fairly judge this singular and 
by no means indefensible and purely fanatical 
movement, and grasp the significance of the 
more recent and familiar events flowing from 
it, the author has prefixed to his main narra- 
tive a general survey of the history, population, 
and geography of the Egyptian Soudan. This 
summary, which contains a sketch of the 
Prophet and his lieutenant and successor the 
Khalifa Abdullahi, an account of the origin, 
spread, character, and triumph of Mahdism, of 
the Dervish- Abyssinian war, of Gordon's ill- 
starred mission to Khartoum, etc., occupies 
five chapters, which we venture to say the un- 
military reader will regard as the most inter- 
esting in the book. At any rate, we must 
warmly commend the liberal and impartial 
spirit, and the dignified yet spirited style, in 
which they are written. Chapter V. is devoted 
to the years of Anglo-Egyptian preparation 
which resulted in the transformation of the 
once worthless and derided Egyptian " army " 
into an effective sword of reconquest which, in 
the iron hand of Lord Kitchener, was to do 
such awful, if perhaps in the long run not 
insalutary, work at Omdurman. That the seed 

* THE RIVBB WAK : An Historical Account of the Recon- 
quest of the Soudan. By Winston Spencer Churchill ; edited 
by Col. F. Rhodes, D.S.O. In two volumes. Illustrated. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

of civilization must at times be watered pretty 
freely by the blood of barbarism, seems, if we 
are to trust history, to be a fact a painful 
one enough. 

Chapters VI., VII., and VIII. relate the 
beginnings of hostilities, the demonstrations on 
the frontier, the taking of Firket, the recovery 
of the Dongola province. With chapter IX. 
the main thread of the narrative of the River 
War proper is taken up. We are, of course, 
unable to vouch for the technical accuracy 
of Mr. Churchill's account of the Soudan 
campaign, but that he has been at great pains 
to secure it is evident. The graphic force of 
his descriptions of the several engagements 
with the Dervishes is undeniable ; and we take 
pleasure in saying that his brilliant account of 
the battle (if one may so term it) of Omdur- 
man is commendably free from the spirit of 
national vainglory, and from the jaunty affec- 
tation of soldierly callousness to the horrors and 
perils of the battlefield that disfigures the pages 
of several of his literary predecessors. Mr. 
Churchill recognizes the fact that it was with 
the vanquished, rather than with the victors, at 
Omdurman that the palm of valor lay ; and he 
concludes : 

" But when all this has been said, the mind turns with 
disgust from the spectacle of unequal slaughter. The 
name of the battle, blazoned on the colors, preserves for 
future generations the memory of a successful expedi- 
tion. Regiments may exult in the part they played. 
Military experts may draw instruction from the sur- 
prising demonstration of the power of modern weapons. 
But the individual soldier will carry from the field only 
a very transient satisfaction, and the ' glory of Omdur- 
man ' will seem to anyone who may five years hence read 
this book a very absurd expression." 

Such moderation as this may well mollify the 
critic who might otherwise take a malicious 
satisfaction in pointing out how signally the 
bubble of British military prestige blown in 
the Soudan has now been pricked by the em- 
battled farmers of the Transvaal. 

To the Fashoda incident the author devotes 
a temperate and well-considered chapter. The 
work concludes with a thoughtful general view 
of the field already traversed in detail, and 
some interesting observations are offered touch- 
ing the present condition and needs of the 
Soudan, and its possible future. The several 
Appendices will chiefly interest the military 

A word now as to Mahdism. The Soudanese 
are of many tribes, but there are two main 
races : the aboriginal natives, or negroes as 
black as coal, and the Arab immigrants, who 




since the military invasion of the second cen- 
tury of the Mohammedan era have been filter- 
ing into the country, and spreading everywhere 
their blood, religion, language, and ideas. The 
negroes are the more numerous, but the Arabs 
form the dominant race. Between these ex- 
treme types every degree of mixture is to be 
found ; and in the districts to the north a long 
period of interbreeding has formed a mongrel 
but distinct race, which is neither negro nor 
Arab, but a debased blend of the racial char- 
acteristics of both. It is needless to say that 
the Arab not only thus commingled with his 
black neighbors and turned them to the faith 
of Islam, but hunted and harried them and 
sold them into slavery. Slave-hunting was the 
great curse of the Soudan, the source of the 
wealth of the rich and powerful Sheikhs of 
men like Zubair, Africa's premier slave-dealer, 
the " abandoned ruffian " whose aid in 1884 
the " Christian hero " Gordon, backed by the 
British representative in Egypt and by every- 
body else with a competent knowledge of local 
conditions, craved, and the Gladstone Ministry, 
with a fatal and short-sighted purism, spurned. 
To the curse of slave-hunting was added that 
of ceaseless intertribal war ; and in 1819 
Egypt, determining to avail herself of the dis- 
orders in the regions to the south, sent an army 
of conquest up the Nile, under Mahomet Ali. 
Organized resistance to the invader was impos- 
sible ; and to the old darkness of barbarism 
and internal chaos succeeded the black night 
of Egyptian misrule. The rapacious Pashas 
and their cruel and worthless army of forty 
thousand men settled like locusts upon the 
already impoverished land, and its few green 
oases speedily became bare and desolate places 
like the rest. The substance of the country 
was drained away to support the imperial pleas- 
ures of the Khedives and their corrupt procon- 
suls. " The government of the Egyptians," 
wrote Gordon in 1879, " in those far-off coun- 
tries is nothing else but one of brigandage of 
the very worst description." The ability of the 
tribes to meet fiscal extortion depended mainly 
on their success as slave-hunters. When there 
had been a good " catch," they could pay ; 
when not, they were harried by the Imperial 
troops, their scanty means of subsistance were 
wrung from them, and their women were 
drafted away to the harems of the Pashas.* 
The fact that the Egyptian government, nom- 

* " In one district the commander of the troops was carry- 
ing off not only the flocks and herds of the natives, but their 
young girls." (Gordon.) 

inally a member of the International League 
against the slave trade, was indirectly its main 
supporter and beneficiary, dawned upon the 
European Powers ; and in 1874 the Khedive 
Ismail was forced to appoint Gordon Governor 
of the Equatorial Province. Then for the first 
time the Soudanese saw the face of Justice. 
Gordon broke the league of the slave-dealers, 
and at the end of 1879 left the Soudan. His 
reforms had sown the seed of revolution. The 
Soudanese, embittered by the abominations of 
Egyptian misrule, had now caught a glimpse 
of the possibility of better things. Perhaps 
they had an inkling, too, of the inherent feeble- 
ness of the force" that had so long held them 
down. As separate tribal units, they were ripe 
for revolt ; but to the success of a revolt some 
principle of general cohesion, some common 
enthusiasm, some dominant cynosural personal- 
ity to whom all would spontaneously look for 
light and leadership, was essential. With the 
necessity came the idea, and the man. 

The Shuki belief, prevalent in Nubia, fore- 
told the advent, in a day of special shame and 
trouble, of a second great Prophet a Mahdi 
who should lead the people nearer God and 
restore the ghostly and temporal empire of 
Islam. Thus, the tribes of the Soudan had 
been long used to look in anxious inquiry to 
any ascetic of special repute for sanctity, as to 
the Promised One, when the fame of a certain 
holy man, Mohammed Ahmed of Dongola, 
began, about the period of Gordon's departure, 
to fill the land. Men spoke of his pious aus- 
terities, of his reforming zeal, of his fiery ex- 
hortations to the faithful and his bold denun- 
ciation of the lax practice of his spiritual chief, 
of his gifts to the poor, who loudly acclaimed 
him as " Zahed," or renouncer of carnal joys 
and material cravings. Pilgrims from afar 
began to resort to his sequestered retreat, a 
cave hollowed out in the mud bank of the Nile 
where he spent his days in prayer and fasting. 
As his fame grew, and the possibilities of his 
hold upon the imagination of his countrymen 
dawned upon him, Mohammed Ahmed emerged 
from his seclusion and began his apostolate 
among the more distant tribes. He journeyed 
preaching through Kordofan, and received the 
homage of priesthood and people. In fine, by 
the year 1881 the high repute of Mohammed 
Ahmed had ripened into a widespread popular 
conviction (which he took care to foster and 
which he may even have partially shared) that 
he was none other than the mystic Expected 
One, the inspired Mahdi whose mission it was 



[Jan. 16, 

to purify Islam and lift the Egyptian yoke 
from the neck of the people. To Mohammed 
Ahmed there latterly joined himself a crafty 
and experienced secular adherent and shrewd 
political adviser, Abdullahi, the future Khalifa. 
" The two formed a strong combination. The Maluli 
for such Mohammed Ahmed had already announced 
himself brought the wild enthusiasm of religion, the 
glamor of a stainless life, and the influence of supersti- 
tion into the movement. But if he was the soul of the 
plot, Abdullahi was the brain. He was the man of the 
world, the practical politician, the general." 

Then began and ripened apace the great 
conspiracy which resulted in defeat after defeat 
of the effete soldiery of the Khedive at the 
hands of the devoted tribesmen, and eventually 
in the Egyptian evacuation of the Soudan. 
With such dramatic and bloody intervening 
episodes as the rout of Hicks Pasha and the 
fate of Gordon, every reader is familiar. What 
is now important to note is that the often mis- 
judged and misrepresented movement called 
Mahdism was not essentially and originally a 
mere wild wave of religious fanaticism worked 
up by an impostor, but the righteous revolt of 
an oppressed people of "a people rightly 
struggling to be free " against the corrupt 
rule of an alien tyrant. Says Mr. Churchill : 

" Looking at the question from a purely political 
standpoint, we may say that upon the whole there ex- 
ists no record of a better case for rebellion than that 
which presented itself to the Soudanese." 

There was, it is plain, a blend of wild and 
cruel religious fanaticism in the Mahdist up- 
rising, a tincture of imposture in the ways of 
its Prophet. But the revolt was primarily a 
political and perfectly justifiable one, and its 
leader was, as we believe, essentially a patriot. 
Let us be just to Mohammed Ahmed, who 
acted in the main conscientiously according to 
his lights, and who in the day of sore national 
need and distress lit in the breasts of his scat- 
tered and discordant fellow-countrymen a com- 
mon flame of patriotic and religious enthusiasm 
that swept them as a resistless unit against the 
general foe. We find little difficulty in agree- 
ing with Mr. Churchill that, 

" If in future years prosperity should come to the peo- 
ples of the Upper Nile, and learning and happiness fol- 
low in its train, then the first Arab historian who shall 
investigate the annals of that new nation will not forget, 
foremost among the heroes of his race, to write the 
name of Mohammed Ahmed." 

The Mahdi did not long live to enjoy his tri- 
umphs. A few months after the completion of 
his campaigns, the God, as Mr. Churchill poetic- 
ally puts it, " whom he had served, not unfaith- 
fully, and who had given him whatever he asked, 

required of Mohammed Ahmed his soul." 
Then ensued in the land he had purged of the 
Egyptians the grinding tyranny of the Khalifa, 
of all the military dominations which have 
cursed the earth probably, the author thinks, 
" the worst." For nearly thirteen years the 
country endured an oppression as grievous as 
that of the Pashas ; but the despotism was indi- 
genous, it had a color of legitimacy, and the 
people, while they suffered and dwindled, ac- 
quiesced. Left to themselves, they might in 
time have evolved a semblance of a well-ordered 
state. It is optimistic to think so. But the 
process of evolution must have been a slow and 
painful one. As fate willed it, they were 
roughly thrust by an alien hand into a short 
cut to the ways of civilization. The Peace of 
England reigns in the Soudan ; as in the days 
of Gordon, the Soudanese sees the face of Jus- 
tice. Deploring the necessity of a cruel means 
to a good end, one may still find it for the best 
that the Dervish Empire went down in blood 
and irretrievable ruin at Omdurman. 

E. G. J. 


" I have remarked again and again," said 
the Athenian orator, " that a democracy can- 
not rule an empire "; and the frankness of 
the English historians of South Africa shows 
Great Britain to be as hopelessly inept in 
governing the clashing peoples of that unfor- 
tunate country as in bringing happiness and 
prosperity to Ireland. This is the first reflec- 
tion upon reading the extended list of policies 
abandoned and returned to by British minis- 
tries of this or that political complexion, as set 
forth in the long series of books called forth 
by the present war between the two little Dutch 

Volume IV. South and East Africa. By C. P. Lucas, B.A. 
New York : Oxford University Press. 

Hon. Henry Cloete, LL.D. Edited by W. Brodrick-Cloete, 
M.A. Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. 

to Her Colonies and Subject Races. By Theophilus E. S. 
Scholea, M.D. London : Elliot Stock. 

(Florence) Phillips. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

BRITON AND BOER : Both Sides of the African Question. 
By the Rt. Hon. James Bryce, M.P., Sydney Brooks, A Dip- 
lomat, Dr. F. V. Engelenburg, Karl Blind, Andrew Carnegie, 
Francis Charmes, Demetrius C. Boulger, and Max Nordau. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 




republics and the great British Empire. The 
second subject for thought lies in the unsus- 
pected points of contact revealed between the 
history of these republics in Africa and the his- 
tory of the republic to which we owe our duty 
in America. The Dutch in the Transvaal are 
the Dutch of the New Netherland, and the 
French of the Transvaal are the Huguenots of 
the Jerseys ; their religion is the Puritanism 
of New England and of the Dutch Reformed 
Churches of New York ; their government is 
avowedly based upon the Constitution of the 
United States ; even the war of 1778, in which 
the Dutch lost their title to the Cape, was brought 
on largely by the treaty of amity entered into 
between Amsterdam and the revolted provinces 
of North America, and the British occupation of 
Natal in 1842 was in part due to the rumored 
occupation of the port of Durban by the Amer- 
icans. The third reflection is the sorrowful 
one that England's success here, inevitable 
when the potentialities of the two republics and 
the great empire are considered, is to be brought 
about through a war which was the sole result 
of greed and criminal aggression, and when 
attained will be such a blow to the civilization 
which demands Christian morality and right- 
dealing between nations as between individuals, 
such a striking down of government by consent 
and the rearing in its stead of government by 
force, as the modern world has not seen since 
the partition of Poland. And, finally, since 
the Dutch are in the great majority in South 
Africa and are increasing relatively, while the 
British are in the minority and are decreasing, 
when victory is at last attained it must stand 
for one of two things : either Great Britain 
must grant constitutional government to coun- 
tries in which the Dutch are dominant, which 
means that her victory is fruitless ; or Great 
Britain, the exponent of popular freedom, must 
rule an unwilling white majority by force, with 
the object-lesson of Ireland before her eyes. 
In either event civilization suffers, as Anglo- 
Saxons ought to understand the word. 

The first and most inclusive of these recent 
books is the fourth volume of " A Historical 
Geography of the British Colonies," by Mr. 
C. P. Lucas, devoted to South and East Africa. 
It is a brief academic treatment of the subject, 
written from a strictly British point of view, 
but with great impartiality. There is little re- 
flection, and that in the nature of a formal com- 
parison between the British and the ancient 
Roman empires ; while the space devoted to 
the historical section does not permit any en- 

tering into minute detail. A second part of 
the book is geographical, useful for the statis- 
tician and student of current events in British 
territory, but limited to the colonies under the 
British flag. Writing fully three years ago, 
Mr. Lucas proves himself wiser than his gov- 
ernment and its military authorities, in such 
sentences as this : 

" To students of military history, South Africa has 
something to tell. The moral to be drawn from the 
record of South African fighting is that it is not well 
to go out in all the approved panoply of European war- 
fare against those who are armed with simple or with 
savage weapons. We read anew in South Africa the 
story of David and Goliath, and learn that if Goliath had 
gone out with something akin to the sling and the stone, 
he would have done better than when clad in his full 
suit of armour." 

And the essence of the matter is in this, bear- 
ing in mind that Britain has involved herself 
in all her present difficulties in the face of re- 
peated warnings from the loyal people of the 
Cape and of Natal : 

" Where there are still the remains of savagery, 
where the old is very tenacious and the new very ag- 
gressive, where a great dominion and a nation are in 
making, with diverse elements in diverse stages, it is 
not only foolish to interpret men and events in the light 
of our own firesides, it is untrue to the facts and there- 
fore wrong. It is not so much England or the English 
Government that has made South Africa, as the men 
on the spot, the English and the Dutch, who have lived 
and worked in and for the land, who have seen the 
things whereof we read in Blue Books or newspapers, 
not in a glass darkly but face to face." 

The author of " The Story of the Great Boer 
Trek," the late Hon. Henry Cloete, was Her 
Majesty's High Commissioner to Natal, and 
the latter part of his book tells of the manner 
in which the British took possession of that 
territory after distinctly refusing it, and after 
the Boers had made existence in it possible by 
conquest of the savage blacks who had kept 
the present owners of the country out. The 
first three of the five chapters of the book, 
however, are devoted to the causes which led 
to the general emigration of the Dutch, gener- 
ally known as the Great Trek, and the conse- 
quent foundation of the South African Repub- 
lic and the Orange Free State. They gain in 
importance from being lectures delivered soon 
after the event before a mixed audience of 
Dutch and English in South Africa, by a per- 
son who had official connection with the sub- 
jects on which he discoursed. It is hardly 
necessary to go into the details of a matter 
already sixty-four years old, but it may be said 
that Cloete has no scruple in holding the Brit- 
ish Colonial Office guilty of stupendous blun- 



[Jan. 16, 

ders, in (1) depriving the settlers of their 
Hottentot servants, to the detriment of both 
themselves, the Hottentots, and the country ; 
(2) in taking away their slaves without any 
pretense at adequate compensation though 
that had been promised and at the beginning 
of harvest, throwing many families into abject 
poverty ; and (3) in actually upholding the 
savage blacks in their repeated forays upon the 
Dutch farmers on the frontier. 

Dr. Scholes's large book, " The British Em- 
pire and Alliances," is far better described by 
its sub-title, " Britain's Duty to Her Colonies 
and Subject Races." Indeed, the only " alli- 
ances " mentioned are the natural ties of a 
common language and a common tradition ex- 
isting between the various branches of the so- 
called English-speaking race. This occupies 
the first chapter of the large octavo. After 
this, the colonies of the British empire are 
taken up and described successfully, with con- 
siderations of the wars and the commerce and 
industries which have led to their establish- 
ment. Russia, as England's one rival, is dealt 
with, and with unusual sympathy and discrimin- 
ation. China follows, as a field wherein Britain 
and Russia are to display their various talents 
for organization, with a long essay upon the 
possibilities of the situation. This brings Dr. 
Scholes to a fearless and much needed denun- 
ciation of the white people in the lands where 
they come in contact with peoples of a darker 
skin, the Americans of the Southern United 
States as well as the English in India and 
South Africa, for what he asserts to be nothing 
less than a preposterous assumption of supe- 
riority. He arrays the long line of races dom- 
inant in the civilization of the earth to show 
that some of these were African, when Europe 
was still savage, and to call attention to the 
brief time which has gone by since barbarians 
burst forth from the northern forests, to become, 
by contact with older and cultured peoples, the 
dominant race of Europe and themselves cul- 
tured in their turn. He argues that there is 
nothing in the present status of the African 
Negro, as compared with his Caucasian neigh- 
bor and fellow-countryman in America or the 
British colonies, which differentiates him from 
the German as compared with the Roman of 
Tacitus ; and in the Anglo-Saxon supercilious- 
ness and lack of human sympathy he sees an 
element of weakness which must lead to event- 
ual overthrow. Dr. Scholes goes even further 
than this, at one point and another in his book, 
and demands of Europe and Europeanized 

America what it is that they have to offer to 
these nations of a darker skin. He draws a 
picture in lurid colors, but without exaggera- 
tion, when he describes the present situation 
thus : 

" But amid the precepts of peace and love inculcated 
by theology; the justice and self-sacrifice produced by 
it in the character of European nations; the security of 
law; the refinement of art; the culture of literature; 
the victories of science ; and the ease, the comfort, and 
the splendor of commerce; it remains an indisputable 
fact that, in jealousy, in avarice, in enmity, in the prod- 
igal waste of treasure, and in the still more appalling 
waste of life, through bitter and incessant war, Chris- 
tian and cultured Europe is not one whit behind the 
darkest and bloodiest of the other continents. Nor was 
human blood through war shed more freely under 
Europe heathen, than under Europe Christian; neither 
has it been shed less in the name of religion than in the 
name of politics; nor does the present promise less of 
these calamities in the future, than has been contributed 
by the past; for, as the promoters and abettors, leaders 
in science, in art, in merchandise, and in politics; men 
of birth, men of distinction, men of affluence, all give 
their wealth, their skill, and their influence, to equip 
and to support millions of men, to build thousands of 
battleships, to manufacture terrible missiles and horrible 
explosives, all for the slaughter of one another." 

In conclusion, the author begs America to ab- 
stain from joining herself to these powers which 
are thus rushing on to inevitable destruction ; 
and implores England to abjure further expan- 
sion, and find peace and room for all her ener- 
gies in concentration and consolidation. 

Removed from this earnest and philosophical 
work by a whole heaven, Mrs. Lionel Phillips, 
wife of the leader of that Reform Committee in 
Johannesburg which is so largely responsible 
for much of the present horrors of war, sets 
down her " South African Recollections " with 
a candor which is little less than libellous in 
places and wholly refreshing at all times. She 
writes of the exploit of t)r. Jameson as the 
foolhardy insubordination of a reckless and 
culpably ignorant adventurer, guilty, among 
other surprising follies, of carrying with him 
the proofs of his own guilt and the guilt of his 
fellow-conspirators, among whom her husband 
was chief. She shows that Jameson deliber- 
ately suppressed the orders from the Reform 
Committee not to advance, in order to shift the 
consequences of his disobedience from his 
shoulders to theirs. And she does a great deal 
more when she openly states that the English- 
men in the Rand who were claiming the right 
of expatriation were doing it at the behest of 
the British authorities, though the armed revo- 
lution in Johannesburg was to be effected under 
the Transvaal flag ! When Mr. Lionel Phillips, 
Colonel Rhodes (brother to the Right Hon. 




Cecil Rhodes), and the others of the Beform 
Committee, were arrested for treason and con- 
demned to death, it is small wonder that the 
burghers felt that the tragedy of Slachters Nek 
in 1816 was being repeated with the nationali- 
ties of the actors reversed, and brought forward 
the very beam upon which their countrymen 
had been hanged for the very same offence 
against British authority. But President 
Krueger was more merciful, and the tragedy 
would have ended as a comedy had England 
not failed in her duty to the Transvaal, to her- 
self, and to civilization, in the Jameson verdict. 
No one can be in doubt, after reading Mrs. 
Phillip's entertaining book, that the Boer is 
not the pleasantest person for the Briton to 
deal with. Thoroughly convinced that the wife 
of one of the chief sufferers from Dutch obsti- 
nacy can be quite dispassionate in her estimate 
of the burgher character, she inadvertently 
points out that the present trouble, the trouble 
in which her husband was involved, and all the 
other troubles between the British and Dutch 
in South Africa, are due to a single cause 
the very Anglo-Saxon superciliousness of which 
Dr. Scholes makes complaint in respect of the 
dark-skinned races. No one, after reading all 
that Mrs. Phillips has to say, can doubt that 
the whole case against the Transvaal is bound 
up in the English taking the desperate efforts 
which the Transvaal was making for national 
existence, and the unusual measures she was 
compelled to adopt for self-protection, to repre- 
sent the real national life of the republic. Lack 
of sympathy and comprehension is only too 
common between diverse nationalities, and both 
the British and Dutch are reprehensible ; but 
assuredly the chief blame does not fall upon the 
shoulders of the weaker, the less cultured, and 
the aggrieved. If the civilization of the English- 
speaking peoples stands for anything, it should 
have for its motto some such sentiment as civ- 
ilisation oblige. 

Of the same sort is the book, " Side Lights 
on South Africa," from the pen of Miss Roy 
Devereux. The author, though falling within 
the sphere of influence of the Right Hon. Cecil 
Rhodes, to whom she accords an ungrudging 
hero-worship throughout the volume, is sincere 
enough to disclose many of the facts that are 
not usually brought forward, notwithstanding 
her intensely British point of view. The dyna- 
mite concession, of which so much has been 
said, is in the hands of the great Nobel trust, 
for example. The heavy taxation on food pro- 
ducts, which is so large a cause of dissatisfac- 

tion among the Uitlanders in the Transvaal, is 
also customary in Rhodesia : Miss Devereux 
might have added, too, that the taxation upon 
the gold mines of the Transvaal is no higher 
than the taxation in Rhodesia. Nor does she 
mention the fact that the high cost of European 
provisions in Johannesburg is due quite as much 
to the tariff exactions of Natal and the Cape 
Colony as to those of the South African Re- 
public. But we cannot be too grateful for the 
quotations from the leaders among the Reform 
Committee in the Transvaal, which prove that 
the Englishmen, after all, had no desire for the 
franchise, quoting, with the rest, Mr. Lionel 
Phillips to Mr. Beit, when he writes : " I may 
say that, as you of course know, I have no de- 
sire for political rights, and believe as a whole 
that the community [of Johannesburg] is not 
ambitious in this respect." Most of Miss 
Devereux's proofs that government is impos- 
sible to the Boer, have a curiously familiar 
sound to American ears. Johannesburg appears 
to be badly misgoverned, especially in respect 
of the liquor laws : for all the world like New 
York or Chicago. There is a denial of political 
rights to foreigners which can be matched by 
our conduct toward the Chinese or our colored 
fellow-citizens in the South. There are African 
outrages to add to the similarity. The Trans- 
vaal legislature appears to be amenable to 
bribery, which brings to mind several of the 
Northern Senators of the United States, the 
respectable bribers being, of course, there as 
here, quite free from the stigma of blame which 
attaches to the less culpable bribed. Every 
third burgher is said to receive aid from the 
state, remindful of the American pension sys- 
tem and the assertions of the protectionists. 
Miss Devereux does not go into the question of 
military efficiency as proof or disproof of Boer 
civilization, though Dr. Scholes shows that 
to be the most highly developed phase of it 
in Europe. Nor does she point out that the 
attitude of England stands without approval 
from any party in any civilized country in the 
world, with the exception of the American 
imperialists, who find in it the best justifica- 
tion of our attitude in the Philippines : a bit 
of international brotherliness which the British 
Tory cordially reciprocates. Her book abounds 
in information, set forth in the sprightly 
style which the name of " lady- journalist " 

For the American desirous of familiarizing 
himself with the merits of the two parties in 
the present war, the essays which make up the 



[Jan. 16, 

small book called, " Briton and Boer, Both 
Sides of the South African Question," reprinted 
from the " North American Review," may be 
recommended, with the preliminary statement 
that the case made out in the book is convinc- 
ingly strong against the Briton. Whether the 
historian and publicist, the Right Hon. James 
Bryce, is talking of matters in which he has a 
peculiar right to be heard as the leading au- 
thority upon a question to which he gave his 
distinguished consideration several years ago ; 
whether Mr. Sydney Brooks is setting forth 
with some attempt at dispassion the elements 
in the controversy from both points of view ; 
whether " A Diplomat " is calling Mr. Brooks 
to account for what he points out to be over- 
statements in favor of Great Britain ; whether 
Dr. F. V. Engelenburg is summing up the 
arguments of his countrymen in the Transvaal, 
or Mr. Karl Blind is speaking as the devoted 
friend of the England to which he owes so 
much ; whether Mr. Andrew Carnegie voices 
the thoughts of the American \n England, or 
Mr. Francis Charmes the thought of a Euro- 
pean on the Continent, or Mr. Demetrius C. 
Boulger the thought of the Continent as inter- 
preted by an Englishman long resident there, 
or M. Max Nordau speaks as a disinterested 
cosmopolitan, all unite in calling this war an 
act of colossal folly on England's part, of bad 
faith and worse management, of criminal ag- 
gression in a word, a high crime against 
civilization. Some quotations from these dis- 
tinguished gentlemen will prove instructive. 
Mr. Bryce, whose attitude as a member of the 
British Parliament is necessarily one of re- 
serve, says: 

" There is not, so far as one can ascertain from any 
evidence yet produced, the slightest foundation for the 
allegation, so assiduously propagated in England, that 
there was any general conspiracy of the Colonial Dutch, 
or that there existed the smallest risk of any unpro- 
voked attack by them, or by the Free State, or by the 
Transvaal itself, upon the powers of England." 

" The Boers very naturally felt that if they had re- 
mained quiet till the British forces had been raised to 
a strength they could not hope to resist, they would lose 
the only military advantage they possessed. Accord- 
ingly, when they knew that the Reserves were being 
called out in England, and that an army corps was to 
be sent to South Africa, they declared war, having been 
for some time previously convinced, wrongly or rightly, 
that the British government had resolved to coerce 
them. They were in a sore strait, and they took the 
course which must have been expected from them, and 
indeed the only course which brave men, who were not 
going to make any further concessions, could have 

" No one, of course, denies that the war iu which 

England will, of course, prevail, is a terrible calamity 
for South Africa, and will permanently embitter the 
relations of Dutch and English there. To some of us it 
appears a calamity for England also, since it is likely 
to alienate, perhaps for generations to come, the bulk 
of the white population in one of her most important 
self-governing colonies. It may, indeed, possibly mean 
for her the ultimate loss of South Africa." 

" A Diplomat " raises some interesting ques- 
tions in the direction of national righteousness. 
He says, among other things : 

"The whole Transvaal issue hinges on one question: 
Have the Boers the right to govern themselves as they 
choose; or, rather, have the English the right to inter- 
fere with the form of government, administration, and 
life that the Boers have chosen for themselves ? . . . 
From being applied only to the savage populations of 
Africa and Asia, the principle of the rights of superior 
races and civilizations has come, by a steep incline, to 
mean also that it has reference to countries like the 
Celestial Empire and the Boer Republic. Between the 
Zulus and the Boers, what is the difference ? Ouly one 
of degree. Fine reasoning clears the way for the per- 
petration of any outrage on the liberty and sovereignty 
of minor or weak States." 

" If the Transvaal State is against the development 
of commerce and industry on principle, it is within its 
rights to be so, as much as the United States iu adopt- 
ing the McKinley and Diugley tariffs. . . . The so- 
called prostitution of the law courts to the whims of 
the legislature, does not apply to the ordinary dealings 
of justice in the Transvaal, but to the political situa- 
tion, which, as we have explained, must be governed by 
the principle of the safety of the State." 

And Mr. Karl Blind strikes at a blunder which 
has given to many Americans a wrong concep- 
tion of the entire rights of the case, when he says: 
" And here I feel compelled to declare that violence 
is capped by unbearable cant when the hard-driven 
Republics, around whom the steel net was daily drawn 
tighter, are charged with having brought on this hideous 
war. You drive a man, forsooth, into a corner. You 
hold your fist before his face. You threaten him by 
saying that the sand of the hour-glass is running out, 
and that, unless he makes haste to kneel down, you will 
use other measures against him. You hold your sword 
and gun ready to attack him; and then when he strikes 
a blow, he is, of course, the guilty party ! " 

It only remains to add, for those who hold that 
England here stands for civilization, that she 
is acting neither for her own good nor for 
the good of those whom she attacks, which 
divests her act of all semblance of righteous- 
ness, but is rather impelled by that mammon 
which cannot be served and God be served ; 
while the war itself is a denial of the rights of 
arbitration as of all rights of the weak against 
the strong, and is notice to the world that Great 
Britain, having failed to rule through love, is 
determined to rule by force. If this is Anglo- 
Saxon civilization, the less the world has of it 
the better. WALLACE RICE. 





If we accept Emerson's definition of the poet 
as one who has the power to see the miraculous 
in the common, then " Jess, Bits of Wayside 
Gospel " is true poet-work, although address- 
ing the eye in pages of prose. To the average 
man, vacations taken on horseback with Chi- 
cago as the starting-point, and over country 
roads with little of picturesque and nothing of 
romantic or historic interest, would seem hope- 
lessly barren both in the doing and in the tell- 
ing thereof. But not so when Mr. Jenkin Lloyd 
Jones is the traveller. Well known in the 
pulpit and on the lecture platform for his sym- 
pathy, his eloquence, his unique and vivid "art 
of putting things," these same qualities are at 
their best in describing his experiences in the 
saddle or by the roadside or in some humble 
home where he found food or shelter. 

The place of honor in these sketches, and 
the place of honor in the author's heart, is given 
to the bonny horse " Jess." It is a beautiful 
idyl of friendship between man and beast, and 
when the noble creature "goes down to pain and 
death in her over-sympathetic youth, dying like 
some quadrepedal Keats, from too much life," 
her requiem is sung in words as sincere as they 
are touching. 

" The trees and the flowers, the shaded roadside, the 
happy cattle in the clover fields, the morning song of 
the birds, the searching and far-reaching cry of the 
whip-poor-will, the busy, kind human folk, are still left 
for me in my summer haunts, but I shall ever miss that 
silent companionship that for four summers went with 
me over the hills and dales of Wisconsin, through the 
haunts of busy men, into the solitudes of busier nature. 
Jess, my companion of many hundreds of miles of happy 
travel, will accompany me no more in my quest for 
bodily strength, mental clearness, and spiritual peace. 
Her elastic step will not disturb the morning dew; her 
dainty ear will not catch the noonday hum of the reaper; 
her alert eye will not scan the evening horizon with 
unfeigned anxiety to find the big barn or the country 
hamlet that would give us the hearty meal and well- 
earned slumber of the night. Something has gone 
out of those hills and valleys, out of the world, never 
to return. But Jess abides, at least in one heart made 
more open to fellowship, more tender to suffering, and 
more quick to feel the woes of all sentient beings." 

These sketches being first written and deliv- 
ered as sermons to a Chicago audience, there 
is a decided personal touch felt in all of them. 
But this adds to the interest rather than de- 
tracts from it, as the reader follows the author, 
beholding in him such happy fulfilment of the 

Jones. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

Hillis. Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co. 

old text, "Speak to the earth, and it shall 
teach thee." 

Quite a different book, but one also made 
up of sermons first delivered to a Chicago au- 
dience, is " Great Books as Life Teachers," by 
the Rev. N. D. Hillis. Accepting the fact that 
our generation reads poems, essays, and novels, 
rather than text-books on ethics and morals, 
the author argues that this indicates, not a de- 
cline of interest in fundamental principles 
of right living, but a desire to study these 
principles as they are embodied in living prob- 
lems. Fiction being increasingly the medium 
of amusement and instruction, the great poets 
and essayists having become the prophets of a 
new social order, the preacher takes up in turn 
some of the modern writers in these fields, to 
show that they are consciously or unconsciously 
teachers of morals, that their books are essen- 
tially books of aspiration and spiritual culture. 
John Ruskin, George Eliot, Hawthorne, Victor 
Hugo, Tennyson, and Browning are some of 
the authors to whom Mr. Hillis turns to find 
help for those who would live in the spirit. 
There is no great degree of originality in the 
line of thought or in the conclusions of these 
essays ; but the author has a pleasant and pic- 
turesque style, and a happy gift in the use of 
illustration and comparison that save the book 
from triteness and make it " popular " without 
being trivial. Nearly every subject is treated 
with regard to its relation to other subjects, the 
niches being assigned with ingenuity and often 
with much fitness. For example, a study of 
" Romola " begins thus : 

" After eighteen centuries, the most popular story in 
literature is Christ's story of the prodigal son, a story 
that has fascinated the generations, softened the races, 
and will yet win a wandering world back to its Father's 
side. If the Bible, with its parables, is the book best 
loved by men, next to it stands Pilgrim's Progress,' 
more widely read than any other human book. If 
1 Les Miserables ' exhibits the evolution of conscience, 
' Wilhelm Meister ' the evolution of intellect, and The 
Scarlet Letter ' the evolution of pain and penalty, the 
theme of Romola ' is the evolution of sin, the peril of 
tampering with conscience and the gradual deterioration 
of character." 

Books like the two foregoing show how far 
the modern sermon departs from the old type. 
The earnest and devout preacher to-day keeps 
himself in touch with the interests and thoughts 
of the passing hour. The old-time sermon 
commonly was either an exposition of dogma or 
an exhortation to prepare for the life beyond 
the grave. The modern sermon concerns itself 
with the purpose to make the most of life here 
and now, for ourselves and for others. To this 



[Jan. 16, 

end, the texts are taken not from one book alone 
but from any great book, not from some one 
miraculous event in the long past, but from the 
daily miracle of nature and the universe that is 
visible everywhere to him who has eyes to see. 



Mr. Swinburne breaks a longer silence than usual 
with the publication of his new tragedy in verse. 
It is now three years since his last volume, " The 
Tale of Balen," was given to the world, and the 
fact is painfully suggestive of that slackening of the 
energies that comes with advancing years. For 
this poet, the greatest that remains to us, is fast 
becoming the most venerable also, and we are re- 
minded that his song will not again gush forth with 
the opulent flow of the past. There already stand 
to his account upwards of a score of volumes of the 
noblest poetry to which the English tongue has 
given utterance ; the singer now may well rest con- 
tent with his renown, and with the solitary eminence 
which he has achieved. Whatever further gifts he 
may bestow upon us can add little to the fresh ver- 
dure of his laurel-crown. Yet such a gift as " Rosa- 
mund, Queen of the Lombards " is no mean addi- 
tion to our treasury. It is a creation of beauty far 
beyond the reach of any other man now living, and 
provides the year just ended with its one book 
which we may be certain will remain a permanent 
addition to our literature. The framework of this 
tragedy may be found in Gibbon. It is the story 
of that Rosamund, daughter of the Gepidae, who 

Algernon Charles Swinburne. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

PAOLO AND FKANCESCA. A Tragedy in Four Acts. By 
Stephen Phillips. New York : John Lane. 

DELUSCAR'S MERRIS, and Other Poems. By Horace 
Deluscar. London : Gay & Bird. 

LAUREL LEAVES. By Robert Wilson. Westminster: 
Archibald Constable & Co. 

IN CAP AND BELLS. By Owen Seaman. New York : 
John Lane. 

BEYOND THE HILLS OP DREAM. By W. Wilfrid Campbell. 
Boston : Houghton, Mi ill in & Go. 

A WINTER HOLIDAY. By Bliss Carman. Boston : Small, 
Maynard & Co. 

NORTHLAND LYRICS. By William Carman Roberts, The- 
odore Roberts, and Elizabeth Roberts Macdouald. Boston : 
Small, Maynard & Co. 

WILD EDEN. By George Edward Woodberry. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

LYRICS OF BROTHERHOOD. By Richard Burton. Boston : 
Small, Maynard & Co. 

AT THE WIND'S WILL. Lyrics and Sonnets. By Louise 
Chandler Moulton. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

THE MARTYR'S IDYL, and Shorter Poems. By Louise 
Imogen Guiuey. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Our OF THE NKST. A Flight of Verses. By Mary McNeil 
Fenollosa. Boston : Little, Brown, & Co. 

VOICES. By Katharine Coolidge. Boston : Little, Brown, 

espoused Alboin, the slayer of her father. This 
founder of the Lombard kingdom fell by the hand 
of an assassin, whose deed was instigated by the 
treachery of the queen, taking thus a long-delayed 
vengeance for her father's death. The grim tale 
was peculiarly fitted to be dealt with by Mr. Swin- 
burne, who has invested it with all the pity, terror, 
and tragic irony which it demands. One cannot 
help recalling that another Rosamund was the 
heroine of Mr. Swinburne's first dramatic work of 
what was practically his first poem. The two pieces 
are thus separated by nearly forty years, and a 
comparison between them would prove highly in- 
structive concerning the development of the poet's 
style. This we may not here attempt in full, but 
certain points of contrast should be indicated, for 
which purpose the following extracts will suffice. 
Here speaks the " Rosamund " of 1861 : 
" Fear is a cushion for the feet of love, 
Painted with colors for his ease-taking ; 
Sweet red, and white with wasted blood, and blue 
Most flower-like, and the summer-spoused green 
And sea-betrothed soft purple and burnt black. 
All colored forms of fear, omen, and change, 
Sick prophecy and rumors lame at heel, 
Anticipations and astrologies, 
Perilous inscription and recorded note, 
All these are covered in the skirt of love, 
And when he shakes it these are tumbled forth, 
Beaten and blown i' the dusty face of the air." 

From the " Rosamund " of 1899 we select this pas- 


" Kiss me. Who knows how long the lord of life 
May spare us time for kissing ? Life and love 
Are less than change and death. 


" What ghosts are they ? 
So sweet thou never wast to me before. 
The woman that is God the God that is 
Woman the sovereign of the soul of man, 
Our father's Freia, Venus crowned in Rome, 
Has lent my love her girdle ; but her lips 
Have robbed the red rose of its heart, and left 
No glory for the flower beyond all flowers 
To bid the spring be glad of." 

Here is a contrast indeed ! The exuberance, the 
color, the overwrought imagery, the verbal afflu- 
ence, the Shakespearian diction, of the earlier work 
have vanished, and in their place we have sheer 
simplicity of vocabulary, passion intimated rather 
than expressed, imagery reduced to bare metaphor, 
and a diction wellnigh shorn of all mannerisms. 
Noting the vocabulary alone, we find in the later 
passage only half as many words of more than one 
syllable as are found in the earlier extract. Here 
is a still more striking example of the reduction of 
vocabulary to its lowest terms : 

" I take thine oath. I bid not thee take heed 
That I or thou or each of us at once, 
Couldst thou play false, may die : I bid thee think 
Thy bride will die, shamed. Swear me not again 
She shall not : all our trust is set on thee. 
What eyes and ears are keen about us here 
Thou knowest not. Love, my love and thine for her, 
Shall deafen and shall blind them." 

Here are seventy-four words, of which seventy-one 



are monosyllables. Mr. Swinburne has often been 
charged with a lack of restraint. There is some 
justice in the charge, although far too much has 
been made of it. But whatever may be said of his 
early exuberance, the poem now before us gives 
evidence that he can upon occasion carry restraint 
to its extreme. The new " Rosamund " does not 
readily lend itself to quotation. It is too com- 
pressed, too tense, too dependent upon the dramatic 
situation for illustration by detached fragments. 
The following passage is as quotable as any : 

"Thy voice was honey-hearted music, sweet 
As wine and glad as clarions : not in battle 
Might men have more of joy than I to hear it 
And feel delight dance in my heart and laugh 
Too loud for hearing save its own. Thou rose, 
Why did God give thee more than all thy kin 
Whose pride is perfume only and colour, this ? 
Music ? No rose hut mine sings, and the birds 
Hush all their hearts to hearken." 

The high restraint which characterizes the diction 
of this drama extends also, by implication, to the 
demeanor, to the very gesture, of the actors con- 
cerned. The brooding storm of passion is felt, 
rather than heard or seen, but we are not unpre- 
pared for the supreme moment in which it breaks. 
The inevitable fate of both king and queen is so 
foreshadowed that when it comes upon them in one 
swift last moment of the action, the spirit is not so 
much aroused as calmed, and we echo the words 
with which, as with the final chorus of a Greek 
tragedy, the outcome is characterized in this single 

" Let none make moan. This doom is none of man's." 
Among the younger English poets whose ranks 
we scan when we would know if there be any to 
take the places of the great Victorian singers Mr. 
Stephen Phillips seems to hold out a greater prom- 
ise than any of his compeers. There are some 
critics who, should the poet of " Rosamund " be 
taken from us, would at once raise the cry, " Le 
roy est mort. Vive le roy ! " and would mean by 
that the transferrence of their allegiance to the poet 
of "Paolo and Francesca." It is something of a 
coincidence that these two noteworthy pieces of dra- 
matic verse should have appeared almost simulta- 
neously, and that the youngest of our poets should 
find his name linked thus fortuitously with that of 
our oldest. There is something pleasant to con- 
template in the generous enthusiasm which has 
greeted the work of Mr. Phillips, but a new poet 
is proclaimed in similar fashion every year or two, 
and, remembering many other cases of the same 
sort, the critic who looks before and after will not 
allow his judgment to be stampeded. We have a 
high opinion of the quality of Mr. Phillips's work ; 
parts of it are very fine indeed, and none of the 
younger men exhibit greater promise than is exhib- 
ited by the author of " Marpessa " and " Paolo and 
Francesca." But Mr. Phillips has thus far failed 
to strike a new note. The initial volumes of Ten- 
nyson and Browning and Arnold and Morris and 
Rossetti did strike new notes, and forced a read- 

justment of ideals. The first volume of the " Poems 
and Ballads " struck a new note so startling in its 
sonority that those who heard it have hardly yet 
recovered from the shock. But Mr. Phillips has 
thus far done excellent things only in the manner 
of other poets who have preceded him. His " Paolo 
and Francesca " is a beautiful piece of workman- 
ship, but its beauty comes to us enforced by its asso- 
ciations with the most exquisite episodes of the 
" Divine Comedy," and even with the reflection of 
that episode in the tragedy of Silvio Pellico. The 
poem does not possess a new beauty of its very own. 
It reaches its climax in the scene which approaches 
most closely to its original, the scene of the lovers 
seated together, and reading of " Launcelot how 
love constrained him." It runs as follows : 

PAOLO (reading) . 

" 'Now on that day it chanced that Launcelot, 
Thinking to find the King, found Guenevere 
Alone ; and when he saw her whom he loved ; 
Whom he had met too late, yet loved the more ; 
Such was the tumult at his heart that he 
Could speak not, for her husband was his friend, 
His dear familiar friend : and they two held 
No secret from each other until now ; 
But were like brothers born ' my voice breaks off. 
Read you a little on. 

FKANCESCA (reading). 

' And Guenevere, 

Turning, beheld him suddenly whom she 
Loved in her thought, and even from that hour 
When first she saw him ; for by day, by night, 
Though lying by her husband's side, did she 
Weary for Launcelot, and knew full well 
How ill that love, and yet that love how deep ! ' 
I cannot see the page is dim : read you. 

PAOLO (reading). 

* Now they two were alone, yet could not speak ; 
But heard the beating of each other's hearts. 
He knew himself a traitor but to stay, 
Yet could not stir : she pale and yet more pale 
Grew till she could no more, but smiled on him. 
Then when he saw that wished smile, he came 
Near to her and still near, and trembled ; then 
Her lips all trembling kissed.' 

FBANCESCA (drooping towards him). 

Ah, Launcelot! " 
(He kisses her on the lips.) 

The above is only a diluted restatement of Dante. 

In the following words, placed upon the lips of Paolo, 

Mr. Phillips comes as near to speaking in his own 

voice as the subject will permit. 

" What can we fear, we two ? 
God, Thou seest us Thy creatures bound 
Together by that law which holds the stars 
In palpitating cosmic passion bright ; 
By which the very sun enthrals the earth, 
And all the waves of the world faint to the moon. 
Even by such attraction we two rush 
Together through the everlasting years. 
Us, then, whose only pain can be to part, 
How wilt Thou punish ? For what ecstasy 
Together to be blown about the globe ! 
What rapture in perpetual fire to burn 
Together ! where we are is endless fire. 
There centuries shall in a moment pass, 
And all the cycles in one hour elapse ! 
Still, still together, even when faints Thy sun, 
And past our souls Thy stars like ashes fall, 
How wilt Thou punish us who cannot part ? " 



[Jan. 16, 

It remains to state that the drama by Mr. Phillips 
is intended for actual performance, and will be pro- 
duced at an early date by Mr. George Alexander. 
It is a promising sign of the times when a literary 
production of this high order of merit finds accept- 
ance at the hands of practically minded theatrical 

In turning from these noble works to " Deluscar's 
Merris and Other Poems " we turn from poetry to 
bathos and from the exalted to the commonplace. 
The volume is a stout one, but a dreary waste to 
the seeker after beauty. To this writer the modern 
world is decidedly out of joint. He discourses of 
it through many pages in the following strain : 

" Oh ! how it sickens me to read the rot 
About those ancient Greek and Eoman frauds ! 
One of our men could tie ten in a knot, 
Out-art their cleverest, choicest sculptured gauds. 
Here, if it paid, new Shakespeares would arise 
In his time fortunes were by poets made ; 
Now individual merit starving lies, 
Nothing goes down but sordid, swindling trade." 

Although our writer affects the form of the Shake- 
spearian sonnet, it is quite clear that he is no new 
Shakespeare arisen. 

There are noticeable technical defects in the 
" Laurel Leaves" of Mr. Robert Wilson. The entire 
octave of one sonnet is built upon the theory that 
the second syllable of Beethoven bears the accent ; 
quantity is ignored in 

"The grand matutinal anthem when the sphere 
Was first upon its orbit hurled along," 

and an excellent memorial tribute is ruined by the 
closing verse, 

"Thou noble type of Christian ladyhood." 
But in spite of such faults as these, the total im- 
pression is pleasing, although the verse is of a sort 
that almost any cultivated person might have writ- 
ten. The following sonnet ' To My Wife " may be 
selected for our quotation. 

" There came upon my soul a sacred awe 
When first I won thy maiden tenderness ; 
My very heart arose in me to bless 

All that on earth or sea or air I saw, 

And dear to me is still the breath I draw 

Through that blest moment, nor is love the less 
For all our mingled joy and bitterness 

Since first we lived beneath its holy law. 

Two little graves are side by side on earth ; 

Two little stars are added to our skies ; 
And children's voices ring around our hearth ; 

And Love, reflected from their kindred eyes, 
First Love, springs up again in second birth 

And steals the golden key of paradise." 

Mr. Wilson's poems are mainly impressions of 
travel and memorial verses. Among the latter, there 
is a notable group of sonnets in which the author 
expresses his love and reverence for Dr. Martineau, 
to whom the book is dedicated " in memorial of a 
friendship which has been the consecration of my 
life and of its poetic aspirations. " 

Mr. Owen Seaman's new collection of parodies 
and other humorous pieces, while not quite equal in 
brilliancy to " The Battle of the Bays," does not 

fall far behind that inimitable volume. He is almost 
entitled to wear the mantle of C. S. C., and that 
is saying much. Mr. Austin, Mr. Meredith, Mr. 
Phillips, and Mr. Swinburne are among the victims 
of his good-natured jesting. Which of them is 
aimed at in the following stanza we do not need to 
specify : 

" For the Silly Season is past and over, 

Gone with the equinoctial gales ; 
That sinuous hoax, the hoar sea-rover, 

Curbs the pride of his prancing scales ; 
And the giant gooseberry misbegotten 
Lies in the limbs of all things rotten, 
The savour that clings to last year's clover, 
The loves that follow the light that fails." 

Nor do we need to name the poet parodied in the 
ode apropos of the affaire which closes thus : 

" Like sails of a galleon, rudder hard amort 
With crepitant mast 

Fronting the hazard to dare of a dual blast 
The intern and the extern, blizzards both." 

This, written for an Omar Khayyam Club dinner, 
is also rather good : 

" Master, in memory of that Verse of Thine, 
And of Thy rather pretty taste in Wine, 
We gather at this jaded Century's end. 
Our Cheeks, if so we may, to incarnadine. 

"Thou hast the kind of Halo which outstays 
Most other Genii's. Though a Laureate's bays 

Should slowly crumple up, Thou livest on, 
Having survived a certain Paraphrase. 

" The Lion and the Alligator squat 
In Dervish Courts the Weather being hot 
Under Umbrellas. Where is Mahmud now ? 
Plucked by the Kitchener and gone to Pot." 

We have the usual contribution of Canadian 
verse to our present garnering of recent poetry, 
three volumes being easily entitled to mention. The 
first of them shall be Mr. Wilfrid Campbell's " From 
the Hills of Dream." What we like particularly 
about most of these singers from over the border is 
their deep sense of natural beauty, their joyous 
fellowship with woods and meadows, with mountains 
and skies. Few of our own poets have these qual- 
ities in like degree with Messrs. Roberts and Car- 
man and Scott and Campbell, or with the late 
Archibald Lampman. They offer us an interpre- 
tation of nature which, vivid in its realism, is yet 
intensely spiritualized. How etching-like in its line 
is such a picture as this : 

"I thread the uplands where the wind's footfalls 
Stir leaves in gusty hollows, autumn's urns. 
Seaward the river's shining breast expands, 
High in the windy pines a lone crow calls, 
And far below some patient ploughman turns 
His great black furrow over steaming lands." 

The poem on " September in the Laurentian Hills " 
will serve further to illustrate our thesis: 

" Already Winter in his sombre round, 

Before his time hath touched these hills austere 
With lonely flame. Last night, without a sound. 

The ghostly frost walked out by wood and mere. 
And now the sumach curls his frond of fire, 

The aspen-tree reluctant drops his gold, 
And down the gullies the North's wild vibrant lyre 

Rouses the bitter armies of the cold. 




" O'er this short afternoon the night draws down. 

With ominous chill, across these regions bleak ; 
Wind-beaten gold, the sunset fades around 

The purple loneliness of crag and peak, 
Leaving the world an iron house wherein 
Nor love nor life nor hope hath ever been." 

Equally lovely, although in a far different fashion, 

is the following tender lyric : 

" Love came at dawn when all the world was fair, 

When crimson glories, bloom, and song were rife ; 
Love came at dawn when hope's wings fanned the air 

And murmured, ' I am life.' 

"Love came at even when the day was done, 

When heart and brain were tired, and slumber pressed ; 
Love came at eve, shut out the sinking sun, 
And whispered, ' I am rest.' " 

Many of Mr. Campbell's poems are of more ambi- 
tious flight than those we have quoted, but he finds 
his truest inspiration in simple scenes and themes. 
His volume is one to be treasured for its beauty and 
elevated feeling. 

Mr. Bliss Carman has sought alien shores, even 
those of the Bahamas, for the inspiration of " A 
Winter Holiday." The book is of the thinnest, and 
counts only seven numbers in its contents. South 
Sea islands are pleasant things to think about at 
this season of the year, and such lines as these are 
certainly enticing : 

" Through the lemon-trees at leisure a tiny olive bird 
Moves all day long and utters his wise assuring word ; 
While up in their blue chantry murmur the solemn palms, 
At their litanies of joyance, their ancient ceaseless psalms. 

" There in the endless sunlight, within the surf's low sound, 
Peace tarries for a lifetime at doorways unrenowned ; 
And a velvet air goes breathing across the sea-girt land, 
Till the sense begins to waken and the soul to understand." 

This is pretty, at least, but it is nothing to what 
Mr. Carman has done in the past, or what we still 
hope he may accomplish in the future. 

Mr. Carman, it is generally known, is a cousin of 
Mr. C. G. D. Roberts, who occupies the foremost 
place in the group of young Canadian poets. What 
is not generally known, however, is that poetical 
talent is the common inheritance of all the Roberts 
family. The volume of " Northland Lyrics," now 
before us, gives convincing evidence of this propo- 
sition, for it is the joint work of one sister and two 
brothers of Mr. C. G. D. Roberts. " Beyond the Hills" 
is a poem by Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts Macdonald. 

" The daffodils fling far the flag of Spring, 

Their golden troop the garden-fortress fills, 
And bird-throat bugles greet the days that bring 

The daffodils. 
" Over the hills the Summer comes at last ; 

But sad the light and sad the laughing rills, 
And sad the golden flowers since he has passed 
Beyond the hills." 

Mr. Theodore Roberts is the author of a "Lament " 
inscribed to the memory of Archibald Lampman. 
We quote the first half of this poem : 

" His was not the glory of the shattering of spears ; 
He did not cross his sword with Death, where scarlet flags 

are hurled, 
But Death came to him softly, with his dark eyes dim with 

And broke a dream of woodland-ways across a singing world. 

"So doff your hats, good poet-men, 
No fingers lift the fallen pen ! 
The sun forgets to mark the time 
Without the music of his rhyme." 

Finally, Mr. William Carman Roberts bids us select 
from upwards of a score of his pieces these two 
stanzas of the lyric, " At the Heart's Cry ": 

"Till the black-crimson petals of that night 
Drew down to the gold vortex of strange dreams 
My soul and body, wearied of the fight 
Of far ideals and clashing fierce desires, 
I was as one struck blind by life's sweet light 
And deafened by a myriad singing fires. 

"So was I glad when night's deep velvet rose 
Closed over me and hid me from myself ; 
As on my northern hills the first soft snows 
From grey skies brooding like an angel's wing, 
Compassionate, where the last lorn maple glows, 
Blot out all sad remembrances of Spring." 

These three lovely poems are fairly illustrative of 
their fellows. The collection as a whole is a really 
astonishing exhibition of talent, fine feeling, and 
melodious utterance. It has a foreword in verse by 
the brother, and an afterword by the cousin, of the 
three new poets. 

After a silence of several years, Mr. G. E. Wood- 
berry has published a second volume of verse. But 
" The North Shore Watch " hardly led us to antici- 
pate "Wild Eden." There was in the earlier vol- 
ume a manner of severe restraint, almost of aus- 
terity, and this is replaced in the later one by a 
wilding note and an outpouring of melodious rapture 
so free that a new poet seems to address us rather 
than the old one. The charm of these songs is as 
great as it is indefinable. Something of the dewy 
freshness of the Elizabethan music seems to be re- 
echoed in these exquisite lyrics, and yet the modern 
touch la maladie de lapensee is too evident to 
make this illusion more than fleeting. But whether 
the art be old or new, it is well-nigh perfect when 
it finds such expression as " The Secret." 

"Nightingales warble about it 

All night under blossom and star ; 
The wild swan is dying without it, 

And the eagle cryeth afar ; 
The sun, he doth mount but to find it, 

Searching the green earth o'er ; 
But more doth a man's heart mind it 

O more, more, more ! 

" Over the gray leagues of ocean 

The infinite yearneth alone ; 
The forests with wandering emotion 

The thing they know not intone ; 
Creation arose but to see it, 

A million lamps in the blue ; 
But a lover, he shall be it, 

If one sweet maid is true." 

This is pure song touched with imagination. The 
imaginative element is still finer and more marked 
in such a poem as " The Sea-Shell," of which we 
quote the closing stanza : 

" mystic Love ! that so can take 
The bright world in thy hands, 
And its imprisoned spirits make 
Murmur at thy commands ; 



[Jan. 16, 

As if, in truth, this orb of law 

Were but thy reed-hung nest, 
Woven by Time of sticks and straw 

To house the summer guest ; 
And so to me the starry sphere 

Is but love's frail sea-shell ; 
0, might she press it to her ear, 

What would its murmurs tell ! " 

Mr. Woodberry's inspiration is his own, as far as 
this is possible in the case of a writer whose thought 
is steeped in the work of the older poets. That it 
should be absolutely unsuggestive of his predecessors 
would be too much to expect. So we are not sur- 
prised to find familiar cadences here and there, the 
Tennysonian cadence, for example, in these lines : 
"O, hidden-strange as on dew-heavy lawns 

The warm dark scents of summer-fragrant dawns ; 

O, tender as the faint sea-changes are, 

When grows the Sush and pales the snow-white star ; 

So strange, so tender, to a maid is love." 

" Seaward," the long poem which closes the volume, 
is the one most suggestive of a model, or at least of 
a recollection. Its first line, 

" I will go down to the hoar sea's infinite foam," 
instantly brings to mind Mr. Swinburne's 

" I will go back to the great sweet mother, 
Mother and lover of men, the sea." 

Again and again the suggestion recurs, now of " The 
Triumph of Time," now of the " Hymn to Proser- 
pine," now of " Hesperia." We find it here, 
" Of the flush of the bough, of the fragrance of woods, of 

the moan of the dove 
Weary and weary of passion and thrice, thrice weary of 

And here, 
"I will seek thy blessed shelter, deep bosom of sun and 

From the fever and fret of the earth and the things that debase 

and deform ; 

For I am thine, from of old thou didst lay me, a child, at rest 
In thy cradle of many waters, and gav'st to my hunger thy 


And yet again here, as the end of the poem is ap- 
"Man-grown, I will seek thy healing; though from worse 

than death I fly. 

Not mine the heart of the craven, not here I mean to die I 
Let me taste on my lips thy salt, let me live with the sun and 

the rain, 
Let me lean to the rolling wave and feel me a man again." 

But these suggestions do not mar our enjoyment of 
" Seaward," which is a very beautiful poem, and, if 
it could not hope to catch all the music of " Hes- 
peria," it has music enough to remain ringing in 
our ears as the volume is reluctantly closed and put 

Neatness and precision of expression, rather than 
poetical phrasing, are the characteristics of Mr. 
Richard Burton's " Lyrics of Brotherhood," a thin 
volume of mostly short pieces. The following is a 
typical example : 

"A flash of the lightning keen ! 

And lo ! we know that, miles on miles, 
The dim, lost land is lying green. 

It brims our heart with joy, the whiles, 

To see that through the thick night-screen 

Full many a meadow smiles and smiles. 

" A flash from the poet's brain ! 

The meaning of the many years, 
That mazeful seemed, grows very plain ; 

The level lands of gloom and tears 
Hint holy heights, turn bright again ; 

The night a transient thing appears." 

Mr. Burton is always a pleasing and thoughtful 
writer, but philosophy is too apt to usurp the place 
of song in his verse. 

Among the women singers of our country there 
is none whose work gives more satisfaction than that 
of Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton. It is sure to be 
tender in conception and artistic in finish. If Mrs. 
Moulton's instrument be a flute rather than a violin, 
the exquisite purity of its tone is beyond question, 
although it cannot bestow the rich measure of sen- 
suous delight that other instruments afford. The 
best flute music becomes monotonous if we hear too 
much of it at one sitting, and Mrs. Moulton's new 
volume is not one to be read through at a sitting, 
but rather one into which to dip when the mood is 
properly receptive. It is made up of lyrics, sonnets, 
quatrains, and translations. The sonnets have all 
the purity of the other pieces, and some measure of 
richness as well. " At Rest " is a typical example. 

" Shall I lie down to sleep, and see no more 
The splendid pageantry of earth and sky 
The proud procession of the stars sweep by ; 

The white moon sway the sea, and woo the shore ; 

The morning lark to the far Heaven soar ; 

The nightingale with the soft dusk draw nigh ; 
The summer roses bud, and bloom, and die 

Will Life and Life's delight for me be o'er ? 

" Nay ! I shall be, in my low silent home, 
Of all Earth's gracious ministries aware 
Glad with the gladness of the risen day, 
Or gently sad with sadness of the gloam, 
Yet done with striving, and foreclosed of care 
At rest at rest ! What better thing to say ? " 

We must quote also this exquisite translation of the 
French verses to which George Du Maurier gave 
such wide popularity a few years ago. 

" Ah, brief is Life, 

Love's short, sweet way, 
With dreaming 's rife. 
And then Good-day ! 

"And Life is vain 

Hope's vague delight, 
Grief's transient pain, 
And then Good-night ! " 

There is a marked contrast between the volume 
just noticed and Miss Guiney's "The Martyr's Idyl, 
and Shorter Poems." If the tendency of the former 
was toward a sweetness well-nigh cloying and the 
gentle melancholy of subdued utterance, the ten- 
dency of the latter is rather toward heightened 
passion and something like asperity of expression. 
The larger titular poem is a legend from the Acta 
Sanctorum, dramatically told, and concerned with 
a " Virgin Martyr " whose story is not unlike that 
of the Elizabethan tragedy and Mr. Swinburne's 
poem. Among the shorter poems we find nothing 
more quotable than the set of sapphics entitled 
" Charista Musing." 




" Moveless, on the marge of a sunny cornfield, 
Rapt in sudden revery while thou standest, 
Like the sheaves, in beautiful Doric yellow 
Clad to the ankle, 

" Oft to thee with delicate hasty footstep 
So I steal, and suffer because I find thee 
Only flown, and only a fallen feather 
Left of ray darling. 

" Give me back thy wakening breath, thy ringlets 
Fragrant as the vine of the bean in blossom, 
And those eyes of violet dusk and daylight 
Under sea-water, 

" Eyes too far away, and too full of longing ! 
Yes : and go not heavenward where I lose thee, 
Go not, go not whither I cannot follow, 
Being but earthly, 

" Willing swallow poised upon my finger, 
Little wild-wing ever from me escaping, 
For the care thou art to me, I thy lover 
Love thee, and fear thee." 

This is charming, but not exactly typical, for Miss 
Guiney's inspiration is mainly spiritual, and religious 
mysticism is the fundamental note of her song. She 
is more truthfully represented by this D.O. M. prayer. 

" All else for use, one only for desire ; 
Thanksgiving for the good, but thirst for Thee : 
Up from the best, whereof no man need tire, 
Impel thou me. 

" Delight is menace, if Thou brood not by, 
Power a quicksand, Fame a gathering jeer. 
Oft as the morn (though none of earth deny 
These three are dear), 

" Wash me of them, that I may be renewed, 
Nor wall in clay my agonies and joys : 

close my hand upon Beatitude ! 
Not on her toys." 

" Out of the Nest," by Miss Mary McNeil Fen- 
ollosa, is a volume of graceful fancies and snatches 
of song, divided about equally between oriental and 
occidental themes. From the former category we 
select this invocation to Fujisan : 

" thou divine, remote, ineffable ! 
Thou cone of visions based on level sea, 
Thou ache of joy in pale eternity, 
Thou gleaming pearl in night's encrusted shell, 
Thou frozen ghost, thou crystal citadel, 
Heart-hushed I gaze, until there seems to be 
Nothing in heaven or earth, but thee and me ; 

1 the faint echo, thou the crystal bell." 

This accumulation of metaphors is rather effective, 
and serves well to illustrate the writer's style. Of 
the occidental pieces (so-called because they are not 
oriental), the verses entitled " Roses " are as pretty 
as any. 

" What shall I send to my sweet to-night ? 
Roses of yellow, or pink, or white ? 

Gold for her smile, and her sunny hair ? 

Pink for the flush that her cheeks will wear ? 

White for her soul, and the secrets there ? 

" Which shall she lay on her breast of snow ? 

Is it a prophecy ? Weal or woe ? 
Yellow for gold, and the world's decree ! 
Pink for a love and its ecstasy ! 
White for the robe of a saint to be ! 

" Strange, how I shrink from the frail design ! 

'Tis but a fancy, a whim of mine. 
Fate does not come at a lover's call, 
To lurk in the rose of a girl's first ball. 
I think I '11 take violets, after all." 

The religious note is dominant in the " Voices " 
of Mrs. Katharine Coolidge (who is, by the way, a 
daughter of Francis Parkman), but their tonic (in 
more senses than one) is a note of joyous acceptance 
of the whole of life, its buffets no less than its favors. 
The very first page sounds this clarion call to the 

" Awake ! Fear not the perilled heights of strife 1 

Great love and joy ; strong suffering and sin, 

With strenuous, upreaching vision, rise 

Beyond the veil, lifting us on to win 

Possession of the power that purifies ; 

Flame leaps to flame, and God hath given thee life ! " 

Again we are told that 

" Life to know life must pass through shades of death, 
Night touches day, and near to heaven is hell. 
Sinner or saint then, he who dauntless gives 
His heart's blood to the world, supremely lives." 

And still again we read : 

" Give thanks to Life if thou art tempest-hurled 
Through the abyss to feel the pulsing world ! 
Of joy and pain reborn, thy life shall be, 
The boundless silence compassing the earth, 
The love that blossoms in the springtide's birth, 
The vibrant force of the far-shining sea." 

In other moods, however, the strenuous spiritual 
life that is voiced in the foregoing extracts gives 
place to the plea for quietism, a plea made many 
times in the course of this volume, and not infre- 
quently with the exquisite grace of these lines to 
" Dreamland." 

"0 holy Hypnos, listen to my prayer: 
Touch my closed eyelids with thy magic wand, 
That I may seek far bourns of Lethe's land, 
And find the key of vision hidden there, 
Dreamily drifting through the hazy blue, 
To palaces where all that seems is true. 

" There dwell pure spirits of the forms on earth : 
The whispered secret of the woods at even, 
White flame of stars that glow in highest heaven, 
The arcana of the springtide's wonder-birth ; 
The lily's heart, the rainbow's mystery, 
And the deep anthem of the encircling sea." 

This volume of " Voices " is characterized through- 
out by beautiful expression of the higher spiritual 
sort, as well as by a verse-technique that leaves little 
to be desired. WILLIAM MORTON PAYNE. 

The Puritan 
as colonist 
and reformer. 


In the book entitled " The Puritan as 
a Colonist and Reformer " ( Little, 
Brown, & Co.), Mr. Ezra Hoyt 
Byington delivers a plain and unvarnished account 
of the Puritan in the double capacity indicated. 
This account is appreciative but not extravagant. 
While making it very clear that the Puritan, in 
respect to political, civil, and religious freedom, was 
in advance, and much in advance, of his time, Mr. 
Byington makes it equally plain that he had his 
unpleasant limitations. For example, he introduces 
his account of the treatment of the Quakers and 
Baptists in Massachusetts with this frank admission : 
" Among the weaknesses and inconsistencies of the 



[Jan. 16, 

Puritans, we must place their treatment of those 
who differed with them. They were very earnest 
in claiming liberty for themselves, but the majority 
of them were not willing to concede the same lib- 
erty to others." This is the plain fact, and no parad- 
ing of the extravagancies of the Quakers or of the 
Baptists can obscure it. Among the best chapters 
of the book, because the least hackneyed, are those 
on " John Eliot, the Apostle to the Indians," " Jona- 
than Edwards and the Great Awakening," and 
" Shakespeare and the Puritans," the first being the 
best of the three. It gives us a moving picture of 
the heroic effort made by John Eliot and his asso- 
ciates and compeers to Christianize the Indians of 
New England, and the utter failure in which, after 
a period of strong encouragement, the effort ended. 
The " praying Indians " never recovered from the 
effects of King Philip's War, in which they were 
ground between the upper and nether millstones ; 
but there is, we fear, small reason to think that the 
result would have been different if that war had 
never been. The chapter on " The Great Awak- 
ening " would be better if there were more of it. 
Some matters should have been included that are 
not. Much, for example, is laid at the door of the 
"half- way covenant," but we are not told what 
the half-way covenant was, and not all of us are 
theological scholars. Then we think the writer 
should have made more of his opportunity to show 
the effect upon practice of fundamental theories in 
connection with native traits of character. He cor- 
rectly attributes much of the irreligion prevailing 
just before the Great Awakening to the extreme 
form of Calvinistic theology that prevailed, but 
there is much more in the matter than he has brought 
out. The chapter on Shakespeare, while in no sense 
profound, will be informing to many readers, and 
interesting to still more. The book is a useful con- 
tribution to the extensive literature of this great 

Cromwell at Lieut.-Colonel T. S. Baldock, R.A., 

matter of the furnishes the fifth volume of the 

"Wolseley Series," in his "Crom- 
well as a Soldier " (imported by Scribner). As the 
title indicates, the work is primarily adapted to the 
student of military history, or to the ambitious tac- 
tician ; yet so clear are its accounts of manoeuvers 
even in detail, and so delightful its narrative style, 
that one unfamiliar with military technicalities may 
read it with understanding and interest. Prelim- 
inary to the real matter, however, a brief outline 
of the military organization of England before the 
civil war is given, together with an account of the 
battles antecedent to Cromwell's appearance upon 
the field. The bulk of the work is devoted to a 
careful examination into Cromwell's organization of 
the New Model, and a logical analysis of those ac- 
tions in which he had a personal share. Basing his 
arguments upon his own clear deductions then, 
Colonel Baldock credits Cromwell's victories almost 
solely to his ability as an organizer and tactician : 

a conclusion quite new to readers of the civil war 
historical period. Without exception, the political 
historians of the times lay stress upon the religious 
enthusiasm of the New Model as the cause of vic- 
tories, in which Cromwell's indirect share is due to 
his discovery of the fanatically religious soldier. 
To this, Colonel Baldock says : " Stern fanatics as 
were his troopers, their victories were won, not by 
superior enthusiasm, but by superior organization 
and military training." In support of this, it is 
shown that Cromwell's discipline was extreme, that 
his understanding of correct tactical principles was 
far beyond that of any other man of his time, and 
that the distinct advance made in the efficiency of 
the cavalry arm of the service during the civil war 
was due entirely to the military genius of its com- 
mander-in-chief. The period was, in fact, one in 
which the art of warfare was rapidly changing. The 
professional soldier was disappearing before the 
citizen warrior a patriot who desired the end of 
the war rather than to prolong it. Thus the age 
of maneuvers and of sieges was succeeded by the 
sharp attack and the decisive victory. In this ren- 
aissance period of the art of war, the author regards 
Cromwell as the best exponent of the new method, 
and indeed as an innovator whose real genius in 
war explained his wonderful successes. The reader 
is indebted to Colonel Baldock's work for refresh- 
ing light upon the character as well as the achieve- 
ments of the master spirit of the Commonwealth. 
He learns not alone to appreciate and admire the 
military sagacity of the general, but he cannot help 
an added enthusiasm for the man, whose real great- 
ness in war shows a breadth of mind which makes 
him the less a bigot in religion. 

The charm of bygone manners and 
customs, bygone superstititions, by- 
gone imaginings, and bygone ideals, 
makes a great deal of the pleasure to be had from 
Mr. Clyde Furst's little volume, " A Group of Old 
Authors " (George W. Jacobs & Co.). The five 
separate studies, used before publication as popular 
lectures, concern themselves with John Donne, the 
mediaeval story of Griselda, the voyages of St. 
Brendan and Maelduin, Aldhelrn, and the Beowulf. 
In the first, the author essays the difficult task of 
making his readers realize the poetic qualities of 
the verse of a man of whom the world knows little, 
many-sided genius though he was. Donne the man 
was a stronger figure than Donne the poet, and our 
author's appreciative study does not make our 
interest in his verse more than merely intellectual. 
The second of the articles is a brief retelling of the 
tenth story of the " Decameron," the clerk's tale 
from Chaucer, followed by an account of the vari- 
ous other forms which the story took in the Middle 
Ages. Both Tennyson and Matthew Arnold made 
use of the material of which the next study treats, 
and the legend is of peculiar interest, both because 
of its spread in different forms among European 
peoples, and because of the human feeling of which 







it is an expression. It is a story of miraculous ad- 
ventures met with in the search for fabled islands 
of the western seas, symbols of those things toward 
which man's aspiration looks with eternal longing. 
Though they have clearly come from some such 
place, these little studies are all of them free from 
any unpleasant suggestions of the scholar's work- 
room. They will not, perhaps, have a very large 
audience, but so much of the glow and color of old 
times is in them that they might well have. The 
Beowulf story, told in simple nineteenth century 
prose, should interest anyone, and the time is com- 
ing when the legends and myths of our own Anglo- 
Saxon ancestors will be of equal importance in our 
eyes with those of Greece and Rome. Mr. Furst's 
volume is in part an attempt to popularize them, 
and, while dealing with facts and so marshalling 
them as to prepare for scholarly conclusions from 
them, he has been concerned mainly to entertain 
his readers with some things well worth knowing. 
The book should while away a pleasant hour or two, 
and leave the reader a little richer in love and lore 
of old-time poesy and story. 

An argument Though not disguising in the least 
for abandoning the fact that the only reason the 
American ideal,. United States can find for departing 
from its old traditions is a mercenary one, Professor 
Charles Waldstein's volume on " The Expansion of 
Western Ideals " (John Lane) is a labored attempt 
to justify aggression and conquest under the plea 
that the time has come for us to be like Great 
Britain in colonizing localities remote from our own 
national domain. To do this, he is compelled to 
ignore the fact that this country is a democracy, 
and that it has domestic problems of the gravest 
moment wholly unsolved at home, just as he ignores 
the dealings of white Americans through our his- 
tory with the the Indian, the Negro, and the Alas- 
kan native. In exchange for our policy of unen- 
tangled peace, he offers the glittering bauble of an 
alliance with Great Britain, and a " world's peace" 
of which we and our new allies are to be the self- 
constituted guardians. If we fail to do this, we 
are warned that we shall be shut out of the world's 
commerce in after years, nothing being said of 
the shutting of ourselves from the world's commerce 
during a long generation. There are but two forces 
on the earth, Professor Waldstein avers, the British 
and the Russians ; and the time is at hand when 
we, like the Bezonian, must array ourselves under 
one king or the other, must " speak, or die ! " It 
need hardly be said that nothing more is promised 
us than increased commerce, except the possibility 
of our colonial administration becoming so excellent 
that it will drive us at home to better government 
the lesson of the Reconstruction era in the South 
and the recent letting down of the civil service be- 
ing ignored. Finally, it is to be distinctly under- 
stood from the entire book that the " expansion " 
to which the writer would see our " western ideals " 
subjected is the laying off all American ideals and 

substituting for them a complete suit of the British 
ideals to which his long residence in an English 
university has accustomed him. 

The " Letters of Sidney Lanier " 
(Scribner) are arranged in four 
groups, one on musical topics, writ- 
ten to his wife, and the remainder the result of three 
literary friendships. Most of the letters have been 
printed in various magazine articles, but have never 
before appeared as a collection. They furnish data 
of Lanier's life between 1866 and 1881, and evince 
its cheerfulness in the midst of depressing surround- 
ings, and its exquisite response to the best in music 
and in art. The letters to his wife reveal the inmost 
man, as the others do the inner. As the series of 
letters comprising his correspondence with Mr. Pea- 
cock progresses, one reads the story too brief, 
indeed of a friend who could never have been 
disappointing to his earliest avowed appreciator, as 
also it is plain that Mr. Peacock was no disappoint- 
ment to him. Lanier the man shows larger ^han 
Lanier the poet : his delicate sympathy and fine nobil- 
ity of character are here clearly cut as in silhouette. 
The letters bear witness to Lanier's gratitude for 
worthy suggestions, social opportunity, and the 
friendship of other poets, blessings brought within 
his reach by the generous critic-editor. The third 
section of the book gives letters that passed between 
Bayard Taylor and Lanier ; and if the reader here 
feels that the younger poet was giving more, in the 
mutual giving, than his older world-worn friend, 
the wealth of friendship and tender solicitude with 
which Lanier was endowed appear all the more 
clearly. The last group comprises letters to Paul 
Hamilton Hayne, illustrating the warm feeling be- 
tween the two poets, together with Lanier's detailed 
criticism and praise of Hayne's verses, and contain- 
ing the interesting avowal that music, not poetry, 
was the main interest of Lanier's life. Sad as were 
the external facts of Lanier's existence, involving 
poverty, ill health, and anxiety, and unreconciled 
to his early death as many lovers of his work must 
be, one cannot but feel, while reading the record 
these letters give, that here was a man who con- 
quered, who passed out of life a victor. 

In a little volume of delightful inter- 
est, "Jane Austen, Her Contempo- 
raries and Herself" (Longmans), 
Mr. Walter Herries Pollock talks sympathetically 
of Jane Austen, the woman and her art, considered 
with reference to the work of Miss Burney, Miss 
Edgeworth, and Miss Ferrier. The book is a piece 
of discriminating and careful criticism, written in 
an easy conversational vein that only occasionally 
loses its sparkle by a parenthetical or other slipshod 
expression. Perhaps few of us have so great an 
interest in Jane Austen as our author fancies, and 
perhaps, in spite of Scott's encomiums and Macau- 
lay's praise, she is not quite so near to Shakespeare 
as he would have us believe. It is true that more 

A comparative 
study of 
Jane Austen. 



[Jan. 16, 

art is required for the portraying of commonplace 
characters than for the delineation of striking indi- 
vidualities ; but, granting that Miss Austen's char- 
acters are at once commonplace and well-painted, 
must it not occur to the critic, even in this age of 
realism, that an author who presents only people 
already familiar to us is lacking in artistic judg- 
ment? Prose fiction is of interest to us because it 
appeals to our emotions ; but it should also enlarge 
our experience both of persons and places. Modern 
readers are not content to find pleasure in a novel 
by reason of their ability to verify the characters 
through their own memories as they go along. It 
is refreshing, however, to have Mr. Pollock's assur- 
ance that Miss Austen's figures were never photo- 
graphic reproductions, for we are a little tired of 
the camera, and are glad to be reminded that in the 
days of " Pride and Prejudice " the snap-shot was 
unknown. All in all, the book is pleasantly written, 
presents fairly the artistic qualities of Miss Aus- 
ten's work without ignoring her limitations, and 
adds .some very pertinent comment on the relation 
of her writings to those of her contemporaries. 

An expounder The recent publication of Mr. Joel 
ofthepoetry Benton's "In the Poe Circle" has 
of Emenon. brought again into notice his two 
essays on " Emerson as a Poet," originally published 
in 1882, and now reissued (Mansfield & Wessels), 
with the useful selected bibliography brought up to 
date, and with the partial concordance by Mr. Ken- 
nedy. The undertaking to extend the circle of the 
readers of Emerson's poetry is commendable, and 
such critical judgments as the following, permeated 
with the writer's enthusiasm and illustrated with 
liberal quotation from the poems, may well have 
this result. Emerson, like Browning, says the critic, 
is obscure, but his dimness " seems more directly a 
necessary incident, and less an invention." " May 
he not at least be placed along with Browning?" 
The admirer cannot furnish the indifferent with the 
seeing eye and the hearing ear, needed to appre- 
ciate justly " the most pure, aerial and divinely 
souled poetry since Shakespeare's music became 
measured and still." Mr. Benton defends Emer- 
son's alleged technical deficiency, finding beauties 
where others see flaws. Though of Oriental con- 
tent, this poetry is essentially Northern and Gothic, 
and is marked by high majesty and solemnity, even 
by religious sanctity. There is " a constant relation 
to the breadth of some endless horizon." The reader 
need not agree with every dictum of Mr. Benton's ; 
but if he takes Emerson's poems from their shelf 
to read them anew, the critic will have proved his 

The way of the world is to atone for 
past injustice to genius by raising 
in after generations an altar bearing 
the name of the unappreciated one, who now is 
exalted to god-like proportions. Poe's fame is just 
now experiencing a season of deification. Since the 

More of the 
of Poe. 

celebration at the University of Virginia of the 
semi-centennial of the poet's death, nothing is too 
good to be said of him, even though some of the 
saying is ill-judged. Unless the search for exact 
truth which is the distinguishing mark of the present 
age shall disappear, we may hope some day to 
possess a wholly accurate as well as wholly sympa- 
thetic biography of this cloud-enshrouded contem- 
porary, and also (although already Mr. Stedman 
has largely furnished this) an estimate of his work 
which, while sacrificing nothing of the enthusiasm 
due to native ability, shall at the same time shun 
unqualified laudation. Meanwhile we must put up 
with essay-writing that proceeds as if, once for all, 
a man had been found without human limitations. 
Perhaps it is hardly fair thus to introduce Mr. 
Henry Austin's historical and critical commentary, 
accompanying three volumes of the " Raven " edi- 
tion of Poe's selected tales (Fenno). And yet under 
these comments lies the assumption, which rears its 
head high on occasion, that when all is said there 
is no other writer, certainly no other writer of his 
time, worthy of comparison with him who was at 
the same time a Baltimorean and " a Bostonian." 
One suspects the breadth of such a critic's reading, 
as one is made certain of the carelessness of the 
critic's style, despite his facility in making a telling 
phrase. The historical setting of the tales is given 
with frequent suggestiveness, and, after all, pardon 
should be ready for the fault of loving too much. 

Poe's psychology Professor J. P. Fruit has read and 
as studied in re-read the whole of Poe's poetry, 

his poetry. together with what principles of po- 

etic criticism Poe himself has enunciated. He has 
also consulted masters of the critic's art like Pater 
and Coleridge. He has intended to absorb the 
whole of Poe's poetic spirit, and for the time being 
declares that he has shut out all rival authors. If 
it is indeed sufficient to record subjective impres- 
sions, then the author of " The Mind and Art of 
Poe's Poetry" (Barnes) has performed his duty, 
even if he has left something to be desired in defi- 
niteness of impression and, occasionally, in judicial 
discrimination. Surely few would agree that " The 
Bells " is Poe's most nearly perfect poem. In the 
first part of his book Professor Fruit traces the de- 
velopment of Poe's mind in his poetry, which, he 
thinks, is marked by the following stages : First 
was the aim to interest the reader in himself as an 
ill-fated young man of genius, a Platonist yet a pes- 
simist. Then the poet devoted himself to beauty, 
in distrust of the scientific spirit. Next, poetry 
itself was the chief object of his thought ; and thus, 
having become a conscious artist, he produced his 
consummate poem by a chosen method the ono- 
matopoetic. The second part of the book follows 
the poems chronologically once more, with the pur- 
pose of showing Poe's gradual gain in his art, 
involving a penchant for allegory, until "The 
Raven," a masterpiece, is followed by a succession 
of master-strokes, and again " The Bells " crowns 




the whole poetic edifice as its capstone. There are 
interesting critical suggestions throughout, and the 
poems are usually placed in their appropriate bio- 
graphical setting. . 

Coi.Higginso*, Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson 
tketches of hit is at his happiest in writing of " Con- 
contemporane,. temporaries" (Houghton). From 
an intimate personal knowledge, he gives us pen- 
pictures of Emerson, Alcott, Parker, Sumner, Phil- 
lips, Grant, and others of the illustrious generation 
of which he is himself one of the younger members 
and of whom so few now remain. Delightful as 
present-day reading, these sketches will be of even 
more value in the future, when the historian gathers 
up his material for a perspective view of the cen- 
tury now closing. His enthusiasm for his great 
contemporaries is always tempered with discrimina- 
tion and a sense of proportion ; he is able to set 
their talents and their limitations frankly side by 
side, and to show the mission and the message which 
distinguished each. The two concluding sketches of 
these nineteen are of more general nature " The 
Eccentricities of Reformers " and " The Road to 
England" but they are quite worthy of the com- 
pany in which they appear. 

Professor Th. Ribot's " Evolution of 
HW general _ General Ideas" (Open Court Pub- 

ideas evolve. ,.-,. /-i \ . 

hshing Co.) is an interesting, stimu- 
lating little book, and shows its author's customary 
clearness of exposition, though sometimes tending 
toward over-simplification. Professor Ribot studies 
herein general ideas as displayed before words by 
animals, children, deaf-mutes, and in gesture lan- 
guage ; he discusses the origin of speech, and treats 
the development of the principal concepts namely, 
number, space, time, cause, law, species. His orig- 
inal contribution to the subject is the account of 
some experiments to determine what passes in the 
mind when general terms are pronounced and under- 
stood the author finding that with one class of 
minds such a word as " law " evokes the image of 
a court ; in another class, the image of the printed 
word ; in another, the image of the spoken word ; 
while in another, nothing appears in the mind. In 
short, this is an interesting and instructive essay, 
and well within the capacity of the general reader. 


The plays of Edwin Booth, Shakespearian and mis- 
cellaneous, edited from the actor's prompt-books by 
Mr. William Winter, occupy three volumes which have 
just been put forth by the Penn Publishing Co. The 
Shakespearian plays are eleven in number, and make 
up two of the volumes. The third contains " Richelieu," 
" The Fool's Revenge," " Brutus," " Ruy Bias," and 
" Don Csesar de Bazan." These sixteen plays consti- 
tuted Mr. Booth's customary repertoire, although he 
occasionally produced a number of others. In fact, 
" The Lady of Lyons " and "A New Way to Pay Old 
Debts " seem to belong in such a collection as this. 

The increased attention given of late to cryptogramic 
botany in this country is once more signalized by the 
simultaneous appearance of two volumes devoted to 
the Myxomycetes and their allies. Professor L. M. 
Underwood's volume, entitled "Moulds, Mildews, and 
Mushrooms " (Holt), is the wider in scope, and designed 
for the more elementary, and even popular audience. 
It is a systematic manual, and affords an excellent in- 
troduction to the subject. Professor T. H. Mac Bride's 
volume, called "The North American Slime-Moulds" 
(Macmillan) is a monograph of a higher and even more 
specialized sort, and covers the American Myxomycetes 
more completely than any other existing work. It has 
a number of handsomely- executed plates, and is alto- 
gether creditable to both author and publishers. 

Professor John Lesslie Hall has followed up his trans- 
lation of " Beowulf " with a volume of " Old English 
Idyls " (Ginn), in which the most striking episodes of 
the history of Saxon England are related in alliterative 
unrhymed verse. " I have," says the author, " assumed 
the role of an English gleeman of about A. D. 1000, 
and have sought to reproduce to some extent the spirit, 
the metre, and the leading characteristics of Old English 
verse." These idyls deal with such subjects as Hengist 
and Horsa, Cerdic and Arthur, the coming of Augus- 
tine, and the deeds of Alfred. The author's experi- 
ment seems to us singularly successful, and students of 
early English history and literature alike should be 
grateful to him for his undertaking. 

Mr. Horace White, the veteran journalist, has be- 
guiled the spare hours of his later years by preparing a 
translation of " The Roman History of Appian of Alex- 
andria " (Macmillan), which is published in two band- 
some volumes. Since the work is indispensable for the 
study of Roman history, and the last preceeding English 
translation was made more than two centuries ago, the 
justification for Mr. White's work is apparent. While 
this version is, in a sense, the work of an amateur, it 
has been conscientiously made, and has occupied the 
translator for five years. It has, moreover, had the 
benefit of revision at the hands of a professional clas- 
sical scholar, so that no doubt need be harbored con- 
cerning its accuracy. 

Recent English texts for school use include the fol- 
lowing: "Selections from Landor " (Holt), edited by 
Professor A. G. Newcomer; Shakespeare's " Macbeth " 
(Holt), edited by Professor L. A. Sherman; "Repre- 
sentative Poems of Robert Burns " (Ginn), edited by 
Mr. Charles Lane Hanson; George Eliot's "Silas Mar- 
ner " (Heath), edited by Dr. G. A. Wauchope; four 
books of Pope's Homer (Sanborn), edited by Mr. Philip 
Gentner; "The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers" (Ap- 
pleton), edited by Professors F. T. Baker and Richard 
Jones; "Milton's Shorter Poems and Sonnets" (Apple- 
ton), edited by Mr. Frederick D. Nichols; and Chaucer's 
" Prologue, Knight's Tale, and Nun's Priest's Tale " 
(Houghton), edited by Dr. Frank Jewett Mather, and 
forming two numbers of the " Riverside Literature 

The chafing-dish having come to play so prominent 
a part in modern social functions, a liberal repertory 
of feasible dishes is highly desirable. Mrs. Janet 
McKenzie Hill's book of " Salads, Sandwiches, and 
Chafing-dish Dainties " (Little, Brown, & Co.) gives 
many original dishes, thirty-two with illustrations. The 
very attractive form of the book fits it to go along with 
the pretty adjuncts of the chafing-dish supper. 



[Jan. 16, 


A translation of the " Thsetetus " of Plato, with an 
elaborate introduction, the work of Dr. S. W. Dyde, is 
published by the Maemillan Co. 

A novel by Mr. Nelson Lloyd of the New York Sun," 
entitled " The Chronic Loafer," will be published shortly 
by Messrs J. F. Taylor & Co. 

Mr. R. H. Russell is the publisher of a " Maude 
Adams " acting edition of " Romeo and Juliet." The 
drawings which illustrate this volume are both numer- 
ous and charming. 

Two interesting announcements in the " American 
Statesmen Series " (Houghton) are volumes on Charles 
Francis Adams, by his son, and Charles Sumner, by 
Mr. Moorfield Storey. 

The selling record of Mr. Ford's " Janice Meredith " 
is one of the most remarkable of recent years, the book 
having been published but three months and the editions 
reaching 200,000 copies. 

Two addresses on Walt Whitman, originally deliv- 
ered before the Ethical Society by Mr. W. M. Salter, 
are now put together into a booklet bearing the imprint 
of Mr. S. Burns Weston, Philadelphia. 

" Nature Pictures by American Poets " (Maemillan), 
edited by Mrs. Annie Russell Marble, and " The Poetry 
of American Wit and Humor" (Page), edited by Mr. 
R. L. Paget, are two recently-published anthologies. 

" On the Theory and Practice of Art-Enamelling 
upon Metals," by Mr. Henry Cunynghame, is published 
by the Maemillan Co. It is a practical treatise upon a 
subject that has been in much need of such a manual. 

" Scribner's Magazine " for February will contain a 
description of " Ik Marvel's " life at " Edgewood," by 
Mr. A. R. Kimball, and the frontispiece of the number 
will be a drawing of the veteran author reproduced in 

The remarkable collection of original sketches and 
rare prints now being used for illustrating the life of 
Cromwell in "The Century Magazine" have been put 
on exhibition at Brentauo's Chicago store, 218 Wabash 

Volumes VIII. and IX. of the " Eversley " Shake- 
speare, edited by Professor C. H. Herford, bring that 
most acceptable edition within one number of its com- 
pletion. The Maemillan Co., we need hardly add, are 
the publishers of this work. 

Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. announce the first Amer- 
ican edition in the original tongue of Hauptmann's 
" Die Versunkene Glocke," edited by Dr. T. S. Baker. 
The firm also states that the 36th edition of " The 
Honorable Peter Stirling " has just been put to press. 

Professor Frank Moore Colby's " Outlines of General 
History," published by the American Book Co., is the 
latest candidate for the favor of teachers who have 
charge of this subject. It is a text-book of the modern 
scholarly type, interestingly written, and mechanically 

A very convenient book of general reference, of 
pocketable dimensions, is the " Twentieth Century 
Handy Cyclopedia Britannica," published by Messrs. 
Laird & Lee. It is a volume of between four hundred 
and five hundred pages, thumb-indexed, with maps and 
other illustrations. 

" Wotan, Siegfried, and Briinnhilde," by Miss Anna 
Alice Chapin (Harper), is a third volume in this writer's 
series of expositions of Wagner for young people. The 

three character-studies are intelligently done, in simple 
language (a little too high-flown here and there), and 
has illustrations in musical notation. 

" John Selden and his Table Talk," by Mr. Robert 
Waters, is the title of a volume recently published by 
Messrs. Eaton & Mains. About one-fourth of this 
pleasant little book is the author's own ; the major por- 
tion being given up to the genial seventeenth century 
scholar with whom the work is concerned. 

" Illustrations of Logic," by Mr. Paul T. Lafleur, is 
a recent publication of Messrs. Ginn & Co. It is a 
small volume, containing three hundred brief extracts 
from general literature which are peculiarly susceptible 
of logical analysis, and, as such, provide the most help- 
ful sort of material for teachers of the subject. 

An accurate and well-printed map of Paris, designed 
to meet the requirements of the American tourist, is 
published by Messrs. Laird & Lee. The cloth case into 
which the map is folded contains also a booklet giving 
a complete list of thoroughfares, public buildings, trans- 
portation lines, and all points of interest to the traveller. 

" Twelve English Poets," from Chaucer to Tennyson, 
are exhibited by Miss Blanche Wilder Bellamy in a 
recently published volume (Ginn). Each part has a 
brief sketch and a rather voluminous series of extracts. 
The purpose of the book is " to show to young readers 
what has been the direct line of descent of English 

" The Temple Treasury " (Dutton), in two volumes, is 
"a Biblical diary compiled with references." This 
means that for each day of the year there are two selec- 
tions, representing the Old and New Testaments re- 
spectively, and that marginal indications direct the 
reader to cognate passages found elsewhere in the Scrip- 
tures. The Dent imprint upon these volumes is a war- 
rant for their tastefulness. 

" The Family of the Sun " (Appleton) is a book of 
astronomy for children, by Professor E. S. Holdeu. It 
offers an excellent account of the solar system in simple 
language. The same author has just published, in the 
" American Science Series " (Holt), an " Elementary 
Astronomy," which is condensed from the larger work 
in the same series written some years ago in collabora- 
tion with Professor Simon Newcomb. 

The committee of which Professor Charles Eliot Nor- 
ton is chairman has purchased the library of Romance 
literature once owned by James Russell Lowell, con- 
taining more than 700 volumes, and the collection will be 
taken from Elmwood to the Harvard University Library, 
where it will be known as the Lowell Memorial Library 
of Romance Literature. The funds to purchase the 
books were subscribed in answer to an appeal made last 

Few Americans of the elder generation will fail to 
recall the song of " The Rain on the Roof," one of the 
most popular pieces of song-verse ever produced in this 
country. Its author, Col. Coates Kinney, has recently 
included this and other familiar pieces in a volume of 
verse issued by Messrs. Rand, McNally & Co., under 
the title " Mists of Fire." Old readers as well as new 
ones will be glad to have this tasteful souvenir of a 
veteran and popular writer. 

" A Guide to the Operas," by Miss Esther Singleton 
(Dodd), gives descriptions of twenty-nine works by 
twelve composers. The descriptions are something more 
than the meagre outlines of plot usually given in such 
works as this, and embody many intelligent hints for 




the musical comprehension of the works considered. 
The selection is at least practical, for it keeps close to 
the familiar Grau repertoire, and the illustrations are, 
appropriately enough, costumed portraits of the singers 
with whom the public is best acquainted. 

" A Syllabus of Psychology," by Dr. James H. 
Hyslop, and " A Syllabus of an Introduction to Phil- 
osophy," by Dr. Walter T. Marvin, are recent publica- 
tions of Columbia University. While prepared for the 
use of college classes, these syllabi are of wider inter- 
est, presenting, as they do, a conspectus of the two 
subjects concerned in such a way as to prove helpful 
to the general reader. This statement is particularly 
true of Dr. Marvin's work, which is more than a sylla- 
bus, strictly speaking, and has some of the character- 
istics of a treatise upon its subject. 

The latest addition to the " Temple Classics " offers 
a new and welcome departure from what have hitherto 
been the limitations of the series. It is a translation, 
by Mrs. Muriel Press, of the " Laxdale Saga," and other 
sagas are promised if the success of this one shall war- 
rant the undertaking. Since the death of William 
Morris cut short the comprehensive " Saga Library " 
upon which he was engaged, we trust that the work of 
popularizing these Icelandic masterpieces may be car- 
ried on by the editor of the present series. One has 
only to acquire a taste for this sort of reading to want 
as much of it as he can get. 

We hardly think of Matthew Arnold as a poet espe- 
cially in need of the services of the illustrator, but the 
volume of " Poems by Matthew Arnold " (Lane) for 
which Mr. Henry Ospovat has made a series of draw- 
ings, and for which Mr. A. C. Benson has written a 
critical introduction, is a pleasant book to have, and we 
will not quarrel with its idea. The selection of poems 
is such that a pictorial accompaniment is not forced, 
although Arnold would doubtless experience a feeling 
of mild surprise could he view the types of character 
and imaginative construction that his poems have sug- 
gested to the artist of the present volume. 


[The following list, containing 93 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.} 

The Drama of Yesterday and To-Day. By Clement 

Scott. In 2 vols., illus., 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan 

Co. $8. 
Salmon Portland Chase. By Albert Bushnell Hart. 16mo, 

gilt top, pp. 465. " American Statesmen." Houghton, 

Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
Sir Walter Scott. By James Hay. With portrait, 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 312. A. S. Barnes & Co. $1.50. 
Men and Things I Saw in Civil War Days. By James F. 

Rusling, A.M. With portraits, 8vo, gilt top, pp. 411. 

Eaton & Mains. $2.50. 
Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of England : A Contribution 

to the Religious, Political, and Intellectual History of the 

Thirteenth Century. By Francis Seymour Stevenson, M.P. 

Large 8vo, uncut, pp. 348. Macmillan Co. $4. 
Rajah Brooke: The Englishman as Ruler of an Eastern 

State. By Sir Spenser St. John, G.C.M.G. With por- 
trait, 12mo. pp. 302. "Builders of Greater Britain." 

Longmans, Green, & Co. $1.50. 
Elizabeth Pease Nichol. By Anna M. Stoddart. Illus., 

12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 314. " Saintly Lives." E. P. 

Button & Co. $2. 
Personal Reminiscences of the Anti-Slavery and Other 

Reforms and Reformers. By Aaron M. Powell. Illus., 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 279. Plainfield, N. J. : Anna Rice Powell. 

Thomas Campbell. By J. CuthbertHadden. 12mo,pp. 158. 
" Famous Scots." Charles Scribner's Sons. 75 cts. 


A History of American Privateers. By Edgar Stanton 
Maclay, A.M. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 519. 
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No. S27. 

FEB. 1, 1900. Vol. XXVIII. 




On French and English Poetry. Rudolph Schwill. 
University "Spelling Reform." Wallace Rice. 
Mr. Qodkin and " The Evening Post." W. H. 



A. Hubbard 79 

LAND. Mary Augusta Scott . 82 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 84 
Crawford's Via Crucis. Gibson's My Lady and 
Allan Darke. Brady's For the Freedom of the Sea. 

Barrett and Barren's In Old New York. Luther's 
The Favor of Princes. Farmer's The Grand Made- 
moiselle. Besant's The Orange Girl. Roberts's 
The Colossus. Watson's The Princess Xenia. 
Capes's Our Lady of Darkness. Swift's Siren City. 

Hamilton's The Perils of Josephine. Crockett's 
lone March. Keightley's Heronford. Oxenham's 
Rising Fortunes. Boothby's Love Made Manifest. 

Quiller-Couch's The Ship of Stars. Mason's The 
Watchers. Miss McChesney's Rupert, by the Grace 
of God . Mrs. Macquoid's A Ward of the King. 

Bret Harte's Mr. Jack Hamlin's Mediation. 
Smith's The Other Fellow. Perry's The Powers at 
Play. Waldstein's The Surface of Things. 


Contemporary European history. Mr. Archer's 
notes on America. More chapters in the story of 
the Royal Navy. Dark pictures of Yankee sailing 
ships and officers. The technical processes of the 
old masters. The story of Oliver Goldsmith. 
Great names of Augustan literature. The true 
William Penn. Glimpses of bygone stage celebrities. 

Men and events of the Lutheran Church. Biog- 
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Within a few days of the completion of his 
eighty-first year, death has crowned the labors 
of John Raskin, and he has entered the com- 
pany of the immortals. There is no English- 
man of his intellectual and moral stature left 
alive ; his peers have all gone before him, and 
now the last of the great spirits who have 
shaped for our Victorian age its ethical and 
sesthetical ideals has been gathered to his rest. 

" As he willed, he worked : 
And, as he worked, he wanted not, be sure. 
Triumph his whole life through, submitting work 
To work's right judges, never to the wrong, 
To competency, not ineptitude." 

His life was so complete, so filled with mani- 
fold serviceable activities, so rich in the garner 
of life's best fruits, that we cannot deplore his 
death, however sincere our mourning, but must 
rather be touched with a deep solemnity at the 
thought of what he did and what he was, min- 
gled with a deep gratitude for the example of 
his consecrated days. His work for mankind 
was ended a full decade ago, and the peaceful 
hours that were given him after his pen had 
been laid aside removed him so entirely from 
any sort of contact with the active world that 
his continued bodily presence among men has 
been difficult to realize. 

" The soul that's tutelary now 
Till time end, o'er the world to teach and bless " 

has seemed to us hardly more than a disem- 
bodied spirit since the year when those " Prae- 
terita " which we were reading with such eager 
interest met with their final interruption, and 
became themselves things of that past with 
which they were concerned. 

John Raskin was born at Herne Hill, a Lon- 
don suburb, on the eighth of February, 1819. 
He died January 20, 1900, at his Lake Coun- 
try home, Brantwood, in Coniston, where some- 
thing like the last score of his years were spent. 
His intellectual activity covers a period of 
nearly sixty years, for his precocity was marked, 
and he wrote creditable verses at the age of 
ten or thereabouts. At fifteen we find him 
contributing to a periodical of popular science 
papers with such titles as " Enquiries on the 
Causes of the Color of the Water of the Rhine " 
and " Facts and Considerations on the Strata 



[Feb. 1, 

of Mont Blanc." From this time until his 
physical breakdown at the age of seventy, there 
is no year that does not add its title or titles 
to the bibliography of his writings, the mere 
list of which, without comment, would nearly, 
if not quite, fill up all the space here at our 
command. And what memories these titles 
evoke in the minds of men and women to whom 
the message of Ruskin has come as a veritable 
new gospel of beauty and the conduct of life ! 
They think of "Modern Painters," "The 
Stones of Venice," " The Seven Lamps of 
Architecture," and recall the quickened vision, 
the new appreciation, the deepened insight, 
which the reading of these books has brought 
them when viewing the cities and the galleries 
of Europe. They think of "Sesame and 
Lilies " and " The Queen of the Air," and re- 
call the stimulus and the fresh inspiration that 
these books have brought to the study of liter- 
ature. They think of " The Crown of Wild 
Olive " and " The Ethics of the Dust," and 
recall their realization of the unity of truth 
and goodness and beauty, their first sense of 
the fashion in which the cultivated intelligence 
apprehends the most diverse of phenomena as 
related to the same central set of ideals, in 
thought welding beauty to utility, and art to 
the practical conduct of life. They think of 
Munera Pulveris " and " Unto This Last," 
and recall the heightened sense of social solid- 
arity which they derived from these books, the 
view of human intercourse as a complex of mu- 
tual obligations, the doctrine of duties applied 
as a corrective to the doctrine of rights. Finally, 
they think of " Fors Clavigera " and " Prae- 
terita," and recall the unselfish character and 
single-hearted devotion to the service of human- 
ity which these books so unconsciously portray, 
while love and reverence for the writer become 
blended into one emotion of thankfulness for all 
of his gifts to mankind, the most precious of 
them all being the gift of himself. 

Mr. Buskin's career has two well-defined 
periods. During the first, he was essentially 
a teacher of art ; during the second, he was 
essentially a teacher of ethics. The year 1860 
marks the grand climacteric of his life, for it saw 
the completion of " Modern Painters " and the 
inauguration, with " Unto this Last," of the long 
series of the writings which are concerned with 
men in their social relations. When the turn- 
ing-point was reached, he was about forty years 
of age, he had become the foremost writer of 
his time upon the subject of the fine arts, he 
had forced an unwilling public to recognize the 

genius of the great landscape painter of En- 
gland, he had become the interpreter of Giotto, 
and Tintoretto, and many other great artists 
hitherto imperfectly appreciated or not at all, 
he had espoused the cause of the Pre-Raphael- 
ites, given effective aid to their propaganda, 
and had befriended them individually when 
help was most grateful, he had made himself 
one of the greatest masters of English prose, 
thereby increasing tenfold his influence as a 
critic of art, he had, finally, been called upon to 
bear his portion of the private grief which is the 
common lot of men, and the brief chapter of 
his domestic happiness had come to an end. 
His work done in the field of art criticism has 
called forth an enormous amount of discussion, 
in the form of both approval and dissent. At; 
first, his opinions excited violent antagonism ; 
then, for a period, the force of his eloquence 
seemed to carry everything before it ; then, 
again, a marked reaction set in, and a deliber- 
ate effort was made to belittle his achievements 
and minimise his influence. We do not think 
that the two parties to this controversy have 
ever joined issue fairly and squarely. We may 
allow the justice of much that has been said 
by his hostile critics by Mr. Stillman, for 
example, and Dr. Waldstein yet admit almost 
to the full what has been claimed for him by 
the most earnest of his champions. Both par- 
ties are right, in some sense. For the attack, 
we may say that his specific judgments were 
often wrong, that his bestowal of praise was 
exaggerated beyond all reason, that his ad- 
vice to painters was frequently impracticable, 
and that his influence upon contemporary ar- 
tists was slight. But for the defence we must 
also say something. We must say, for example, 
that he made the general English public think 
more seriously about art than it had ever done 
before. We must say that his writings opened 
eyes by the thousands that had hitherto been 
blind, and, if those eyes did not see just what 
he would have had them see, they were at least 
opened to some kind of truth that would not 
have been revealed to them at all except for 
his influence. We must say, also, that he gave 
to the pursuit and study of art a dignity that 
it had never known before, by virtue of his 
constant insistence upon the relation of art to 
morality, his unalterable determination to judge 
of artistic work from other standpoints than the 
narrow one of technique, and the prophetic 
fervor with which he proclaimed the gospel, 
not of art for art's sake, but of art for the sake 
of man's temporal delight and eternal salvation. 




The change that came over the complexion 
of Mr. Raskin's thought in his early forties was 
very marked. He had outgrown the narrow- 
ness of his early beliefs, his sympathies had 
broadened, he had learned that life was more 
than art, he had resolved to do what he might 
to bring practical counsel and effective help to 
his fellow-men. At first, and for ten years or 
thereabouts, he confined himself for the most 
part to his writings, which now acquire for 
themselves a range that they had not known 
before ; then, with the fortune which had come 
to him upon the death of his father, and which 
he felt that he was to hold in trust only, he set 
about doing things, he began the publication 
of the " Fors Clavigera," and instituted the 
Guild of St. George. In the first letter of 
" Fors," he thus stated his programme in gen- 
eral terms : 

" I am not an unselfish person, nor an Evangelical 
one ; I have no particular pleasure in doing good ; neither 
do I dislike doing it so much as to expect to be rewarded 
for it in another world. But I simply cannot paint, nor 
read, nor look at minerals, nor do anything else that I 
like, and the very light of the morning sky, when there 
is any which is seldom, now-a-days, near London 
has become hateful to me, because of the misery that I 
know of, and see signs of, where I know it not, which 
no imagination can interpret too bitterly. Therefore, 
as I have said, I will endure it no longer quietly; but 
henceforward, with any few or many who will help, do 
my poor best to abate this misery." 

That so radical a programme as Mr. liuskin 
marked out for his declining years was fore- 
doomed to failure, as far as practical outcome 
was concerned, must have appeared manifest 
to any temperate observer. He sought to re- 
construct English society, to counteract the 
combined forces of democratic impulse and 
economic law, to restore to the nineteenth cen- 
tury the ideals of the thirteenth. A few only 
of the items in this programme may be speci- 
fied. Railways were to be done away with, 
and labor-saving machinery abandoned. The 
taking of interest was to be held sinful, and the 
regime of status was to replace the regime of 
contract. Individual impulse was to be sup- 
pressed by the weight of a restored social hier- 
archy. The whole system of popular education 
was to be made over upon essentially mediaeval 
lines. These things, and many more like unto 
them, were urged with all the ingenuity of ar- 
gument and eloquence of appeal at the author's 
command, and, as far as might be, he put these 
things into practical effect in his own life, and 
in the lives of those over whom he had any sort 
of control. 

No summary in the bare outline form just 

attempted is really fair to Mr. Ruskin. The 
stupendous wrongheadedness of such a pro- 
gramme, so stated, merely repels, and we would 
not repel a single possible reader from even 
the most practically impossible of the books 
wherein the parts of this programme are set 
forth. The attitude of the sane intelligence 
toward these teachings is expressed by Mr. 
Frederic Harrison when he says : " In one sense, 
no doubt, I stand at an opposite pole of ideas, 
and in literal and direct words, I could hardly 
adopt any one of the leading doctrines of his 
creed. As to mine, he probably rejects every- 
thing I hold sacred and true with violent 
indignation and scorn." Yet in spite of this 
divergence of positive belief, Mr. Harrison has 
made the author the subject of one of the most 
glowing panegyrics ever penned, and he ex- 
presses what we believe will remain the delib- 
erate judgment of mankind when he goes on to 
speak in the following strain : 

" Some day, perhaps, a future generation will be able 
to take up these outpourings of the spirit, not to criticise 
and condemn what they find there to dispute or to laugh 
at, but in the way in which sensible men read Plato's 
1 Republic,' or the book of Ezekiel, or Dante's ' Vita 
Nuova,' to enjoy the melody of the language, the inspir- 
ing poetry, and their apocalyptic visions, without being 
disturbed in the least by all that is mystical, fantastical, 
impossible in the ideal of humanity they present." 

In a word, the balance of Mr. Ruskin's teach- 
ings, whatever specific vagaries they may em- 
body, will rest upon the side of progress, of 
ethical inspiration, of worthy human activity, 
of all that is desirable for the uplifting of the 
race. In this belief, we would earnestly recom- 
mend the most extreme of his books, even 
" Unto this Last," and the many volumes of the 
" Fors Clavigera," not indeed as the best food 
for untrained minds, but as a helpful influ- 
ence to the cultivated intelligence, as a needed 
corrective for all that is unspiritual and mate- 
rialistic in the thought of the age. Their 
essential teaching is at one with that of the 
great leaders of man's ethical and religious 
thought, and their perversity of utterance no 
more than an accident powerless to work last- 
ing injury. The gift of communion with such 
a spirit is one of the most precious that litera- 
ture can offer, and a deep sense of gratitude, 
of reverent affection, is what remains to us 
unshaken, after all possible exceptions have 
been taken, after all needful allowances have 
been made, when we think of the great work 
and the noble life that have ended in the clos- 
ing year of the century to which they have 
lent so imperishable a lustre. 



[Feb. 1, 



(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

The controversy which has been raging regarding the 
relative merits of French and English poetry, and which 
has lately been touched upon editorially in THE DIAL, 
is replete with much interest to one whose love embraces 
more than the poetry of his native tongue. It is need- 
less to say that most of the unfriendly criticisms offered 
in such comparison are not sufficiently cosmopolitan in 
spirit, and give little more than an individual stand- 
point. We here touch upon what has not been suffi- 
ciently emphasized, and what seems to me to be the 
essential test of the worth of any comparative study in 
French and English verse. How far does racial antago- 
nism or race-difference, which is the soul of idiom or 
language-difference, act as a barrier even to the best- 
trained minds in a just appreciation of the inmost spirit 
of any foreign tongue ? And how far is it only indi- 
vidual taste, such as might lead one in one's own lan- 
guage to prefer one poet to another ? What factors are 
to be reckoned with more carefully than these ? 

Long before Tennyson's or Arnold's expressed indif- 
ference to the Alexandrine verse, voices were loud in 
England against French poetry. Keats, not without 
bitterness, condemned the entire classical literature, 
some of France's greatest names. They were 

"closely wed 

To musty laws lined out with wretched rule 
And compass vile ; . . . they went about, 
Holding a poor decrepit standard out 
Marked with most flimsy mottoes, and in large 
The name of one Boileau ! " 

Before Keats, Dryden (otherwise a great admirer and 
follower of the French classics) severely criticized, in 
his preface to " All for Love," Racine's character- 
drawing, especially the feebleness of his heroes. 

England's criticism, however, never took the shape of 
a polemic. That was reserved for Germany. I need 
hardly refer to Lessing's hostile attitude, or the icono- 
clastic spirit taken up by August Wilhelm Schlegel, 
who decided that it was about time that the entire 
classical dramatists, including Moliere, were shelved. 
Schiller was indifferent, and Goethe warmly enthusiastic 
only for Moliere, though he prized the tragedy of 
Racine and Voltaire. When Jacob Grimm wrote to 
Michelet that he could find no " poetic satisfaction " in 
either Corneille, Racine, or Boileau, Sainte-Beuve sighed: 
" Encore une fois il y a malentendu, et du cote" de 
1'Allemagne je crains que ce ne soit presque sans remede, 
nous avons beau faire et beau dire, la-bas nous ne som- 
mes pas pris au se*rieux poe'tiquement; le ge*uie des races 
s'y oppose." And we ask, shall we ever clear these 
barriers of racial misunderstanding ? Will the master- 
ing of the technicalities of a foreign language bring us 
nearer to an unbiased judgment of its spirit ? The most 
hopeful reply is not assuring. Karl Hillebrand, who 
spoke French as fluently as his native tongue, and who 
loved the genius of France, asks whether it is likely 
that she will ever produce the equal of Shakespeare, 
Goethe, or Dante. 

If we proceed to consider the relative values of sep- 
arate words, adverse criticism, it seems to me, becomes 
absurd. A French lady once asked me the English for 
" belle fille," and on my replying " beautiful girl," she 
was horrified, and distorting the pronunciation, ex- 
claimed, " mais que c'est laid ! " Can there be any 

common standpoint from which to judge the relative 
values of any single words in two different languages ? 
The concepts being the same, the word or medium will 
satisfy the race which has used it from time immemorial. 
One may speak of words as apparently different in 
quality, but will not the French " for a' that " prefer 
their disparaged " fille," " amour," " ciel," to the " girl," 
" love," " sky," of the " harsher " language across the 
channel ? If the Englishman finds " fille," " amour," 
" ciel," flat or paltry, is it too much to say that his 
judgment is warped not only by an obtuseness for the 
" finesses " of a foreign living language, but also by un- 
justly associating with the French tongue the empty 
shell of that which was not her parent-speech, i. e., the 
classical Latin, long dead ? If one of the English writers 
in this controversy speaks sneeringly of the Latin char- 
acter of French, it is clear that his Virgil and his Cicero, 
or the dead " filia," " atnor," " caelum," were barriers 
that kept him from appreciating the living " fille," 
"amour," and "ciel." 

The difficulty remains if we proceed from words to 
phrases. We hear Mounet Sully in Hamlet (I should 
say Sarah Bernhardt to be up to date): " Etre ou n'etre 
pas, c'est la la question" (trans, by Dumas). What 
Anglo-Saxon lover of Shakespeare can help smiling ? 
though he will not, if he be in Paris, offend his polished 
host, by laughing in his face. Who would recognize 
the original of many (or any) passage in that wholly 
inadequate translation ? Many of the most poetical 
passages, as, for example, the sublime " absent thee 
from felicity awhile," are altogether omitted. Be- 
cause, adds the exultant English critic, the French lan- 
guage is incapable of such poetic expression ! 

Let us examine the other side of the question. Vol- 
taire is horrified at the " not a mouse stirring " of the 
soldier on the watch, and after translating the " undig- 
nified " phrase to make its grotesqueness apparent, with 
" je n'ai pas entendu une souris trotter," he adds: "Voi- 
1k qui est naturel, dans un corps de garde, mais uon 
pas dans une trage"die." Jules Lemaitre, in comparing 
a recent French translation of Macbeth with the orig- 
inal, triumphantly holds it up as superior to the English 
version. Can this be the judgment of one of the forty 
immortals of the Academy ? Is there, then, any com- 
mon ground of criticism? No: le genie des races s'y 

A factor of an importance almost equal to racial an- 
tagonism is that of individual temperament and taste. 
We might distinguish two classes of critics: first, the 
poet endowed with creative power, to whom we grant 
strong antagonistic feelings against all that does not 
harmonize with the dictates of his genius. But (sec- 
ondly) those who are merely critics (etre critique ou, mon 
Dieu, pen de chose), who only adjudge the crowns ac- 
cording to the light they have, must judge in all mat- 
ters of comparison, as between French and English 
poetry, from a basis of mutual toleration. Where inher- 
ited or racially opposed conceptions of poetry dominate, 
the critic's vision cannot be clear. 

To illustrate the point I wish to make, and partly 
also for the mere delight of setting them down here, 
I place side by side three poems of similar beauty in 
conception, of equal poetic delicacy, simplicity, and 

Victor Hugo: 

"Soyez comme 1'oiseau pose" pour un instant 
Sur des rameaux trop f reles ; 

Qui sent trembler la branche, mais qui chante pourtant, 
Sachant qu'il a des ailes." 





" Ich singe wie der Vogel singt, 
Der in den Zweigen wohnet, 
Das Lied das aus der Kehle dringt, 
1st Lohn der reichlich lohnet." 
And Browning: 

" Hark, where my blossomed pear-tree in the hedge 
Leans to the field and scatters on the clover 
Blossoms and dew-drops at the bent spray's edge 
That 's the wise thrush : he sings each song twice over 
Lest you should think he never could recapture 
The first fine careless rapture ! " 

As I read each of these separately, I prefer it to the 
others, and in the end can make no choice. Comparison 
seems inadequate, for the pleasure each gives is perfect. 
No individual verdict on their relative merits could be 
final; while, if the racial feeling were to decide, French, 
Germans, and English would each prefer their own. Let 
us, then, not take any judgment passed on foreign verse 
too seriously. In the realm of poetry there is room for 
much that the critic would often deprive us of, and which 
flourishes there none the less in undying beauty. 

The plea I make is one for mutual toleration. The 
critics on both sides of the channel have been most un- 
fair. They take color from the spirit they comprehend, 
which is only their own national spirit. The federation 
of the world is no more a dream than absolute justice 
in any judgment on a foreign literature. Apart from 
the great human truths, the general truths, the abiding 
truths, which are the same for all peoples, a nation's 
individual traits must be seen with that nation's eyes. 
It is easier to blame superficially, and in the spirit of 
prejudice, than to praise judiciously, generously. Let us 
at least be willing to recognize all that is beautiful and 
abiding in the world of thought and art, and make it our 
own as far as lies in our power: for there alone we shall 
find that spirit of sweetness and repose, which, as Sainte- 
Beuve has exquisitely said, " nous rdconcilie, nous en avous 
souvent besoin, avec les hommes et avec nous-memes." 

Lewi.burg, Pa., Jan. SO, 1900. RuPOL ScH - 

( To the Editor of THE DIAL. ) 

At a time when the memory of the Prince of cacograph- 
ical chauvinists is becoming less and less fragrant among 
the better informed of his countrymen, the University of 
Chicago takes occasion to cast its spadeful of mud into the 
waters he has so disturbed. Equally without authority, 
discretion, or taste in the premises, this institution of 
learning lends its name to an exhibition of illiteracy at 
which Webster himself would have revolted. Little 
except this illiteracy of spelling now remains to us of 
Webster's various antics. Under the benign influences 
of his alma mater, we have seen disappear, successively, 
his etymologies, his orthoepies, and his definitions. Only 
the cacography remains, a pitiful memorial of a time 
when American hatred of British oppression could 
find expression in doing a harm to English speech. The 
unreasonable prejudices between the English-speaking 
nations are disappearing in the light of a better under- 
standing; more books are printed in America every 
year in the only orthography current among all branches 
of the English race; why, then, should this dying " pro- 
vincialism of nationality " find support at an institution 
supposedly devoted to the humaner letters ? Or, rather, 
why should such an institution commit itself to the exten- 
sion of a national bad habit which, like tobacco-chewing, 
the rest of us are steadily and surely overcoming ? 

Chicago, Jan. 18, 1900. WALLACE RICE. 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

A monthly magazine in New York, which has peri- 
odical attacks of uncontrollable brilliancy in its edi- 
torial department, has made Mr. Godkin and " The 
Evening Post " the subject of a number of statements 
which require a protest. After saying, truly enough, 
that the editor and the paper were thoroughly identified 
in policy and spirit, he tells us that in his editorial ca- 
pacity Mr. Godkin "not only felt that he himself could 
do no wrong, but that men of other views could do no 
right." Again, he thinks it strange that a man so 
highly cultivated " should never have been able to rec- 
ognize anything that was good in those who were op- 
posed to him, and that he could see nothing in their 
policy and motives except folly, or malice, or baseness, 
or incompetence." Now, I have been a daily reader of 
" The Evening Post " for some years, just because it is 
nol characterized by the qualities here ascribed to it 
under Mr. Godkin's editorship. From the copies lying 
on my shelves I will undertake to fill an entire number 
of the magazine from which I have quoted with edi- 
torials from " The Evening Post " in hearty commenda- 
tion of specific acts of men to the general policy of 
whom it is well known that Mr. Godkin has been stren- 
uously in opposition. And, on the other hand, although 
Mr. Godkin was in general an earnest supporter of 
President Cleveland, he showed himself at the same 
time a severe critic when occasion offered. 

We are told again that he " would never frankly and 
fairly and conspicuously admit an error." Now I have 
a pretty wide acquaintance with our more prominent 
daily papers, and I can name no other among them that 
allows its errors to be corrected in its columns with 
anything approaching the freedom of " The Evening 
Post." No man can read it, even hastily, for a month, 
without meeting instances of this; and that, too, though 
its freedom from sensationalism gives it a much greater 
freedom from errors of fact than is the case with the 
average daily. It is also true that no other prominent 
daily is so ready to allow its editorial opinions to be 
questioned in its own columns. Its special correspond- 
ents have full liberty to express opinions contrary to 
its own (witness notably its Manila letters), and it 
does not back up its opinions by the exclusion or garb- 
ling of news matter apparently in conflict with those 

Indirectly, Mr. Godkin is also charged with " pessim- 
ism." How inevitable that charge is against any Amer- 
ican who gets it into his head that the outlook for good 
government is at least bright enough to make it worth 
fighting for ! And Mr. Godkin was also " extremely 
irritating." Yes, there is no gainsaying that his edi- 
torials were very irritating to any reader to whom 
the particular exhibition of incompetence, stupidity, or 
corruption which he was just then flaying was not irri- 
tating. If the editor from whom we have quoted has 
carefully read the " Post " during the weeks since his 
editorial was written, he has probably concluded by this 
time that he was over- hasty in assuming that its sting 
for such readers has been extracted by the withdrawal 
of Mr. Godkin. And that that sting may never be ex- 
tracted as long as there is any hope of irritating read- 
ers into a consciousness that there are evils in society 
and government which can be and ought to be eradi- 
cated, should be the hope and prayer of us all. 


Granvillf, Ohio, Jan. 23, 1900. 



[Feb. 1, 



The reader interested in theatrical matters 
may remember some unpleasant things said of 
the stage a few years ago by Mr. George 
Moore, and the tea-pot tempest that thereupon 
raged in the press. Mr. Moore was of opinion 
that if acting is to be considered an art at all 
(which he doubted), it is certainly the very 
lowest of the arts and the one making the slen- 
derest demands on the intelligence of those 
practising it. For what, Mr. Moore asked, in 
effect, is the actor but the playwright's parrot 
"a vulgar parrot that speaks by rote and 
screams before the footlights " ? and what, sci- 
entifically regarded, is his alleged art but the 
developed form of a simian turn for mimicry 
derived from caudate arboreal ancestors ? But 
that which particularly angered Mr. Moore, 
and, indeed, provoked his attack, was the fact 
that the modern successors of the humble " poor 
players " of the frankly disrespectable strollers 
of Marlowe's and Jonson's time not only regard 
themselves and are regarded as, technically, 
ladies and gentlemen, but are actually come to 
be, in too many cases, the recognized social lions 
and drawing-room idols of the day. This social 
vagary Mr. Moore styled " Mummer- Worship"; 
and we are sorry to say that the impetus of his 
onset against it carried him into some waspish 
innuendoes as to the morals of the fairer divini- 
ties of the cult, that did him no credit. 

We have mentioned Mr. Moore and his 
Histrio-mastix as furnishing a convenient con- 
trast to the veteran dramatic writer, Mr. 
Clement Scott, and his two thick volumes of 
rapturous stage memories, now before us. From 
his youth up, Mr. Scott has been a " mummer- 
worshipper " of the most ardent type, and his 
present production fairly entitles him, we think, 
to be called the Gronow of the Victorian stage. 
But the title of the book is certainly misleading, 
since it leads us to expect, what we assuredly 
do not get, a continuous history of the modern 
drama. At times, it is true, Mr. Scott seems 
in a fair way of starting out conscientiously to 
fulfil the implied promise of his title ; but he 
scarcely ever gets beyond a paragraph or so 
of dramatic history proper when a good story 
of " Johnny " Toole, or Sothern, or Charles 
Matthews, or some other notable maker or sub- 

Scott. In two volumes, illustrated. New York : The Mac- 
raillan Co. 

ject of good stories, pops into his head, and 
away he starts, with the bit in his teeth, and 
never pulls up until the end of the chapter is 
reached and it is too late to go on with the text 
formally propounded at the outset. Mr. Scott's 
stories are entertaining, and he clearly relishes 
them so much himself that it is hard to grudge 
him the pleasure of telling them. But it must 
in candor be said that the reader who goes to 
him for light and leading on the drama proper, 
and not for the ana and gossip of the playhouse, 
will generally be disappointed. The fact is, as 
one of Mr. Scott's critics has already pointed 
out, it is not so much the drama, broadly con- 
sidered, as the playhouse, that attracts and 
interests him. He has little patience with the 
sort of people (with whom, we confess, we are 
much in sympathy) who profess to find a higher 
and completer satisfaction in reading a dra- 
matic masterpiece than in seeing it acted. Mr. 
Scott would probably think it pedantic and 
affected to say that the best actor who ever trod 
the boards must inevitably dwarf in his ren- 
dering the poet's conception, say, of King Lear ; 
and, indeed, he frankly admits : 

" I do not believe it is possible to be thoroughly 
impressed with Shakespeare until you have seen his 
plays acted. Long before I had witnessed the majority 
of those masterpieces on the stage, I had studied Shake- 
speare, I had read and re-read Shakespeare, I had 
attended Shakespearean readings, Shakespearean dis- 
courses, and Shakespearean lectures; but I never thor- 
oughly understood ' the bard,' as he is called, until I 
saw him acted in those always-to-be-remembered days 
with Phelps at Sadler's Wells." 

Mr. Scott, with a degree of accuracy, de- 
scribes his book as an attempt to blend the 
outlines of the history of the stage with per- 
sonal reminiscences. Into the narrative he has 
woven a partial account of his career as a dra- 
matic critic in which capacity we are, as we 
gather, to regard him as in some sort the 
founder of a new school of writing. Before 
Mr. Scott, the dramatic critic was, as it seems, 
a sober and deliberate person, who took him- 
self and his function pretty seriously, and was 
given to postponing his written opinions upon a 
new play or a new actor for several days. With 
Mr. Scott came the new era. ** I was," he says, 
" the first journalist who attempted to make the 
account of a new play not so much a solemn 
and serious criticism as a picturesque report." 
" Solemn and serious criticism " is not, we are 
convinced, Mr. Scott's forte ; and it was well 
he realized the fact at the outset. 

We think it fair to characterize Mr. Scott's 
entertaining but incoherent and, we suspect, 




hasty production as a sort of catalogue rai- 
sonne of the more prominent players of the 
period covered, enlivened with reminiscences 
of the playhouses, and anecdotes, appreciations, 
and biographical sketches of the players, and 
rather liberally padded with extracts from the 
critics the author's own journalistic " pic- 
turesque reports " being by no means neglected. 
Among Mr. Scott's reminiscences is an amus- 
ing one of the elder Dumas, upon whom he once 
called at Paris, armed with a letter of introduc- 
tion from Fechter. 

" Alexandre Dumas lived with his daughter, a very 
devout Catholic, in a fashionable quarter of Paris. The 
daughter was evidently away, and when I left my card 
and Fechter's letter I was ushered into a solemn room, 
which looked like an oratory, being full of crucifixes, 
relics, and sacred pictures. After waiting for some 
time in astonishment, for the religious atmosphere did 
not seem to coincide with my idea of the rollicking his- 
torian, novelist, and prolific dramatist, the servant re- 
turned to say that M. Dumas would see me. From the 
oratory I was ushered into a kind of kitchen. The scene 
had changed entirely. Behold the hero of hundreds of 
dramatic successes, in his shirt sleeves, his negro skin 
beaded with perspiration, his hair like an iron-gray 
scrubbing brush reversed, sitting before the fire, with a 
pretty girl on each knee, pretending to cook an omelette 
or preside over a vol-au-vent ! Dumas, as everyone 
knows, was an amateur cook, and he loved nothing bet- 
ter than to design, arrange, and carry out a dinner of 
his own invention. The girls pinched him, kissed him, 
chaffed him, and called him Papa.' He returned the 
compliment. He asked me about Fechter and his suc- 
cess, which interested him. He gave me some tickets 
for the theatre, and I left the cheery old man, still in 
his shirt sleeves before the stove, kissing the pretty 
girls on either knee." 

While Mr. Scott's Thespian ambition has been 
satisfied with the role of dramatic critic, he is, it 
seems, not altogether a stranger to the boards. 

" At the Bijou Theatre, Bayswater, I have enacted 
Christopher Larkings in Woodcock's Little Game,' and 
the boy Archie in < The Scrap of Paper.' I think I 
rather fancied myself in a black velvet coat and knick- 
erbockers, lent me by my old friend, Edmund Routledge, 
and a pair of scarlet stockings suggested by myself. 
This alarming costume secured me the honor of a scented 
note left at the stage door. My companions in crime 
still living are James M. Molloy, the gifted balladist 
and composer, and W. S. Gilbert, who rejoiced in the 
farce called 'Number One Round the Corner'; but I 
fancy this brilliant poet and dramatist was as bad an 
actor as I was. He could not have been a worse one." 

The volumes are handsomely gotten up, and 
contain many interesting portraits of players 
and playwrights, managers and critics. While 
of no great value as a contribution to the his- 
tory of the drama, they are lively and amusing, 
and should find favor with the members of the 
profession to which Mr. Scott has devoted the 
enthusiastic attention of a lifetime. E. G. J. 


It is a rich treasury of facts, anecdotes, and 
observations, relating to eminent persons and 
events of the last eighty years of our century, 
which Mrs. Julia Ward Howe has presented 
us in the volume modestly entitled " Reminis- 
cences." It is a gift to the future historian 
which he will not lightly value ; while for the 
reader who seeks entertainment chiefly, its 
pages abound with matter of interest, amuse- 
ment, and serious instruction. 

Mrs. Howe has enjoyed through life a com- 
manding opportunity for gaining insight into 
the character of the personages and the prin- 
ciples which have given distinction to the won- 
derful years included in the closing century. 
Most of the famous men and women of the 
time were known to her, and in many of the 
great movements that evolved in grand pro- 
gression, one following rapidly upon another, 
she was a living part. It is a memorable retro- 
spect, leaving with the mind, as the most last- 
ing impression, a sense of the dignity, the 
sincerity, the high-mindedness of the writer. 
Her judgments are marked by breadth and 
graciousness, and her own career from first to 
last was noble and generous. 

Mrs. Howe was born in 1819, in the city of 
New York, in a home of wealth and culture. 
Her father, a banker of high standing, was not 
only prominent in business affairs but in social 
circles, and his children were surrounded by 
every influence tending to nurture intelligence 
and develop the moral qualities. He was a 
Puritan of the Puritans, maintaining strict 
discipline in his household and a vigilant 
guardianship of the welfare of his daughters. 
No expense was spared in their education. They 
had the best masters in music, the languages, 
drawing, dancing, all the accomplishments be- 
fitting refined womanhood. But the social 
arena in which their gifts might find free dis- 
play was narrowly restricted. There was, nat- 
urally, some restiveness and discontent under 
such firm restraint, but the wisdom of it was 
justified in the light of mature experience. 

There was, however, no lack of genial life in 
the Ward mansion. At quiet dinners and in 
cheerful evenings in her own home and among 
her intimate friends, Miss Ward enjoyed un- 
usual opportunities for social cultivation. By 
the marriage of her brother Samuel with the 

* REMINISCENCES. 1819-1899. By Julia Ward Howe. 
With Portraits and other Illustrations. Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

eldest granddaughter of John Jacob Astor, 
the friendly relations between the families 
deepened into intimacy. We are accustomed 
to think of the founder of the Astor house in 
America as a rude fur-trader whose life was 
spent in traffic with border Indians ; but Mrs. 
Howe represents him as a man of distinct lit- 
erary tastes, who loved to draw men of letters 
about him. At his hospitable board she fre- 
quently met Washington Irving, who, as she 
relates, " was silent in general company, and 
usually fell asleep at the dinner-table. . . . 
After a nap of some minutes he would open his 
eyes and take part in the conversation, appar- 
ently unconscious of having fallen asleep." 

The summer of 1841 was spent by Miss 
Ward with girl friends in the neighborhood of 
Boston. In company with Charles Sumner and 
the poet Longfellow, they paid a visit one day 
to Perkins Institute, where Laura Bridgman, 
the marvellous deaf, dumb, and blind girl, was 
receiving her education. Dr. Howe was ab- 
sent at the arrival of his guests, but before 
their leave " Mr. Sumner, looking out of a 
window, said, * Oh, here comes Howe on his 
black horse.' I looked out also," writes Mrs. 
Howe, " and beheld a noble rider on a noble 
horse." It was the prelude to her life romance. 
The doctor was her senior by nearly twenty 
years, but he had not long to sue for the gift of 
her hand. They were married in the spring of 
1843, and their wedding journey was prolonged 
a year amid the enticing scenes of Europe. 

In London, as in New York, Mrs. Howe was 
in contact with the distinguished men and 
women who lent their fame to the English cap- 
ital, for she was now the wife of one whom the 
world recognized as a hero and a philanthropist. 
With quick appreciation, Carlyle hastened to 
pay his respects with an invitation for a return 
visit from the estimable strangers. Mrs. Carlyle 
was too ill to receive them, and in her absence, 
writes Mrs. Howe, 

" I was requested to pour tea. Our Lost partook of 
it copiously, in all the strength of the teapot. As I 
filled and refilled his cup, I thought that his chronic 
dyspepsia was not to be wondered at. The repast was 
a simple one. It consisted of a plate of toast and two 
small dishes of stewed fruit, which he offered to us with 
the words, ' Perhaps ye can eat some of this. I never 
eat these things myself.' " 

Her visit to Wordsworth was a signal disap- 
pointment. The poet's widowed daughter had 
met with a heavy loss through some unfortunate 
American investment, and the calamity had com- 
pletely upset the family equilibrium. It was the 
sole topic touched upon during the interview. 

" The tea to which we had been bidden was simply a 
cup of tea, served without a table. We bore the har- 
assing conversation as long as we could. The only 
remark of Wordsworth's which I brought away was 
this : ' The misfortune of Ireland is that it was only a 
partially conquered country." 

On her return to Boston, Mrs. Howe found 
the transcendental movement exciting general 
observation. It was opposed to the traditions 
in which she was bred, but gradually its aims 
so won upon her she was able to accept it as 
" the new interpretation of life which the truth 
imperatively demanded." She who was reared 
in strict orthodoxy passed over to the church 
of Theodore Parker, much to the displeasure of 
her society friends. " What is Julia Howe 
trying to find at Parker's meeting ? " asked one 
of these in her presence. " Atheism," replied 
the lady addressed. " Not atheism," said Mrs. 
Howe in quick defense, " but theism." Else- 
where she remarks : 

" I can truly say that no rite of public worship, not 
even the splendid Easter service in St. Peter's at Rome, 
ever impressed me as deeply as did Theodore Parker's 
prayers. ... I cannot remember that the interest of 
his services varied for me. It was all one intense de- 
light. . . . His voice was like the archangel's trump, 
summoning the wicked to repentance and bidding the 
just take heart. It was hard to go out from his pres- 
ence, all aglow with enthusiasm which he felt and 
inspired, and hear him spoken of as a teacher of irre- 
ligion, a pest to the community." 

It was a struggle for Mrs. Howe to overcome 
her native prejudice against the reformers who 
were stirring society in Boston and New En- 
gland to moods of frenzy by their bold advo- 
cacy of the rights of the black man or the white 
woman to freedom and equality in the eye of 
the law. " She does n't like me, but I like her 
poetry," remarked Wendell Phillips, as he 
bought a copy of her first volume of poems. 
His amiable appreciation of her gifts as an au- 
thor softened her feeling and she was ready to 
engage with him in conversation and to listen 
to his oratory. He had afterwards no firmer 
friend than she, and she speaks of his ardent 
and tireless services in behalf of humanity in 
words of the warmest eulogy. Of Charles Sum- 
ner she has much to say, although it is plain 
her esteem for him was founded more upon his 
moral worth than upon special graces of intel- 
lect or charms of personal manner. In noting 
the differences between Phillips and Sumner, 
she observes : 

" The two men, although workers in a common cause, 
were very dissimilar in their natural endowments. 
Phillips had a temperament of fire, while that of Sum- 
ner was cold and sluggish. Phillips had a great gift 
of simplicity, and always made a bee line for the cen- 




tral point of interest in the theme which he undertook 
to present. Sumner was recondite in language and 
elaborate in style. He was not much of a student, and 
abounded in quotations. In his sensational days, I once 
heard a satirical lady mention him as < the moral flum- 
mery member from Massachusetts, quoting Tibullus ! ' " 

Mr. Sumner had but little sense of humor, 
and quite lacked the faculty for quick response 
which puts one at ease in lively conversation. 
As he could not comprehend the wit which en- 
livens and sometimes idealizes the discourse in 
general society, so he failed signally to grapple 
with the intricacies of exact science. " I have 
heard him say," states Mrs. Howe, " that math- 
ematics remained a sealed book to him ; and 
that his professor at Harvard once exclaimed, 
4 Sumner, I can't whittle a mathematical idea 
small enough to get it into your brain." 

The value which Mr. Sumner placed upon 
his personal dignity is indicated by the follow- 
ing anecdote : 

" I once invited Mr. Sumner to meet a distinguished 
guest at my house. He replied, I do not know that I 
wish to meet your friend. I have outlived the interest 
in individuals.' In my diary of the day I recorded the 
somewhat ungracious utterance, with this comment: 
' God Almighty, by the latest accounts, has not got so 

Mrs. Howe's record during the Civil War 
begins with a visit from " old John Brown," 
who made upon her and her husband the im- 
pression of a powerful personality. Of the 
" noble war governor, John A. Andrew," she 
relates that when he learned of John Brown's 
hapless state in a Southern prison, without 
counsel or money, he " telegraphed to eminent 
lawyers in Washington to engage them for the 
defense of the prisoner, and made himself re- 
sponsible for the legal expenses of the case, 
amounting to thirteen hundred dollars." 

In the autumn of 1861, Mrs. Howe was in 
Washington, inspecting camps and hospitals in 
company with the Rev. James Freeman Clarke, 
Governor Andrew, and Dr. Howe. At the close 
of an interview with the President, Mr. Clarke 
said of him : 

"We have seen it in his face: hopeless honesty; that 
is all. . . . None of us knew then how deeply God's 
wisdom had touched and inspired that devout and pa- 
tient soul. At the moment, few people praised or trusted 
him. ' Why did he not do this, or that, or the other ? 
He a President, indeed! Look at this war, dragging on 
so slowly! Look at our many defeats and rare victories! ' 
Such was the talk that one constantly heard regarding 
him. The most charitable held that he meant well. 
Governor Andrew was one of the few whose faith in 
him never wavered." 

It was during this eventful visit that Mrs. 
Howe made her first attempt at public speaking, 

in an unstudied talk to a company of soldiers 
from Massachusetts, and also wrote, in a mo- 
ment of inspiration, the " Battle Hymn of the 
Republic." Her party had been singing the 
popular war songs of the day, concluding with 
"John Brown's body," when Mr. Clarke turned 
to her with the question, " Mrs. Howe, why do 
you not write some good words for that stirring 
tune ? " It had been in her mind to do so, but 
as yet the motive had not come to her. 

" I went to bed that night as usual, and slept, accord- 
ing to my wont, quite soundly. I awoke in the gray of 
the morning twilight; and as I lay waiting for the dawn, 
the long lines of the desired poem began to twine them- 
selves in my mind. Having thought out all the stanzas, 
I said to myself, I must get up and write these verses 
down, lest I fall asleep again and forget them.' So, 
with a sudden effort, I sprang out of bed, and found in 
the dimness an old stump of a pen which I remembered 
to have used the day before. I scrawled the verses 
almost without looking at the paper. I had learned to 
do this when, on previous occasions, attacks of versifi- 
cation had visited me in the night, and I feared to have 
recourse to a light lest I should wake the baby, who 
slept near me. I was always obliged to decipher my 
scrawl before another night should intervene, as it was 
only legible while the matter was fresh in my mind. At 
this time, having completed my writing, I returned to 
bed and fell asleep, saying to myself, I like this better 
than most things that I have written." 

The poem was published in the " Atlantic 
Monthly," without awakening special interest. 
But it reached the soldiers' camps, and they 
sang it in rousing chorus on the march and by 
their evening fires. It penetrated the walls of 
Libby Prison, and finally was rehearsed with 
startling effect by a released captive who told, 
in a public lecture in Washington, of the cheer 
it brought to the hearts of his comrades immured 
in that frightful death-pen in Virginia, and the 
success of the poem was assured. It was thence- 
forth the leading lyric of the war. " Mrs. 
Howe ought to die now," said one of her friends, 
" for she has done the best that she will ever." 
Mrs. Howe was of no such opinion herself, 
feeling still " full of good days' works," which 
she has to the present time been diligently per- 
forming. She was ever serious in her tastes 
and bent upon intellectual pursuits. " Mrs. 
Howe is not a great reader, but she always 
studies," was the remark of her husband, which 
well characterized the thorough nature of her 
mental attainments. As a member of the 
Radical Club, that " high congress of souls " 
which for years met monthly at the house of 
the Rev. John T. Sargent, as an associate of 
that noble band who strove long and painfully, 
but with final triumph, for the right of woman 
" to learn the alphabet " and share with man- 



[Feb. 1, 

kind the privileges of self-ownership and oppor- 
tunity, she records many impressive experiences. 
One comes to a pause reluctantly in dealing 
with a book touching upon so many of the stir- 
ring events that have enriched the modern age. 
Interspersed through the narrative are many 
valuable illustrations, chiefly portraits of emi- 
nent contemporaries of the author. From the 
frontispiece her own face looks out at us, like 
a Sibyl or a Fate. It is the aged and august 
countenance of one who has for eighty years 
watched with steadfast and solemn gaze the 
unfolding of human history, eager to read its 
portent and aid in its full and grand develop- 

ment - SARA A. HUBBARD. 


At last we have a history of Scottish Ver- 
nacular Literature, and from so competent an 
authority as Mr. T. F. Henderson, associate edi- 
tor of the Centenary Burns. Probably no sub- 
ject in the whole range of literature has suffered 
more in the hands of the judicious than this. 
It is the fashion of the English literary his- 
torian to treat the Scottish literature as a mere 
adjunct of the English ; and being unable, for 
the most part, to appreciate or to understand 
the picturesque and racy vernacular, made up 
of an immense variety of subtle linguistic 
forces Cymric, Pictish, Gaelic, Norse, French, 
he is prone to judge the Scots writer by one 
of his styles only. Professor Courthope, pre- 
ferring the labored allegory of Gavin Douglas, 
finds few " notes of human interest " in Dunbar. 
So Mr. Edmund Gosse, with a natural affinity 
perhaps for "terms aureate," describes Dunbar's 
talent as " gorgeous," but denies that the poet 
ever gets away from the artificial in language. 

Just why no Scotchman has written a history 
of the vernacular until now, is not clear. Dr. 
Boss's " Early Scottish History and Litera- 
ture " is an essay in the field, but Dr. Ross 
brought his work down to the Reformation 
only, and, as his title shows, his point of view 
was not purely literary. Moreover, Dr. Ross's 
method was not scholarly, and his book was 
further unfortunate in being published after 
his death, without adequate editing. Professor 
Hugh Walker's " Three Centuries of Scottish 
Literature " is an admirable discussion of the 

tory. By T. F. Henderson. London: David Nutt. (Im- 
ported by the New Amsterdam Book Co., New York.) 

later period. Meanwhile, a vast mass of mate- 
rial, collected by individual editors, such as 
Scott, Irving, and Laing, by the learned Clubs 
the Bannatyne, the Maitland, the Rox- 
burghe, and the Hunterian and by the Early 
English and Scottish Text Societies, has been 
accumulating. What was needed was a clear 
and intelligent treatment of the whole subject 
within reasonable limits. This is what Mr. 
Henderson has attempted, and on the whole 
successfully, although the thoroughness of his 
scholarship on certain points is open to doubt, 
and his style leaves something to be desired. 

The survey of the vernacular covers more 
than five centuries, from the " mokkyshe ryme" 
on Edward Longshanks to Allan Cunningham. 
It was no light task to condense so large a sub- 
ject into one volume, but Mr. Henderson has 
been equal to it. His judgment is discrimin- 
ating, his taste is correct, if not mellowed, and 
his sense of proportion is good. No important 
author has been overlooked, and one notes 
few omissions among writers not of the first 
consideration. " The Totall Discourse of the 
Rare Adventures " (of William Lithgow), 
1632, might have been included as a curious 
and interesting contribution to vernacular 
prose, and it is a genuine disappointment to 
miss "Aye Waukin', O!" which has been 
described as a perfect song, so fortunate also as 
to be the subject of a perfect criticism, that of 
Dr. John Brown in " Horae Subsecivae." 

Poetry bulks large in the Scottish vernacu- 
lar, and the picture of it here shown, represent- 
ing Dunbar receiving the torch from Chaucer 
and handing it on to Burns, is illuminating. 
The Scots " makaris " wrote, not a different 
language from Chaucer, but the same language, 
which, like him, they called " Inglisch." The 
difference is only that the genius of Chaucer 
made the Midland dialect, the London speech, 
English ; the " makaris " preserved the North- 
ern English, which did not become a dialect, 
in the modern sense, until after the union of 
the crowns in James VI. Like Chaucer, also, 
the " makaris " went to the French poets, and 
sometimes to the Italian, for models of versifi- 
cation. Of a lineage so ancient and so honor- 
able, by the time of Burns (as Mr. Henderson 
happily says) the poetic tradition of Scotland 
was the noblest ever inherited by any peasantry, 
far higher than could have derived from even 


an ideal peasantry. Of what other great poet 
than Burns can it be said that much of the 
emotions and sentiments he expresses lay out- 
side his own personal experience ? Excepting 




the chapter on the ballads, which in the main 
follows Mr. Courthope, and possibly therefor 
suggests an ignoring of recent research, Mr. 
Henderson's treatment of Scottish poetry is 
excellent. His study of the relations between 
the French and Scottish poets, especially be- 
tween Villon and Dun bar, is so good that one 
wants more of it. We see Dunbar getting the 
idea of his stately " Lament for the Makaris " 
from Villon's ballads on the " dames " and 
" seigneurs " of olden time, and writing it in a 
favorite French form with him, the Icyrielle. 
Other Villon metres are the octave with refrain, 
Villon's double ballade, and the rondeau. 
Dunbar makes large use of the French octave, 
named by King James VI. the ballot royal, 
and more than a third of his verse is written 
in the stave of the French rondeau, with or 
without refrain. For two well-known French 
metres in English, the seven-line stanza of 
Chaucer's " Troilus and Criseyde," called by 
Gascoigne rime royal, and the rime couee, or 
tail rhyme, so largely used by Burns, Dunbar 
shows no great fondness. It is a pity that the 
chapter on Dunbar is not more compact ; as it 
is, it shows Mr. Henderson's exceptional knowl- 
edge of Scottish prosody at its best, and his 
logical, or rather illogical, arrangement of ma- 
terial at its worst. Dunbar surely stands in no 
need of an advocate, and fewer quotations would 
have sufficed to show his quality, his humor, 
always gay, sometimes saturnine, and now and 
then deliciously quaint and fantastic, as when 
in "Kynd Kittok," the alewife of Falkland 
Fells eludes St. Peter and gets into heaven 
privily, " God," we are told, " lukit and saw 
her lattin in, and lewch his hert sair"; the 
reality of his touch, his worldliness, and his 
stoicism, all expressed with a brilliancy of im- 
agination that time and circumstance have not 
dimmed, and a mastery of language that easily 
ranks him the greatest of the Chaucerians. 

But on the whole the quotations are made with 
so much reserve and judgment and taste as to 
whet the appetite. The " Bill of Fare " which 
Fergusson would have laid before Dr. Johnson 
when banqueted by the St. Andrews professors 
is fresh. His " Daft Days " is more familiar : 

" Now mirk December's dowie face 
Glowrs owre the rigs wi' sour grimace, 
While thro' his minimum of space, 

The bleer-ey'd sun, 
Wi' blinkin' light and stealing pace, 

His race doth run." 

There, to use the words of K. L. Stevenson, is 
" the model of great things to come " in 
Burns. Those who know (and who does not 

know?) Mrs. Craik's beautiful song, "Too 
Late," will find the refrain of it in a curious 
old allegorical poem, by Sir Richard Holland, 
called " The Buke of the Howlat ": 

"O Dowglas, O Dowglas, 
Tender and trewe ! " 

It is there given as a badge of the Douglases 
embroidered on the coat-armor of the pursui- 
vant. Exquisitely simple and sweet is the 
" Departe " of Alexander Scott, the farewell of 
the dying Master of Erskine, slain at Pinkie 
Cleugh, 1547, to the Queen Dowager, the 
beautiful Marie de Guise : 

" Adew my awin sweit thing, 
My joy and conforting, 
My mirth and sollesing 

Of erdly gloir ; 
Ffair weill, my lady brieht, 
And my remembrance rycht, 
Ffair weill, and haif gud nycht : 

I say no moir! " 

Brief quotations in prose are harder to make, 
but there is a good one from the diarist, James 
Melville, describing the young King James VI., 
in 1574, when eight years old, " walking up and 
down in the auld Lady Marr's hand, discours- 
ing of knowledge and ignorance." A single sen- 
tence from that belated humanist, George Bu- 
chanan, is an amusing hit, both at his old pupil, 
Queen Mary, and at the pride of the Hamiltons : 

"Thay wer in hoip yat scho sonld mary Johnne 
Hamiltoun ye Dukis sone quhome wt [with] inery lukis 
and gentill contenance (as scho could weill do) scho 
enterit in ye gayme of ye glaiks [coquetry], and causit 
ye rest of ye Hamiltonis to fon for faynnes [to play the 
fool for eagerness]." 

Scottish vernacular literature without Sir 
Walter Scott is the play of Hamlet with Hamlet 
left out. In his index, Mr. Henderson tells us 
that he mentions Sir Walter five times, and 
he honors him with one sentence by himself 
(p. 455). This sentence is well worth quoting, 
for two reasons : because it is all there is about 
Scott, and because it exhibits Mr. Henderson's 
style, as they say in homely phrase, with its 
foot around its neck. 

" Hogg as a poet was very much a rustic Sir Walter 
Scott, who was, besides, the founder of a vernacular 
school of his own, that of the vernacular novel a sub- 
ject too vast for our present consideration, but who 
very seldom in his poetry drops into the vernacular, 
and makes very chary use of it even in his lyrics, the 
only almost pure examples being the spirited Jock o' 
Hazeldean founded on an old ballad, the witty char- 
acter sketch of Donald Caird, and his new version of 
Carle, now the King 's Come ; but March, march, Ettrick 
and Teviotdale derived from the old General Leslie's 
March contains at least one vernacular exclamation; 
and the vernacular slightly tinges his re-reading of 
D'Urfey's Bonnie Dundee." 

A precisely similar sentence sums up or 



[Feb. 1, 

lumps up " The Tea Table Miscellany " of 
Allan Ramsay (p. 410). Of minor matters of 
style, such verbal forms as " strenuUy," " re- 
joicements," " artificiosity," instead of the 
usual words, may be good North British, but the 
contractions "wasn't," "isn't," and "can't" 
are undignified in any serious writing. Anent 
North Britain, the transatlantic reader has his 
" Marmion " to explain North Berwick Law, 
produced by the " Gyre-Carling," the mother- 
witch of Scotland, to discomfit her lover, but 
what was the " whikey " tree which grew in 
Robert Henryson's orchard? 

Instead of furnishing a glossary of Scottish 
words, Mr. Henderson writes the glosses in the 
margin. This is well enough for general pur- 
poses, but for the use of students there should 
be something to indicate the connection be- 
tween word and definition ; and the proof- 
reading should have been done by someone 
with a correct eye for lines and leads. Some 
of the glosses are hopelessly askew. Titles 
throughout are not glossed, for some inexplica- 
ble reason. We note one or two slight errors. 
On p. 391, Robert Sempill, author of " Habbie 
Simson," was active in promoting the Restora- 
tion, not the Revolution. On p. 394, a tangled 
sentence executes George Baillie of Jerviswood, 
husband of Lady Grizel Baillie, instead of his 
father, Robert Baillie. 

Mr. Henderson is at his worst in his index, 
which does not seem to have been prepared 
upon any system. It is fairly inclusive as to 
names, but titles get into it by favor and grace 
only. To instance a few eccentricities of index- 
ing : we look in vain for " The Lament of the 
Makaris," a poem which is probably mentioned 
oftener than any other, because it is a store- 
house of information on the early Scottish 
poets. Nor do we find the best-known Scotch 
song, " Auld Lang Syne," although " The 
Gaberlunzie Man," barely referred to, is 
indexed. " The Wowing of Jok and Jynny " 
is indexed twice : incorrectly as " Jok and 
Jynny " (p. 289-290), where there is some 
account of it, but correctly at p. 133, which 
points to a cross-reference. So the unwary 
reader who wants to turn to " Tullochgorum," 
" the best Scots song Scotland ever saw," in 
Burns's extravagant praise, must know before- 
hand that it was written by one John Skinner. 

But the faults of this book are few, and 
easily remedied ; its merits are many and great, 
and Mr. Henderson is to be congratulated on 
having produced a good book on a difficult 


Mr. Marion Crawford has again made one of his 
occasional excursions into the historical past, and 
told us, in his " Via Crucis," a story of the Second 
Crusade. His central figure is that of Queen 
Eleanor, the queen of the monkish Louis VII., 
linked afterwards to English history as the wife of 
Henry Plantagenet, and to romantic tradition as 
the jealous persecutor of the fair Rosamond. Stu- 
dents of English history are apt to learn little of 
her career as the consort of the French crusading 
monarch, or of that most picturesque episode which 
concerns her Amazonian masquerade, in company 
with a train of court ladies, across Europe to the 
East. It supplies a singularly effective subject for 
a romance, and Mr. Crawford has made good use 
of it. The hero is a fictitious character, a young 
Englishman who is made landless during the tur- 

*ViA CRUCIS. A Romance of the Second Crusade. By 
Francis Marion Crawford. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

MY LADY AND ALLAN DARKE. By Charles Donnel Gib- 
son. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

FOR THE FREEDOM OF THE SEA. A Romance of the War 
of 1812. By Cyrus Townsend Brady. New York : Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

IN OLD NEW YORK. A Romance. By Wilson Barrett and 
Elwyn Barron. Boston : L. C. Page & Co. 

THE FAVOR OF PRINCES. By Mark Lee Luther. New 
York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE GRAND MADEMOISELLE. By James Eugene Farmer, 
M. A. New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

THE ORANGE GIRL. By Sir Walter Besant. New York : 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

THE COLOSSUS. A Story of To-day. By Morley Roberts. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

THE PRINCESS XENIA. A Romance. By H. B. Marriott 
Watson. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

OUR I^ADY OF DARKNESS. By Bernard Capes. New York : 
Dodd, Mead & Co. 

SIREN CITY. By Benjamin Swift. New York : Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

THE PERILS or JOSEPHINE. By Lord Ernest Hamilton. 
Chicago : Herbert S. Stone & Co. 

IONE MARCH. By S. R. Crockett. New York: Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

HERONFOHD. By S. R. Keightley. New York: Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

RISING FORTUNES. The Story of a Man's Beginnings. By 
John Oxenham. New York : G. W. Dillingham Co. 

LOVE MADE MANIFEST. By Guy Boothby. Chicago : 
Herbert S. Stone & Co. 

THE SHIP OF STARS. By A.T. Quiller-Couch. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE WATCHERS. A Novel. By A. E. W. Mason. New 
York : Frederick A. Stokes Co. 

RUPERT, BY THE GRACE OF GOD . By Dora Greenwell 
McChesney. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

A WARD OF THE KING. A Romance. By Katharine S. 
Macquoid. New York : F. M. Buckles & Co. 

MR JACK HAMLIN'S MEDIATION, and Other Stories. By 
Bret Harte. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

THE OTHER FELLOW. By F. Hopkinson Smith. Boston : 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

THE POWERS AT PLAY. By Bliss Perry. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

THE SURFACE OF THINGS. By Charles Waldstein. Bos- 
ton : Small, Maynard & Co. 




bulence of the strife between Stephen and the daugh- 
ter of Henry I., and who seeks to carve out for 
himself a new fortune by joining the crusaders. 
The story is chiefly concerned with the fruitless 
efforts of the enamoured queen to withdraw him 
from allegiance to his early love, but his faith 
proves too steadfast to yield to this temptation. 
Other historical figures are those of Arnold of 
Brescia and St. Bernard. The romance is excel- 
lently told, although it is not without longueurs and 
produces something of the stucco-effect which seems 
inevitable when such a theme is handled by any 
but the greatest of novelists. 

" The Tempest " has clearly been the inspiration 
of " My Lady and Allan Darke." The scene is an 
island off the coast of Virginia, the time something 
over a century ago. Prospero is a gentleman who, 
having been accused of a crime of which he is guilt- 
less, has taken refuge upon the island, and eventu- 
ally becomes monarch of all he surveys, including 
the plantation and slaves of the former owner, 
whose daughter he marries. Here his own daugh- 
ter (our Miranda) grows up in maidenly seclusion, 
not knowing the full tale of the past, and hither 
Allen Darke (our Ferdinand) is brought by the 
accident of shipwreck. Now Allan, unwitting of 
all this history, is really the one whom Prospero 
most fears, because he is by birth the natural avenger 
of the crime with which Prospero is wrongfully 
charged. Declaring his name, his protestations of 
ignorance avail him no whit; his life is spared, but 
he is kept a close prisoner on the island. Over and 
over again he escapes a treacherous death at the 
hands of a too zealous servant of Prospero, and in 
the end, when the latter dies, and all the mystery 
is cleared away, wins the love of My Lady, and the 
story ends happily. It is a really fascinating bit 
of romance, original (except for its admitted pro- 
totype) in design, and carried breathlessly on 
through many thrilling episodes to the conclusion 
that no experienced reader needs to be told is 

For a professional man of peace, Archdeacon 
Brady has a very pretty taste in scrimmages. He 
prefers them by water, and the mere thought of a 
sea-fight is enough to heat his blood to the boiling 
point. In his new story, " For the Freedom of the 
Sea," he has a theme after his own heart, and he 
writes of the glories of Old Ironsides with an en- 
thusiasm that is wholly unaffected. The War of 
1812 supplies the subject-matter of this romance, 
and the fight between the " Constitution " and the 
" Guerriere " is but one of a series of episodes that 
keep the interest wide awake. The author is as yet an 
amateur novelist, to be sure ; he elaborates too much, 
and his style is far from impeccable, but there is an 
honest manliness about his work that compels both 
respect and admiration. 

" In Old New York," the romance which we owe 
to the collaboration of Mr. Wilson Barrett and Mr. 
Elwyn Barren, is a story of the year 1745, the time 
of the siege of Louisburg and of the Young Pre- 

tender. These happenings, however, only appear 
in the story as echoes from distant lands, although 
the fortunes of one of the characters are directly 
affected by the news of the Jacobite rising in Scot- 
land. The story is really concerned with the social 
and commercial life of Manhattan Island at a time 
when the city was mewing its mighty youth, and 
the possibilities of its future were becoming revealed 
to the far-seeing eyes of its shrewd Dutch and En- 
glish inhabitants. It is a well-constructed novel of 
private interests, with a charming heroine, and a 
pair of heroes who, if not charming, are at least 
interesting, and in quite different ways. Although 
Mr. Barrett's name stands first upon the title-page, 
we find more of Mr. Barron in the book itself 
more, that is, which seems attributable to the author 
of " Manders " than to the author of " The Sign of 
the Cross." 

" The Favor of Princes " is a variant upon a very 
hackneyed theme. An impoverished young noble- 
man comes to Paris to seek his fortune at court. 
The time is that of Louis XV. and the ascendancy 
of the Pompadour. He marries a wealthy woman 
of bourgeoise extraction, actually falls in love with 
her, and finding a rival in no less a man than the 
King, defies that august personage, and wins his 
point by virtue of sheer audacity. The story is with- 
out originality, and is told in too commonplace a 
manner to excite more than a languid interest. 

In writing " The Grand Mademoiselle," Mr. 
James Eugene Farmer has gone far beyond his first 
historical romance, " The Grenadier." He has 
learned, for example, to mix historical fact with his 
narrative much more skilfully, and to impart to his 
work much more of vivacity and animation. His 
subject is, of course, the Fronde, and the character 
of Mademoiselle de Montpensier seems to have 
inspired him with great enthusiasm. He tells of her 
audacious entry into Orleans, and of her brilliant 
although ineffectual defence of Paris against the 
forces of Mazarin and the young King. The author 
displays a fertile invention in the devices with 
which he embroiders the pages of history, as well as 
a certain talent in the portraiture of the numerous 
historical characters who figure in his tale. 

From seventeenth century Paris, as described in 
the foregoing romance, to eighteenth century Lon- 
don, as depicted in Sir Walter Besant's "The 
Orange Girl," is a transit to be measured otherwise 
than in leagues of land and sea. The latter, too, is 
a historical novel, in a sense, but it is social rather 
than political history that concerns us. Newgate, 
the debtor's prison, and the details of a criminal 
trial, are Sir Walter's themes, and he writes of 
them from that intimate knowledge of Old London 
with which few may hope to compete. There is 
more matter in this book than the author has been 
wont to give us of late, more antiquarian detail and 
more dramatic incident. And it is by a true artistic 
instinct that he takes us at the end, in company 
with his chief characters, across the ocean to the 
Virginia colony, and provides a peaceful epilogue 



[Feb. 1, 

to his story of crime and degradation. The mem- 
ory of his heroine, who rose from the slums to he- 
come a famous actress, and whose salf-sacrificing 
devotion saved the hero from the toils of villainy, 
will long remain in the mind of the reader. 

One does not get far in " The Colossus " of Mr. 
Morley Roberts before supplying the words " of 
Rhodes " parenthetically. The novel has three fea- 
tures : a man, an enterprise, and an intrigue. The 
man has been indicated, the enterprise is the Cape 
to Cairo railway, the intrigue is supplied by political 
conditions in Cairo, in which town the whole scene 
is laid. The designing young woman who has set 
her cap at the hero, and who insinuates herself into 
the intrigue for the purpose of helping him with 
the enterprise, excites little admiration and less 
sympathy. Nor is the figure of the Colossus half 
as impressive as the author evidently believes it to 
be. He affects a pretentious style, and succeeds 
only in producing an impression of futility. 

The " Monte Cristo " type of story has an inex- 
haustible interest. There are so many things that 
can be done by a man in possession of an enormous 
fortune, and so wide a field for the ingenuity of the 
novelist dealing with such a case, that the plot of 
such a story never becomes hackneyed. In " The 
Princess Xenia," the fortune falls to an Englishman 
living in impecunious obscurity in a small German 
duchy, presumably in the pre-imperial days. He 
seeks to make himself the arbiter of destiny, both 
for this and the two adjoining petty states, and 
would combine them under one rule as a barrier 
against the Prussian policy of encroachment. In 
this design he almost succeeds, but the achievement 
is wrested from him at the very moment of triumph 
by the act of a passionate woman the inevitable 
and incalculable woman, with whom both fiction and 
actual life have to reckon in some unexpected 
fashion. There are intrigues manifold, and peril- 
ous adventures without number, from which entan- 
glement the hero barely escapes in the end, carrying 
with him the dispossessed princess, who seems to 
count the world well lost for the love of such a man. 
It is all delightfully and improbably entertaining. 

Mr. Bernard Capes is becoming so completely 
the victim of his mannerisms that he is well-nigh 
unreadable. He is so inoculated with the Mere- 
dithian microbe that his style has become hope- 
lessly strained and obscure, while such a matter as 
coherency of plot seems altogether unworthy of his 
attention. " Our Lady of Darkness " is the book 
which occasions the present strictures. It is a ro- 
mance of the French Revolution, with English and 
Belgian episodes, and is carried through a bewilder- 
ing series of happenings to a most futile conclusion. 

The " Siren City " of " Benjamin Swift " is more 
interesting as a story than any of its three prede- 
cessors by the same hand, although it is not without 
that infusion of bitterness which so marks the work 
of this singularly powerful writer. The heroine is 
a woman whose purity and strength are brought 
into effective contrast with the sordid influences that 

surround her innocent life, and turn her romance 
into the darkest of tragedies. Superficially, this 
novel is the story of an English girl who becomes 
the prey of an Italian fortune-hunting adventurer. 
Psychologically, it is a study of the interrelations of 
a group of intensely passionate natures in which 
virtue is beset by villainy, but remains invincible. 
The Neapolitan setting of the best part of the work 
lends it an added external glamour, and its study 
of Italian character is no less subtle and penetrating 
than its dealings with English persons and scenes. 
The style is admirably direct and tense, at moments 
rising to the heights of a grave and restrained 
beauty. Altogether, the writer appears more than 
ever one to be reckoned with, and already displays 
evidences of a more softened humanity than has 
heretofore been discernible in his cynical envisage- 
ment of modern society. 

Those who remember Lord Ernest Hamilton's 
" Outlaws of the Marches," with its striking depic- 
tion of the fifteenth century feuds of the Scotch 
border, will hardly be prepared for the surprise that 
awaits them in " The Perils of Josephine." No 
two novels could well be more dissimilar. The one 
was a stirring romance of the days of rough man- 
hood and hard fighting ; the other is a sensational 
melodrama of modern society, enacted in and about 
an English country house. We are led up by easy 
degrees to the extremely improbable plot against 
Josephine, but her perils, when they become really 
manifest, are quite as thrilling as the most exacting 
reader could wish. The author is a clever artificer, 
besides being a versatile one, and this his latest 
effort is a noteworthy example of its own peculiar 
sort of composition. 

" lone March," Mr. S. R. Crockett's latest ven- 
ture, is a most unhappy one. It is supposed to be 
a study in American girlhood, and what the writer 
does not know of the subject would fill many vol- 
umes. Such caricatures as those of the heroine and 
her girl friends are not often met with in fiction of 
serious intent, and such unrealities as the incidents 
which are strung together about the heroine belong 
strictly to the literature of burlesque. The story is 
one long and disjointed extravaganza, without a 
suggestion of real characterization, and without 
ordinary verisimilitude in its several episodes. We 
advise Mr. Crockett to go back to his moss-hags, 
and never again venture so far away from them. 

In shifting his activities from the field of histor- 
ical to that of domestic romance, Mr. S. R. Keightley 
has not been well-advised. " The Crimson Sign " 
and " The Cavaliers " were among the best recent 
examples of the former species of production, but 
" Heronford " is not thus distinguished among its 
many competitors. It is, however, a sufficiently 
stirring tale of an old English family, and leads up 
to certain culminating episodes that are sufficiently 
improbable to meet the most exacting of romantic 
demands. And it must be added that in matters of 
minor craftmanship, Mr. Keightley's hand has even 
gained something of deftness. 




Since " God's Prisoner " came into our hands 
some months ago, the name of Mr. John Oxenham 
has been one that could not go disregarded upon 
the title-page of a book. His " Rising Fortunes," 
which has just been published, is not equal in inter- 
est to its predecessors, but it is an enjoyable story. 
It is essentially a story of the " literary shop " as 
it exists in London, with its attendant commercial- 
ism, and log-rolling, and mean rivalries. The heroes 
for there are two of coordinate rank are young 
Scotchmen who, attracted by what Dr. Johnson 
called the noblest of all prospects, start for the 
metropolis with little other provision than their 
undaunted ambitions. How they gradually secure a 
foothold, and eventually achieve success the one 
in art and the other in literature is the substance 
of the narrative which the author unfolds. The 
book has a grasp upon reality, which is much, and 
its ideas are wholesome, which is more. 

We cannot say that there is much of either 
reality or wholesomeness in Mr. Guy Boothby's 
" Love Made Manifest." Here again is a young 
man of letters, but the struggle is lacking, for he 
writes a play in a single night, has it accepted in a 
single interview, and becomes almost immediately 
the most popular author of the day. So much for 
the question of reality. We have but to continue 
our summary to dispose of the question of whole- 
someness. Our meteoric author is rashly and un- 
happily married, and, in the full flush of his success, 
meets a woman a childhood friend who is in 
like case. The conventional conscientious pose is 
maintained for a time, but in the end they run away 
together, and make a home on a lonely island in the 
Pacific. Presently they both experience religion of 
the hysterical sort, and, in expiation of their sins, 
repair to a leper colony, and there end their lives. 
This is sad rubbish, although candor compels the 
admission that the book is somewhat better written 
than the Dr. Nikola stories. 

Mr. Quiller-Couch has a genius for titles. All of 
his books bear names that fascinate, and the latest 
of them is the happiest of them all in this respect. 
" The Ship of Stars " might mean so many things, 
and has about it such an atmosphere of mystery 
and poetical suggestiveness. The book itself seems 
to us the masterpiece among all that the author has 
produced hitherto. It is a tale of the Cornwall 
coast, of which the landscape, the customs, and the 
quaint folk are now so familiar to us through the 
ministrations of this gifted story-teller. The ele- 
ments of which it is compounded are various, recall- 
ing Mr. Hopkinson Smith in the lighthouse episode, 
" Jude the Obscure " (although with no touch of the 
bitterness) in the brief sojourn of the hero at Ox- 
ford, and " Sentimental Tommy " in the delineation 
of a boyish imagination, and the slow moulding of 
a character strong enough to react upon environ- 
ment and conquer it. There is something so abso- 
lutely clean and wholesome about this story of duty 
done for its own sake, so high and fine in the ideal- 
ism with which it is informed, that we may once 

more take heart for our fiction-literature, in spite of 
the meretricious and brutal forces that sometimes 
seem so hopelessly in the ascendency. What a 
refreshing contrast is here offered to such books as 
" The Christian " and " Stalky & Co.," to name two 
conspicuous illustrations of the degrading tendencies 
to which we have reference. It is the whole dif- 
ference between art and fustian. " Lord, make men 
as towers " is the prayer which here serves as a text, 
and in the spirit of that fine aspiration the book is 
written for the bettering of men's lives and the 
bringing back into literature of a large sanity and a 
worthy purpose. 

To the coast of Cornwall or rather beyond it to 
the Scillies we are also taken by " The Watchers," 
a story by Mr. A. E. W. Mason, which follows close 
upon the two that we reviewed only a few weeks ago. 
The story is, however, a disappointment, being little 
above the level of the " shilling shocker," and de- 
pending for its mystery upon that cheapest of all 
sensational devices hypnotic influence. This and 
a buried pirate treasure are the mainsprings of what 
must be described as an irritating and grossly 
improbable invention. It is a story of the eight- 
eenth century, but the special coloring of the period 
is plastered upon the surface rather than worked 
into the texture of the narrative. 

The Cromwell period of English history appears 
to be an inexhaustible source of material for writers 
of historical fiction. Industriously as it has been 
worked, it still offers one of the most interesting 
opportunities for romantic exploitation. Women, as 
a rule, are not very successful in work of this sort, 
but an exception must be made of Miss McChesney, 
whose " Rupert, by the Grace of God " is a 
highly satisfactory narrative. The hero is, of course, 
the daring royalist leader, and the story is chiefly 
concerned with a conspiracy to persuade him into 
treason by the promise of the English crown. The 
scene is mostly in the west of England, and the inter- 
est culminates with the siege and capitulation of Bris- 
tol. A love story is worked in, as a matter of course, 
and all ends happily for the hero and the heroine. 

Mrs. Macquoid is a practiced novelist, but she is 
unwise in attempting historical romance. Her latest 
book, "A Ward of the King," is prettily enough 
written, but the plot is feebly developed, and its 
excitement proves to be of a very mild type. It is 
a French story of the Constable de Bourbon and 
the struggle which led to the disaster of Pavia. 
Public interests are, however, rather kept in the 
background, and the story is really about the tribu- 
lations of a young gentlewoman, beset by unscrupu- 
lous enemies, and saved in due course of time from 
their evil machinations. 

Among recent volumes of short stories, the new 
collection by Mr. Bret Harte occupies the first place. 
These tales have, however, little of the pristine 
freshness of their earlier predecessors, and it is be- 
coming more and more evident that the author's 
rich pay-streak is worked out. Even the familiar 
figure of Jack Hamlin is less engaging and impu- 



[Feb. 1, 

dent than usual, and the other types introduced 
reveal only a weakening of the writer's grasp as his 
Californian past recedes farther and farther from 
his view. His improbabilities are too glaring to be 
accepted, now that they come to us unaccompanied 
by the old magnificent verve and picturesqueness of 
effect. The stories are eight in number. 

In Mr. Hopkinson Smith's small volume there are 
no less than eleven stories, but several of these are 
mere sketches of a few pages each. The interest is 
here in the author's own personality, for he does not 
strain after inventions, but rather chooses to portray 
his own experiences, with just enough imaginative 
coloring to save them from being tedious. They 
have an undoubted charm, in spite of their excess 
of sentiment, for they reflect a generous view of 
life, as observed by a man who is both artist and 
humorist. Several of them are based upon inci- 
dents picked up by Mr. Smith in his character as a 
lecturer, for of recent years he has added that occu- 
pation to his many others. 

Mr. Bliss Perry has reversed the order usual with 
writers of fiction in that he has turned to the telling 
of short stories after having won a considerable 
success in the full-fledged novel. At least, " The 
Powers at Play " is the first collection of stories by 
his hand that has come to our notice, and we sin- 
cerely trust it may not prove the last. He has a 
quick eye for the possibilities of an incident or a 
situation, and he serves it up with neatness and 
despatch. There are eight stories in the present 
volume, some very slight, others more elaborate, 
and all interesting. Their invention is excellent, 
and they are enlivened by whimsical humor or else 
touched with subtle pathos. Whichever of these 
two formulae is applied to the work in hand, it is 
deftly employed and effective. The first story, 
" His Word of Honor," seems to us on the whole 
the best of the eight, but a close second may be 
found in either " The White Blackbird " or " The 
Incident of the British Ambassador." 

Turning now to Dr. Charles Waldstein's " The 
Surface of Things," we find ourselves confronted by 
writing of a different sort from that contained in 
the preceding volumes of short stories. Admirably 
entertaining as those volumes are, they are dis- 
tinctly light literature, and lightness is the last 
quality to be predicated of Dr. Waldstein's work. 
Indeed, the elaborate and possibly a trifle too " im- 
portant " prefatory matter which accompanies these 
three studies in " the ethics of the surface " pre- 
pares the reader for a severer strain upon the philo- 
sophical intelligence than is really intended, and it 
is with something of a surprise to find, in one of 
the studies at least, the adumbration of a love-story. 
Dr. Waldstein's thesis for his work is written to 
illustrate a thesis may be briefly stated, for the 
most part in his own words. The interests of the 
modern civilized man have come to embrace so 
many things that the motives of the older fiction 
become every year more and .more inadequate to 
express the complexity of the social organism. 

" The relation of man to woman, love in all its 
phases and with all its consequences, the lust of 
power and gain, the struggle for empire or the strug- 
gle for existence, money, a successful career " 
these must give way in part to " the more abstract 
and intellectual interests of life " if the art of fiction 
is to remain the typical literary art of the coming 
century. " The novelists with whose theories I am 
at issue, it appears to me, always understand by 
life what I should call the life of prehistoric man." 
" Not only those who are the fullest and highest 
representatives of our culture and civilization, but 
even the simplest and humblest members of our 
modern occidental communities, have a variety of 
needs and desires, without which life would to them 
not be worth living, which are so far removed from 
the fundamental necessities of prehistoric people 
that they would appear barely to graze the surface 
of existence." Voila le grand mot lance. That 
is the sense in which Dr. Waldstein would have us 
take his title. " These needs appear to be on the 
surface, but in reality they form the very core of 
our conscious existence. Considerably more than 
half of our waking thoughts and aspirations are 
directed toward the satisfaction of them ; they have 
become fundamental to us, and we therefore need 
not appeal to the basal passions of life for their 
justification." In reading this plea, we think at 
once of the delicate work of Mr. Henry James, and 
the present writer reminds us of Mr. James at more 
than one point, but we must add that he strikes the 
note of a deeper intellectual sincerity, that his utter- 
ance seems to us much weightier. It is true that 
studies of this sort leave indistinct the border-line 
that separates the story from the essay, but this 
difficulty of classification need not concern us in 
view of the keen pleasure which they afford. Dr. 
Waldstein has opened what is almost a new vein in 
literature, and we trust that the present small vol- 
ume is but the earnest of what he shall yet accom- 
plish in the exploitation. 



Contemporary The translation of Seignobos's " Po- 
European litical History of Modern Europe," 

history. by p ro fe 8 8or S. M. Macvane (Holt), 

is a meritorious undertaking. The result, we be- 
lieve, would be more satisfactory were the work 
that of a translator alone. This, however, is not 
the case, for the book, as given in English, presents 
many of the translator's views and criticisms. This 
would be the more bearable were these changes made 
in addition to rather than in place of original mate- 
rial ; or were they stamped and subscribed to as 
"editor's notes." The difficulty is that for the 
English reader there is nothing to indicate respon- 
sibility for statements and deductions. The most 
sweeping changes are made in the treatment of 



present century English history, in which the author 
and the translator disagree. Aside from the gen- 
eral question of translators' alterations, is not the 
conception of a distinguished French historian of 
greater importance to the student than the mere 
statement of more generally accepted opinion ? 
As to the book itself, it deserves most generous 
praise for simplicity of statement, clearness of in- 
sight, and for a just balancing of the various ele- 
ments that go to make up the history of a nation 
in any given period. Part I. is devoted to a do- 
mestic history of Europe since 1814, by nations ; 
Part II. treats of " certain political phenomena 
common to various European communities," as, for 
example, the growth and distribution of ideas of 
state socialism ; Part III. is given up to an exam- 
ination, for all Europe, of such details of military 
and diplomatic history as have not already been 
touched upon in previous pages. A most interest- 
ing chapter at the present time is that entitled " The 
Parliamentary Republic " the concluding one in 
the domestic history of France because of the 
author's insight into secret political conditions, and 
because of his supreme faith in the permanence of 
the Republic. Especially noteworthy is his defense 
of the custom of interpellations. The present gov- 
ernment, says Seignobos, is anomalous in that 
France is governed by men chosen on the demo- 
cratic principle of election, while it is administered 
by a beaureaucratic official class, imperial in its 
organization, and in part independent of public 
opinion. The politicians labor to please the people 
upon whose votes their political existence depends ; 
the officials " tend to see in the citizens subjects of 
administration who must be kept in due submission 
to authority and regulations." While the politicians, 
as cabinet members, are at the head of official ad- 
ministration, they are quickly imbued with the 
spirit and attitude of the permanent office-holding 
class, and it then becomes the duty of Deputies, by 
interpellations, to hold them in check. Thus inter- 
pellations " are practical contrivances which enable 
two contradictory sets of institutions to exist side 
by side : a democratic political system and a per- 
manent administrative hierarchy. It compels the 
permanent officials to submit to the people's chosen 
representatives." It is a new argument, but it will 
hardly suffice to overthrow the weight of evidence 
against interpellations. 

Mr. William Archer is a man whose 
good opinion even a great nation of 
eighty millions of unprecedently well- 
fed, well-housed, and well-clothed people, like our 
own, may think worth having. We have pretty 
well gotten over our old provincial sensitiveness to 
foreign opinion. We do n't in general care a rap 
what the ordinary touring cockney or badaud 
may think or say of us. We did n't fume and fret 
and neglect our business when even Matthew Arnold 
found our cities " uninteresting," and hinted that 
Chicago, for all her culture and " sky-scrapers," was 

Mr. Archer's 
notes on 

still not exactly the Athens of Pericles. To be sure, 
Mr. Arnold came before the World's Fair, and 
never saw the bronze colossus that later kept watch 
and ward on the Lake Front and awed the soul of 
the approaching voyager, like the Athene Pro- 
machos on the Acropolis. But the pages of Mr. 
Archer's " America of To-Day " (Scribner) are quite 
free from that " certain condescension " we used to 
resent so hotly. He is pleased with us, and wishes 
us well ; but he does n't affect to look down benevo- 
lently on us. The only thing we have to complain 
of in his tone is that it is not quite free from that 
note of amused interest with which the Briton, time 
out of mind, has been wont to regard the outside 
world in general. But Mr. Archer's smile is a quiet 
one, and not in the least irritating ; so we can well 
afford to let him enjoy it. Mr. Archer's papers are 
stamped with a freshness of view, and a tendency 
to reexamine and in some cases to combat certain 
stock complaints about Brother Jonathan, that 
caused them to be rather freely quoted and can- 
vassed in England when they appeared serially 
for the book is a reprint of letters to London peri- 
odicals. His hardy defense of the " American Lan- 
guage," for instance, really shocked some of his 
English friends Mr. Lang, especially, whose 
nerves, originally none of the strongest, were quite 
upset by some of his fellow-critic's heresies. Mr. 
Lang's Scotch ear is ravished by the skirl of the 
bag-pipes ; but the American phrase " all the time " 
is enough to drive him out of the room. Mr. Archer 
has divided his text under two captions " Obser- 
vations," under which are grouped the more purely 
descriptive letters reflecting his impressions of New 
York, Boston, and Chicago, of American hospitality, 
American character and culture, etc.; and " Reflec- 
tions," a series of thoughtful papers on " North and 
South," " The Republic and the Empire," " Amer- 
ican Literature," and " The American Language." 
He especially relishes the American humorous anec- 
dote, and has gathered some choice specimens for 
English consumption, notably that of the rustic 
Kentuckian who, leaving the theatre after witness- 
ing Salvini in " Othello," warmly observed : " It was 
a good show a mighty good show; and I don't 
see but the coon did as well as any of 'em." 

More chapters Volume IV. of Mr. Laird Clowes's 
in the story of comprehensive and elaborately 
the Royal Navy. mounte( j an a constructed history of 
" The Royal Navy " (Little, Brown, & Co.) contains 
the record of the Minor Operations of the Navy 
between 1763 and 1792, by Mr. W. H. Wilson ; the 
story of Naval Voyages and Discoveries (including 
the expeditions of Cook, Wallis, and Carteret) dur- 
ing the same period, by Sir Clements Markham ; 
The Civil History of the Navy from 1793 to 1802, 
and an account of the Major Maritime Operations 
during the war of the French Revolution, by the 
editor ; a summary of the Minor Operations of that 
war, by Mr. W. H. Wilson ; and a notice of Naval 
Voyages and Discoveries, 1793-1802, by Sir 



[Feb. 1, 

Clements Markham. Mr. Clowes's undertaking, it 
will be remembered, as originally planned, called 
for the completion of the work in five volumes. But 
the appearance of much new matter bearing upon 
naval events and developments of the present cen- 
tury has rendered a sixth volume necessary to the 
promised completeness and comprehensiveness of 
the work. The completion of the History, Mr. 
Clowes hopes, will not be much delayed by this ex- 
tension, material for Volume V. being already in 
type. We gladly testify to the abundant evidences 
of painstaking research and collation manifest in 
the work of Mr. Clowes and his competent colaborers. 
The distinctive plan of the work, that is to say, 
the parcelling out of specific phases and periods 
among writers specially qualified to deal with their 
respective allotments, whatever its obvious draw- 
backs from the literary point of view, has undoubt- 
edly conduced to accuracy and despatch, and will 
result in the production of a book which will long 
serve as the standard one for reference and appeal. 
The illustrations are, as before, profuse and hand- 
some, the most notable plate being a very strong 
and attractive portrait of Nelson after an original 
painting never before reproduced. The volumes 
are separately indexed. 

Dark pictures of Aside from a not unsuccessful effort 
Yankee sailing to produce a readable "yarn," the 

ship* and officers. a j m of Mr Algx j Boy( j ? J Q hig book 

called " The Shellback " (Brentano's), appears to be 
to paint in the blackest possible colors the ways and 
characters of the officers of American sailing ships, 
not only now but some forty years back, when Mr. 
Boyd's own experiences of our merchant service 
were acquired. To-day, as in the sixties Mr. 
Boyd's literary sponsor, Mr. Robertson, assures us 
the terms "Yankeeship" and " Hellship " are 
synonymous ; and he goes to say : " Were the laws 
now on our statute books rigidly enforced, a large 
majority of American captains and mates would be 
sent to the penitentiary, and not a few to the gal- 
lows or electric chair." This is strong language, 
and, supposing it to be justifiable, it seems to imply 
that the gangs in the forecastles, with whom the 
wicked captains and mates necessarily served their 
time and got their notions of sea-discipline, must 
themselves be a pretty tough lot, and more amena- 
ble to hard knocks than moral suasion. For our 
part, we are inclined to think the common seaman 
suffers in general more from the rascally parsimony 
of stingy shipowners than from the brutality of 
mates and captains. There is at all events this to 
be said for the officers of a deep-water ship : they 
are very commonly under the absolute necessity of 
aweing into subjection ruffianly crews of potential 
mutineers who outnumber them twenty to one ; and 
if they resort to rough measures it is fair to pre- 
sume that they do so quite as much from their 
knowledge of the men they have to deal with as 
from mere wanton cruelty. Mr. Boyd's book is a 
readable one, of a rather lurid and sensational order, 

and it is clearly, as he claims, founded on personal 
experience ; but we are quite unwilling to accept 
the " Altamont," the " floating hell " on which he 
sailed as an apprentice-boy from Melbourne to 
Liverpool, as a representative American merchant 
ship, or her fiend incarnate of a captain as the typ- 
ical Yankee skipper. There are several illustrations. 

The technical That quaint little treatise on " The 
processes of Art of the Old Masters " written by 

the old masters. Cennino Cennini of Padua in 1437 
has been well re-translated and editorially supple- 
mented by Mrs. Christiana J. Herringham, and pub- 
lished in attractive form by Mr. Francis P. Harper. 
In his " Trattato," Cennino, himself a painter and 
a pupil of Agnolo (son of Taddeo) Gaddi, describes 
the technical processes of his time the technique, 
that is, of the great masters of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, from Giotto, Fra Angelico, and 
Memmi, down to Botticelli, Benozzo Gozzoli, Ghir- 
landajo, etc., and tells how his contemporaries 
ground and mixed their pigments, painted their 
pictures and miniatures, tinted their papers, made 
their varnishes, laid on their gold, and so on. For 
example, says the " Trattato '': " If you would make 
a changing drapery in secco, cover it with a flat tint 
of lake ; use flesh-color for the lights, or, if you 
will, giallorno. Glaze the dark parts as you like 
with pure lake, or purple (bisso), with tempera." 
The extract may serve to indicate the scope and 
uses of the book, which is a mine of detailed inform- 
ation as to the materials and processes of the time 
and school. In translating Cennino Mrs. Herring- 
ham has two predecessors, Mrs. Merrifield, and the 
German, Ilg. In the two older versions, especially 
the English one, inaccuracies have been found. 
Mrs. Herringham's practical knowledge of the pro- 
cesses described in the treatise has assisted her in 
making a translation free, at least, from technical 
errors. There is an Appendix containing some 
useful notes on mediaeval methods. 

Ordinarily, the lives of authors are 
The story of ^ t j jj reading, so uneventful and 

Oliver Goldsmith. , , & ' , , 

colorless are the greater number of 
them ; but sometimes the personality of a poet or a 
novelist is so original and individual that the life is 
of more permanent interest than the letters. We 
shall never be quite satisfied with what we know 
about Poe the man ; the story of Byron's stormy 
career will never cease to have attractions for us, 
and Gulliver must always be of less moment than 
Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's. Among 
such names as these we must number that of Oliver 
Goldsmith, whom we cannot cease to love, however 
much or little we may care for " The Deserted Vil- 
lage," or " She Stoops to Conquer," or " The Vicar 
of Wakefield." In his memoir of Goldsmith (Dodd, 
Mead & Co.), Mr. Austin Dobson gives us just so 
much of his life as most readers will care to know. 
He tells the history of his checkered career with 
the easy skill that makes it seem a story of romantic 




Great names 
of Avgustan 

reality, duly authenticated by frequent reference to 
Johnson, and Garrick, and Reynolds, and the 
"Jessamy Bride," but a story still. There is 
abundant record of pounds and guineas and other 
things not distinctly literary, here (by some magic of 
the pen) given a decidedly literary flavor. And there 
is record, too, of lack of pounds and guineas and other 
things prosaic, perhaps even more certainly literary 
and serving as a thread on which the memoir strings 
in close sequence the irregular happenings of Gold- 
smith's life. It is something to have so lived as to 
make possible such a biography so written. Whole- 
souled kindness and persistent cheeriness glow in 
its pages, and these are things of which we can 
never have too much, whether in men or books. 

Mr. Oliver Elton's work on " The 
Augustan Ages " (Scribner), written 
for the " Periods of European Lit- 
erature " series, is the most readable of the four 
volumes thus far published in that collection, and 
is at least not inferior to any of the others in point 
of scholarship. Mr. Elton's period begins, roughly, 
about the middle of the seventeenth century, and 
ends, more roughly, with the first quarter of the 
eighteenth century. In France, it deals with the 
great names of Bayle, Bossuet, Mme. de Se'vigne', 
La Bruyere, La Fontaine, Boileau, and the three 
dramatists. In England, it includes Hobbes, Bun- 
yan, Dryden, the Restoration drama, Defoe, Pope, 
Addison, and Swift. Six chapters of the work are 
given to French and English literature. A seventh 
surveys the literature of Germany, Holland, and 
the Scandinavian countries, with an excellent state- 
ment of Holberg's work and significance ; an eighth 
deals with Italy and the Peninsula, finding only 
Filicaja and Molinos even among second-class 
names, and a ninth briefly summarizes the whole 
work. No man could cover such a field as this 
without exhibiting many shortcomings, and the au- 
thor frankly acknowledges his dependence upon 
the standard histories for some of the outlying re- 
gions of his survey. He has certainly performed a 
difficult task in a more than creditable fashion, and 
we place the book beside its fellows with much sat- 

A late contribution to the literature 
William Perm. ^ *^ e school of exact description of 
historic characters is " The True 
William Penn" (Lippincott),by Mr. Sydney George 
Fisher, an earnest student of men and matters con- 
nected with Pennsylvania. The volume takes its 
place with " The True Benjamin Franklin" by the 
same author, and " The True George Washington " 
by Mr. Paul Leicester Ford. In the case of William 
Penn, it was not possible to produce a very sensa- 
tional story, because he has not been so idealized 
as have the two others. The value of the biog- 
raphy does not consist, therefore, in the dissipa- 
tion of mists of error which have surrounded the 
founder of Pennsylvania, or, as Carlyle might 
put it, in " taking him down a peg." In place of 

Glimpses of 
bygone stage 

this there is a very interesting description of the 
conditions of life in the time when Penn was grow- 
ing up, so that it is not at all difficult to understand 
how this youth, having chances to enjoy the gay 
career of a courtier, preferred to cast his lot with 
the persecuted Quakers. The changes in his thought 
as the panorama of his life shifted are admirably set 
forth. Both the frame and the picture are to be 
praised, and perhaps that is the most satisfactory 
thing that can be said of a biography. A writer 
has done well who gives a faithful presentation of 
the facts connected with an individual and his en- 
vironment, and this is what Mr. Fisher seems to 
have done in the story of the true William Penn. 

The pretty book containing an "Au- 
tobiographical Sketch of Mrs. John 
Drew" (Scribner) outlines the long 
career of that sterling actress and estimable woman, 
and glances briefly at many stage celebrities of by- 
gone days with whom her calling brought her in con- 
tact. T. P. Cooke, Maria Foote, Forrest, Madame 
Celeste, the Kembles, the Booths, Miss Cushman, 
Tyrone Power, Macready, Murdoch, Hamblin, Mrs. 
Shaw, and others, appear in Mrs. Drew's cheery 
pages, and their portraits serve to embellish and 
add interest to the volume. Mrs. Drew's slight 
mention of these older professional associates is sup- 
plemented by the Biographical Notes of Mr. Doug- 
las Taylor, in the Appendix. For Forrest the author 
has some kindly words, although she admits that he 
" was never a good-tempered man, and was apt to 
be morose and churlish at rehearsals." But he was, 
she adds, the " fairest " actor that ever played. " If 
the character you sustained had anything good in 
it, he would give you the finest chance of showing it. 
He would get a little below you, so that your facial 
expression could be fairly seen ; he would partially 
turn his back, in order that the attention should be 
given entirely to you." Mrs. Drew's somewhat 
meagre and sketchy narrative has been judiciously 
eked out in the editing, and the portraits are decid- 
edly interesting. 

Men and Denominational Encyclopaedias at 

events of the first glance may seem to be un- 

Lutheran Church. nee d e d, but SCCOnd thought will COn- 

vince one that every religious denomination has 
connected with its history matters which are of 
first rate importance to its members, and occasion- 
ally to the world at large. In addition, the bio- 
graphical element is of course always in evidence. 
Of such works, the Lutheran Encyclopaedia (Scrib- 
ner), edited by Professor H. E. Jacobs and the 
Rev. J. A. W. Haas, is in many ways an admir- 
able example. The articles have been assigned 
apparently to the proper persons, and, to judge from 
the character of such articles as have been exam- 
ined, the work has been done conscientiously and 
with somewhat remarkable conciseness. One can 
hardly agree with all the positions taken in the 
general theological articles, which are unexception- 
ally ultra-conservative. It sounds somewhat strange 



[Feb. 1, 

to-day to read the statement that conf essionalism is 
the most efficient protection from rationalism. But 
apart from such criticisms as this, the Lutheran 
Church is to be congratulated upon possessing such 
a complete and succinct record of its important 
men and actions. 

The series of pocket volumes, " The 
B ac n Biographies (Small, May- 
nard & Co.), continues to bear out 
the promises made by its earliest representatives. 
The latest additions to the series include the volume 
on Hawthorne, by Mrs. Annie Fields ; on Burr, by 
Mr. Henry Childs Merwin ; and on Frederick 
Douglass by Mr. C. W. Chestnutt. All of them are 
very readable, and the volume on Douglass is a 
capital illustration of the method of producing a 
clear biographical picture. Mrs. Fields's volume 
on Hawthorne is characteristically reminiscent, al- 
though very largely dependent upon the well known 
volume of her husband. Mr. Merwin's treatment 
of Burr impresses one with the feeling that the 
author began the study with the intention of not 
painting his character quite as black as he is usually 
painted, but found himself compelled to give up the 
struggle before his work was completed. Taken 
altogether, the three volumes are capital illustrations 
of how to write a small book, and the editor again 
is to be congratulated upon bringing so much uni- 
formity into a series which deals with such different 

A somewhat " ancient and fish-like 
smell " pervades Mr. W. H. Long's 
miscellaneous collection of old-time 
British " Naval Yarns " (F. P. Harper), although 
most of the matter is now for the first time printed. 
Over fifty documents or extracts from documents 
are given, some of them mere scraps from private 
letters and journals, and all of them narrating per- 
sonal experiences and adventures in the British 
Navy in the days of sail-power, when the gunner 
guessed at the range, and squinted across the sights 
of a piece that would have been about as effective 
as a catapult against the sides of a modern iron- 
clad. The most valuable paper in the book, " The 
Journal of a Surgeon " (1758-63), presents a 
graphic picture of life afloat at that period, and is 
worth preserving. There are several plates after 
paintings representing famous naval episodes and 

The curious collection of materials 

JS.1SK 1 b y Mr - Howard Pav8on A old 

published under the title " Historic 
Side-Lights" (Harper), make up a book, whose plan, 
if it has any, is not easily discovered, and whose 
purpose excites the increasing wonder of the reader. 
Hercules and George the Third may appear in one 
place ; while, in another, Trilby is appealed to, or 
" Mr. Dooley " is introduced with a characteristic 
sentence. From many a by-path of literature, 
quaint and curious material has been gathered, quite 
a large part of it relating more or less closely to 

Benjamin Franklin. The discourse is rambling and 
disconnected in the extreme, and while portions of 
it are interesting, and the illustrative details it fur- 
nishes may be valuable to a reader who is fond of 
anecdote or flippant phrase, it scarcely seems that 
serious history is really illuminated by such " side- 
lights " as these. 


We have examined with much interest a recent pub- 
lication of the University of Minnesota. It is the work 
of Mr. Coiiway Macmillan, and has for its subject 
" Minnesota Plant Life." The work is intended for 
general reading rather than for text-book use, but is 
clearly to be taken as an educational publication in the 
large sense. After preliminary chapters on the soci- 
eties and the migrations of plants, the descriptive work 
is taken up, beginning with slime-moulds and algfe, and 
leading up to the most highly specialized forms of flow- 
ering plants. The volume contains 568 pages, and has 
for illustrations 240 figures and photographs (many of 
them of great interest and beauty) besides four full- 
page plates. Scientific names of species are not given 
as a rule (which we think a mistake), and there is no 
analytical key. We wish that every State in the Union 
might contrive to publish such a volume as this. 

A recent publication of the Field Columbian Museum 
of Chicago deserves more than a word of passing men- 
tion. It is a work on " The Birds of North America," 
by Mr. Charles B. Cory, and is a manual of the most 
practical character for the use of amateur ornithologists. 
The work is, in substance, an analytical key to the fam- 
ilies and species of all birds known to occur east of the 
ninetieth meridian; the descriptions are so plain as to 
make identification an easy matter even for the inex- 
perienced, and what is not made clear by the text is 
made clear by the many illustrations. Such a manual 
as this, inexpensive and easy of use, ought to do much 
toward popularizing the fascinating branch of natural 
history with which it is concerned. 

Mr. Thomas Newbigging, a student, and, we suppose, 
a stanch defender of the Stuart cause, has recently pro- 
duced a small volume on " The Scottish Jacobites " 
(London: Gay & Bird). While the greater part of 
the book is occupied with a brief narrative of the Jacob- 
ite risings and an account of their battles, the two most 
interesting chapters are those devoted to the fascinating 
songs and music which had their inspiration in the Lost 
Cause. The portraits and illustrations are really fine, 
and the wide margins and clear type make up a very 
attractive volume. 

The following are the latest text-books in the mod- 
ern languages: M. France's " Le Crime de Sylvestre 
Bonnard" (Holt), edited by Mr. C. H. C. Wright; 
" Letters of Madame de Sdvigne" " (Ginn), selected and 
edited by Professor James A. Harrison; "Contes Fan- 
tastiques" (Holt), by Erckmann-Chatrian, edited by 
Professor E. S. Joynes; "Episodes from Malot's Sans 
Famille" (Heath), edited by Mr. I. H. B. Spiers; 
"Goethe's Poems" (Heath), selected and edited by 
Professor Charles Harris; J. G. Seume's "Mein Le- 
ben " (Ginn), edited by Dr. J. Henry Senger; "Sup- 
plementary Exercises to ' Das Deutsche Buch ' " (Holt), 
by Fraulein Josepha Schrakamp ; Alargon's " El 
Capitan Veneno" (Heath), edited by Mr. J. D. M. Ford. 





A life of James Martineau, by Rev. A. W. Jackson, 
is in preparation by Messrs. Little, Brown, & Co. 

Miss Florence N. Levy has edited a supplement to the 
" American Art Annual " for 1899, which is published 
by the Art Interchange Co., New York. 

The third volume of " The Anglo-Saxon Review " 
will be ready for delivery early in February. The 
magazine is published by Mr. John Lane. 

Volume V. of Carlyle's " Critical and Miscellaneous 
Essays," in the " Centenary " edition, has just been 
published by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill's latest work, " Sav- 
rola, a Tale of the Revolution in Laurania," is just 
published by Messrs. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Prof. G. Maspero's " Passing of the Empires, Egypt, 
Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, and Medea B.C. 850 to 
330," is just published by Messrs. Appleton & Co. 

The Messrs. Scribner publish " A Manual of Historic 
Ornament," by Mr. Richard Glazer, an abundantly illus- 
trated manual for the use of both student and craftsman. 

A large-type edition of Dr. Moore's Oxford text of 
the " Divina Cornmedia," with revisions by Paget Toyn- 
bee, will be published at once by the Clarendon Press. 

A new edition, in handsome half-vellum binding, of 
Mr. Charles F. Richardson's well-known volume on 
" The Choice of Books " is published by Messrs. E. P. 
Dutton & Co. 

" Shirley " and " Villette," with introductions by Mrs. 
Humphry Ward, have just been added by the Messrs. 
Harper to their handsome " Haworth " edition of the 
Bronte sisters. 

An unusual sale for a new volume of poetry is that 
of Mr. Stephen Phillips's " Paolo and Francesca," 
which, it is stated by its publisher, Mr. John Lane, has 
already reached its eighth thousand. 

A monograph on " The English Income Tax," by 
Dr. Joseph A. Hill, is the latest issue in the series of 
" Economic Studies " published by the Macmillan Co. 
for the American Economic Association. 

Professor C. H. Herford's " Eversley " edition of 
Shakespeare, published by the Macmillan Co., is now 
brought to a close with the tenth volume, which contains 
" Coriolanus," " Timon of Athens," and the " Poems." 

The tendency of the American publishing trade to 
centralize in New York has for its latest illustration 
the removal of Messrs. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. from 
Boston to that city. Their new address is 426 and 428 
West Broadway, N. Y. 

"The Wider View," edited by Mr. John Monroe 
Dana, and published by the Messrs. Putnam, is an an- 
thology of short extracts in both prose and verse, em- 
bodying the higher aspirations and deeper religious 
thought of many great writers. 

The perennial vitality of Jane Austen is once more 
attested by the publication of a new edition of her 
novels. It is in the " Temple " format, occupies ten 
volumes neatly boxed, and bears the Dent imprint. The 
Macmillan Co. publishes the set in this country. 

The London " Academy " prize award for meritorious 
literature produced during the past year was divided 
into six parts, and the following persons were the ben- 
eficiaries: Sir George Trevelyan for "England in the 
Age of Wycliffe," Miss Gwendoline Keats for "On 
Trial," Mr. W. B. Yeats for " The Wind among the 

Reeds," Mr. H. H. Belloc for his biography of Dan- 
ton, Mrs. Garnett for her translation of Tourgue'nieff, 
and Mr. H. G. Graham for his " Social Life of Scotland 
in the Eighteenth Century." 

Miss Johnston's story " To Have and to Hold," 
which has aroused rather unusual interest while running 
as a serial in the " Atlantic," will be published in book 
form this month by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 
with illustrations by Mr. Howard Pyle and others. 

As a part of the reorganization of the business affairs 
of Messrs. Harper & Brothers, all the text-books here- 
tofore issued by that house will henceforth be issued by 
the American Book Company, of New York and Chi- 
cago, to whom all correspondence relating thereto should 
now be addressed. 

" The Growth of Sartor Resartus," by Prof. D. L. 
Maulsby, is a publication of Tufts College. It is a 
pamphlet thesis designed to show that the work in ques- 
tion had its roots in Carlyle's earlier work, and was, 
in fact, " an epitome of all that Carlyle thought and felt 
in the course of the first thirty-five years of his resi- 
dence on this planet." 

" Who's Who " (Macmillan) for 1900 has just made 
its appearance and will be welcomed by editors and 
other persons who are constantly needing up-to-date 
information about persons and things. We note the 
curious classification which puts down " The Atlantic 
Monthly " as a leading American newspaper. The infor- 
mation afforded upon English subjects is, we doubt not, 
more accurate than this. 

" Statistical Methods with Special Reference to Bio- 
logical Variation," by Dr. C. B. Davenport, is the title 
of a small volume published by Messrs. John Wiley & 
Son. It is issued " in answer to a repeated call for a 
simple presentation of the newer statistical methods in 
their application to biology," and contains the work- 
ing formula? most used in summer laboratories. The 
little book is bound in full leather, and will slip easily 
into the pocket. 

" Mythology for Moderns," by Mr. James S. Met- 
calfe, is a book issued by the " Life " Publishing Co. 
The text consists of a series of up-to-date versions of 
the ancient myths, as audacious as an Offenbach libretto, 
while many illustrations add their share to the enter- 
tainment offered. The same publishers have also sent 
us a thin quarto volume of " Coontown's 400," by Mr. 
E. W. Kemble. Here the pictures are the thing, and 
the text is reduced to brief explanatory notes. 

Mr. Thomas Hardy contributed recently the follow- 
ing verses, entitled " A Christmas Ghost Story," to a 
London paper: 

" South of the Line, inland from far Durban, 
There lies be he or not your countryman 
A fellow mortal. Riddled are his bones, 
But 'mid the breeze his puzzled phantom moans 
Nightly to clear Canopus fain to know 
By whom, and when, the All-Earth-Gladdening Law 
Of Peace, brought in by Some One crucified. 
Was ruled to be inept, and set aside? " 

The death of James Martineau, which occurred as 
our last issue was going to press, must not be passed by 
without at least a brief and belated word of mention. 
He had reached the great age of nearly ninety-five 
years, and had retained his intellectual vigor almost to 
the last. Among the leaders of nineteenth century re- 
ligious thought in England he towers like a giant above 
all save two or three, having, for his peers only such 
men as Newman and Maurice. Nominally a Unitarian, 



[Feb. 1, 

bis outlook was too liberal to be confined even by that 
broad horizon, and it is hardly fair to apply to him any 
sectarian name. His life was spent in teaching and 
preaching, in Dublin, Liverpool, Manchester, and Lon- 
don. So engrossing were these activities that he pub- 
lished few books. Two volumes of college lectures, four 
of sermons, " A Study of Religion," and " Types of Eth- 
ical Theory," are all the publications that need be men- 
tioned. The last-named is his most important book, 
and is likely to live the longest. 

" The Empire of the South " is the title of an attract- 
ive and creditable work of some two hundred pages, 
written by Mr. Frank Presbrey and published with the 
cooperation of the Southern Railway. The book is a 
comprehensive treatment of the history, development, 
resources, and industries of the Southern States, with 
descriptions of pleasure and health resorts, and is illus- 
trated with five hundred photographs reproduced in 
half-tone. It appeals very strongly to those who have 
travelled in this interesting section of our country, and 
must prove of much value to the prospective traveller 
or investor. 

Mr. Frederick Furchheim has followed his " Biblio- 
grafia di Pompei" (see THE DIAL, 1895, Vol. XIX., 
p. 149) with a " Bibliografia del Vesuvio." This is by 
far the most extensive collection of titles relating to Vesu- 
vius that has ever been brought together. According to a 
summary given by the compiler in a footnote, the names 
of about 1000 writers are recorded, reference being 
made to more than 1800 books and articles. Italian writ- 
ers naturally claim the largest number of titles, 944 ; but 
the interest that the world in general has taken in the 
volcano may be measured by the fact that there are no 
less than 329 German, 257 French, and 180 English 
titles. The matter of the books and articles referred 
to covers a wide range; there are included technical 
treatises on the geology and mineralogy of the volcano, 
descriptions of eruptions, by eye-witnesses, and philo- 
sophical disquisitions on the volcanic phenomena, be- 
sides papers dealing with the history of the mountain 
from the earliest times. The titles are arranged in 
alphabetical order under the authors' names. At the 
end is a list of engravings and maps, followed by a 
chronological finding-list and an index. The volume 
is well printed, and altogether a valuable addition 
to the list of bibliographical helps. (Naples: Emilio 

Richard Doddridge Blackmore, the author of " Lorna 
Doone," who died on the twenty-first of last month, at 
the age of seventy-five, had the misfortune to be con- 
sidered as a man of one book by a large section of the 
public. While it is probably true that the novel by 
which he was so widely known was his highest literary 
achievement, it is also true that he wrote other novels 
nearly as deserving of praise. " The Maid of Sker," 
for example, is a very close second, and such books as 
" Alice Lorraine " and " Springhaven " come not very 
far behind. Blackmore's rank among the novelists of 
the latter half of the century is very high. There was 
a time about twenty-five years ago, after the major 
Victorian novelists had passed away, when he seemed 
to overtop any of his contemporaries. At that time, 
neither Mr. Hardy nor Mr. Meredith had been discov- 
ered by the larger public, and Black appeared to be the 
chief rival of Blackmore. Besides the novels we have 
named, we may mention " Clara Vaughan " (his first), 
" Cradock Nowell," Cripps the Carrier," Crema," 
" Christowell," " Mary Anesley," and " Perlycross." 

He began his literary life, however, as a poet, a fact 
attested by three or four volumes of verse, and by a 
translation of two of the " Georgics " of Virgil. The 
last-named task was a labor of love, if ever there was 
one, for Blackmore's interests throughout his life were 
divided, like those of our own Mr. John Burroughs, 
between literature and gardening, if indeed gardening 
may not be named as his vocation, having literature for 
a mere avocation. His neighbors, in his country home 
a few miles outside of London, knew him as an expert 
grower of fruits and vegetables, having little idea of 
his fame in the world of letters, and many of the most 
delightful pages in his books derive their charm from 
his intimate acquaintance with the aspects of farm life. 
His command of a finished (if at times too rhythmical) 
prose style, his familiarity with the homely speech of 
the rustic, his sympathy with dumb animals, his tender 
human feeling, and perhaps also his fine old crusted 
conservatism, may be mentioned as the predominant 
characteristics of his books and his thought. 


February, 1900. 

Agriculture, University Extension in. A. C. True. Forum. 
American College in the Twentieth Century. Atlantic. 
Anti-Trust Issue, Futility of. David Willcox. Forum. 
Art as Means of Expression. W. J. Stillman. International. 
Boer War, Opening of. H. J. Whigham. Scribner. 
China, Reform in. Gilbert Reid. Forum. 
Chopin. James Huneker. Scribner. 
Congo State and Central-African Problems. Harper. 
England's Perilous Position. W. T. Stead. Rev. of Reviews. 
German Empire, The. P. de Coubertin. Rev. of Reviews. 
Havana, Social Life of. T. Bentley Mott. Scribner. 
History. James Ford Rhodes. Atlantic. 
Hypnotic Suggestion, Moral Value of. Harper. 
Indian Territory, Need of Better Government in. Forum. 
Italy, Recent Books on. Harriet W. Preston. Atlantic. 
Japan's Entry into World's Politics. G. Droppers. Internal'! . 
Journalism as Basis for Literature. G. S. Lee. Atlantic. 
Lawton, Gen. H. W. O. O. Howard. Review of Reviews. 
Library of Congress. Herbert Putnam. Atlantic. 
Longevity and Degeneration. W. R. Thayer. Forum. 
Mahdism, Results of Crushing of. F. C. Penfield. Forum. 
Marine Biological Laboratory. H. S. Williams. Harper. 
Mississippi Valley, Future of. A. B. Hart. Harper. 
Mitchell, Donald G. Arthur R. Kimball. Scribner. 
Moody, Dwight L. George P. Morris. Review of Reviews. 
Mormons, The. Rollin L. Hartt. Atlantic. 
Napoleon, Talks with. Barry E. O'Meara. Century. 
New York, Midwinter in. Jacob A. Riis. Century. 
Old-Age Pensions. Michael Davitt and W. H. Lecky. Forum. 
Opera in America and Europe. H. T. Finck. International. 
Orient, True Flavor of the. Julian Ralph. Harper. 
Pacific Cable, Problems of a. H. L. Webb. Scribner. 
Paris Revisited. Richard Whiteing. Century. 
People's Party, The. Marion Butler. Forum. 
Personality, Loss of. Ethel Dench Puffer. Atlantic. 
Philanthropy, Science in. C. R. Henderson. Atlantic. 
Railroad and the People. Theodore Dreiser. Harper. 
Roberts, Field Marshal Lord. Review of Reviews. 
Russia in Central Asia. A. R. Colquhoun. Harper. 
Science of Religion, Recent Work in. C. H. Toy. International. 
Short Story, Future of. E. Charlton Black. International. 
Singapore, White Man's Rule in. Poultney Bigelow. Harper. 
Southern Colleges, Needs of. J. L. M. Curry. Forum. 
Transvaal, England's Relation to. Gen. Poortugael. Forum. 
Treasury and the Money-Market. C. A. Conant. Rev. of Rev. 
Waring, Colonel, Military Elements in Career of. Century. 
Washington's University. Charles W. Dabney. Forum. 
West, Literature in the. E. Hough. Century. 





[The following list, containing 61 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


The Life of Edward White Benson, Sometime Archbishop 

of Canterbury. By his son, Arthur Christopher Benson. 

In 2 vols., illus., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan 

Co. $8. 
Henry Irving: A Record and Review. By Charles Hiatt. 

Illns., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 282. Macmillan Co. S3. 
Literary Reminiscences. By Edouard Grenier; trans. 

from the French by Mrs. Abel Ram. 8vo, uncut, pp. 297. 

Macmillan Co. $1.75. 
Luca Signorelli. By Maud Cruttwell. Illus., 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 144. " Great Masters in Painting and Sculpture." 

Macmillan Co. $1.75. 
Wagner. By Charles A. Lidgey. Illus. in photogravure, 

etc., 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 268. " Master Musicians." 

E. P. Button & Co. $1.25. 
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz. By John 

Gray M'Kendrick, M.D With portrait, 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 300. "Masters of Medicine." Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $1.25. 
The Story of Lewis Carroll Told for Young People by the 

Real Alice in Wonderland, Miss Isa Bowman. Illus. in 

photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, pp. 120. E. P. Button 

&Co. $1. 

Life of Russell H. Conwell, Preacher, Lecturer, Philan- 
thropist. By Albert Hatcher Smith. Illus., 12mo, pp. 335. 

Silver, Burdett & Co. $1.25. 


A History of the British Army. By the Hon. J. W. For- 
tescue. In 2 vols., with maps, large 8vo, uncut. Mac- 
millan Co. $14. 

The Story of France from the Earliest Times to the Consul- 
ate of Napoleon Bonaparte. By Thomas E. Watson. In 
2 vols., Vol. II., From the End of the Reign of Louis XV. 
to the Consulate of Napoleon Bonaparte. 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 1076. Macmillan Co. $2.50. 

Builders of Nova Scotia: A Historical Review. By Sir 
John G. Bourinot, K.C.M.G. Illus., large 8vo, pp. 200. 
Toronto : The Copp-Clark Co. 

Prisoners of the Tower of London : Being an Account of 
Some Who at Bivers Times Lay Captive within its Walls. 
By Violet Brooke-Hunt. Illus. in photogravure, etc., 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 347. E. P. Button & Co. $2.50. 

A Short History of the Expansion of the British Em- 
pire, 1500-1870. By William Harrison Woodward. With 
maps, 12mo, pp. 326. Macmillan Co. $1. net. 


Letters of Benjamin Jowett, M. A., Master of Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxford. Arranged and edited by Evelyn Abbott, 
M. A., and Lewis Campbell. M.A. With portrait, large 8vo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 262. E. P. Button & Co. $5. 

Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill, and Other Literary Estimates. 
By Frederic Harrison. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 302. Mac- 
millan Co. $2. 

French Portraits: Being Appreciations of the Writers of 
Young France. By Vance Thompson. Illus., large 8vo, 
uncut, pp. 241. Richard G. Badger & Co. $2.50. 

The Foundations of English Literature : A Study of the 
Bevelopment of English Thought and Expression from 
Beowulf to Milton. By Fred Lewis Pattee. 12mo, pp. 394. 
Silver, Burdett & Co. $1.50. 

The Choice of Books. By Charles F. Richardson. New 
edition ; 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 208. E. P. Button & 
Co. $1.25. 

The Rise of Formal Satire in England under Classical 
Influence. By Raymond Mac Donald Alden. 8vo, pp. 264. 
" Publications of the University of Pennsylvania." Ginn 


The Natural History of Selborne. By Gilbert White; 
edited by Grant Allen ; illus. by Edmund H. New. Large 
8vo, uncut, pp. 528. John Lane. $7.50. 

The Works of Jane Austen. " Temple " edition. In 
10 vols., with colored frontispieces, 24mo, gilt tops. Mac- 
millan Co. $8. 

The Letters of Cicero : The Whole Extant Correspondence 
in Chronological Order. Trans, into English by Evelyn S. 
Shuckburgh, M.A. In 4 vols., Vols. I. and II., B. c. 68-49. 
12mo, uncut. " Bohn's Classical Library." Macmillan Co. 
Per vol., $1.50 net. 

Philobiblon : A Treatise on the Love of Books. By Richard 
de Bury ; English translation by John Bellingham Inglis ; 
with Introduction by Charles Orr. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 143. New York : Meyer Brothers & Co. $2.50. 

The Works of Shakespeare, " Eversley " edition. Edited 
by C. H. Herford, Litt.B. Vol. X., completing the work. 
12mo, uncut, pp. 507. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

Temple Classics. Edited by Israel Gollancz, M.A. New 
vols.: Plutarch's Lives, Englished by Sir Thomas North, 
Vol. X. (completing the set) ; Microcosmographie, by 
John Earle. Each with portrait, 24mo, gilt top, uncut. 
Macmillan Co. Per vol., 50 cts. 

The Living Past, and Other Poems. By Thomas Seton 

Jevons. 16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 59. Macmillan Co. $1. 
The V-a-s-e, and Other Bric-a-Brac. By James Jeffrey 

Roche. 16mo, uncut, pp. 97. Richard G. Badger & Co. $1. 

The Light of Scarthey: A Romance. By Egerton Castle. 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 434. Frederick A. Stokes Co. $1.50. 
Savrola: A Tale of the Revolution in Laurania. By Winston 

Spencer Churchill. 12mo, pp. 345. Longmans, Green, & 

Co. $1.25. 
Old Madame, and Other Tragedies. By Harriet Prescott 

Spofford. 12mo, uncut, pp. 302. Richard G. Badger & Co. 

The Enchanter. By U. L. Silberrad. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 389. 

Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Donna Teresa. By Frances Mary Peard. 12mo, gilt top r 

pp. 318. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Vassar Stories. By Grace Margaret Gallagher. Illus., 

1'Jmo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 269. Richard G. Badger & Co. 

Captain Landon: A Story of Modern Rome. By Richard 

Henry Savage. Illus., 12mo, pp. 391. Rand, McNally & 

Co. $1.25. 
Passion and Patience. By Janie Prichard Buggan. Illus., 

12mo, pp. 270. Am. Baptist Publication Society. $1.25. 
The Hungarian Exiles. By Benjamin Cowell. Illus., 12mo, 

pp.220. Milwaukee : The Young Churchman Co. $ 
Pepys's Ghost. By Edwin Emerson, Jr. 18mo, pp. 153. 

Richard G. Badger & Co. $1.25. 
Mythology for Moderns: An Up-to-Bate Text-Book for 

Up-to-Bate Students. By James S. Metcalfe. M.A. Illus., 

8vo, pp. 117. New York : Life Publishing Co. $1. 

Highways and Byways in Yorkshire. By Arthur H. 
Norway ; illus. by Joseph Pennell and Hugh Thomson. 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 384. Macmillan Co. $2. 

Gleanings in Holy Fields. By Hugh Macmillan, B.B. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 252. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Sunday School Lessons for Young Children : A Manual 

for Teachers and Parents. By Florence U. Palmar. Illus . , 

8vo, pp. 226. Macmillan Co. $1. 


The World and the Individual: Gifford Lectures Deliv- 
ered before the University of Aberdeen. By Josiah Royce. 
Ph.B. First Series, The Four Historical Conceptions of 
Being. 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 588. Macmillan Co. $3. net. 

Bushido, the Soul of Japan : An Exposition of Japanese 
Thought. By Inazo Nitobe", A.M. 16mo, gilt top, pp. 127. 
Philadelphia : Leeds & Biddle Co. $1. 


Who's Who,19OO: An Annual Biographical Bictionary. 
12mo, pp. 1100. Macmillan Co. $1.75. 

The Daily News Almanac and Political Register. Com- 
piled by Geo. E. Plumbe, A.B. 12mo, pp. 448. Chicago 
Baily News Co. Paper, 25 cts. 



[Feb. 1, 


Greek Terracotta Statuettes. By C. A. Hut-ton ; with 
Preface by A. S. Murray, LL.D. lllus. in colors, etc., 4to, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 100. Macmillan Co. $2.50 net. 

The Destruction of Ancient Rome: A Sketch of the His- 
tory of the Monuments. By Rodolfo Lanciani. lllus., 
12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 279. " Handbooks of Archae- 
ology and Antiquities." Macmillan Co. $2. 


The Logical Bases of Education. By J. Welton, M.A. 

Kimo, pp. 288. " Manuals for Teachers." Macmillan Co. $1. 
Method in Education: A Text- Book for Teachers. By 

Ruric N. Roark, Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 348. American Book 

Co. $1. 
The Sir Roger de Coverley Papers from ' ' The Spectator. ' ' 

Edited by Franklin T. Baker, A.M., and Richard Jones, 

Ph.D. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 217. D. Appleton & Co. 

La Tulips Noire. Par Alexandre Dumas; abridged and 

annotated by Edgar Ewing Brandon, A.M. 12mo, pp. 156. 

American Book Co. 40 cts. 
Going to College. By Waitman Barbe, A.M. With the 

opinions of 50 leading college presidents and educators. 

16mo, pp. 104. Morgantown, W. Va.: The author. Paper, 

25 cts. 
The Cambridge Bible for Schools. Edited by A. F. Kirk- 

patrick, D.D. New vols.: The Proverbs, edited by the 

Yen. T. T. Perowne, B.D. (75 cts.) ; Book of Chronicles, 

edited by W. E. Barnes, D.D. ($1). Each 16mo. Mac- 
millan Co. 
Alice and Tom ; or. The Record of a Happy Year. By Kate 

Louise Brown. lllus., 12mo, pp. 212. D. C. Heath & Co. 

40 cts. 
Dickens's A Tale of Two Cities. Edited by Ella Boyce 

Kirk. 12mo, pp. 301. American Book Co. 50 cts. 
Illustrations of Logic. By Paul T. Lafleur, M.A. 12mo, 

pp. 97. Ginn & Co. 45 cts. 
Milton's Shorter Poems and Sonnets. Arranged and 

edited by Frederick Day Nichols, A.B. 12mo, pp. 153. 

D. Appleton & Co. 40 cts. 
Pope's Iliad of Homer (Selections). Edited by Paul 

Shorey, Ph.D. lllus., 18mo, pp. 142. D. C. Heath & Co. 

35 cts. 
First Reader. For use during the first school year. By 

Norman Fergus Black. lllus., 8vo, pp. 141. Macmillan 

Co. 30 cts. 
The Baldwin Primer. By May Kirk. lllus. in colors, etc., 

8vo, pp. 128. American Book Co. 30 cts. 
Moliere's Les Pre"cieuses Ridicules. Edited by Walter 

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& Co. 25 cts. 


Coontown's 4OO: Drawings by E. W. Kemble. 4to. New 
York : Life Publishing Co. 82. . 

The Book of Penny Toys. Written, and illus. in colors, by 
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Christian Science: An Exposition of Mrs. Eddy's Wonder- 
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A. Purrington. With frontispiece, 12mo, pp. 194. New 
York : E. B. Treat & Co. $1. 

Legislation by States in 1899: Tenth Annual Compara- 
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University of the State of New York. Paper, 25 cts. 


Vol. /., Not. 4-5-6. 25 cents each. 

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Wednesday Matinee, 25c., 50c.; Boxes, $2, $3, $4. 
Saturday Matinee, 25c., 50c., 75c.; Boxes, $2, $3, $4. 

Big Four Route 



Indianapolis, Cincinnati, 


South and Southeast. 

J. C. TUCKER, G. N. A., 

No. 234 South Clark Street, - CHICAGO. 






A Through Tourist Car for Los Angeles Leaves the 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, 

Union Passenger Station, Chicago, at 10:35 p.m. 

Connecting with all trains from the East, carrying First and Second-Class 
Passengers for Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and all points in California. 

Reserve Sleeping Car Accommodations Early. 

Tourist Car Berth Bate Only $6.00. 


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This winter for recreation, rest, 
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North to sunny South, your 
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chair, all at hand. Many travelers 
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visit to Cuba or Puerto Rico to 
their itinerary. 

No change of cars Cincinnati to Havana save at 
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sleepers daily to Tampa. Through solid trains 
Queen & Crescent, Southern Railway, and Plant 
System to Jacksonville. Choice of routes via 
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lines to Florida daily. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 



[Feb. 1, 1900. 

"THIS book is my dream child." 

Egerton Castle. 

Frederick A. Stokes Company announces a 

The Light of 

The story is one of Adrian Landale, a young 
English nobleman of a hundred years ago 
"The days when in Liverpool the privateers 
were daily fitting out or bringing in the ' prizes ' 
. . . the days of war and the fortunes of war ; 
days of press gangs to kidnap unwilling rulers 
of the waves "; days of " the now rather incom- 
prehensible pursuit of gold-smuggling a ro- 
mantic subject if ever there was one." 

"It is no times of nowadays, no ordinary 
scenery that would suit such adventures as befell 
Adrian Landale or Captain Jack, or ' Murthering 
Moll the second,' " the chief characters in the 
story of the love and life of a light-keeper, "who 
was once a Dreamer of Beautiful Things." 

Size 4 3-4 by 7 1-2 inches, cloth, 456 
pages, $1.50. 

The Light of 


" ' The Light of Scarthey ' has the charm of a 
daringly imaginative conception ; the poetry and 
dream of passion are in it ; the sunshine of ro- 
mance, the magic and picturesque situation are 
felt throughout its pages ; hut when we have 
reckoned with all this we are moved to a warmer 
admiration by the manner in which Mr. Castle 
makes his personages live, causes their adven- 
tures and their environment to seem as natural as 
they are new and exciting. . . . The book is full 
of vitality and atmosphere." N. Y. Tribune. 

" There is a charm about this story which is 
quite irresistible. . . . A beautifully wrought 
work of fiction a piece of art perfect and re- 
poseful as the marble of Antinous, yet full of 
strange and thrilling incident" 

Birmingham Post. 

" ' The Light of Scarthey ' is a thrilling tale, 
teeming with convincing characterization, pic- 
turesque descriptions, and bright, vivacious dia- 
logues." London Daily Telegraph. 

For sale by all Booksellers, or sent postpaid. 


5 and 7 E. Sixteenth St., New York. 

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Critmsm, gtsrussiati, anfr Information. 

EDITED BY \VolumeXXVIII. nUTr<Ar<rk T7T7T* Ifi 10A A J0 cfc. a copy. ( FlNE ARTS BUILDING. 

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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, Publishers, New York 

102 THE DIAL [Feb. 16, 



Ready March 1, Dr. Cones' Final Work. 


No. 3 of American Explorers Series. 
The Diary and Itinerary of Francisco Garce*s in his Travels through Sonora, Arizona, and California, 1775- 

1776. Now first translated from the original Spanish and carefully edited, with copious Notes, by Dr. COUES. 

18 maps, plates, and facsimiles. Edition limited to 950 numbered copies. 2 vols., 8vo, cloth . $6.00 net. 

Of the high historical value of this Diary of GarceVs there can be no adverse opinion, and the narrative of 
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No. 1 of American Explorers Series. 
Narrating an Adventure from Arkansas through the Indian Territory, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to the source of 

Rio Grande del Norte, 1821-1822, now first printed from his original manuscript, carefully edited by Dr. ELLIOTT COUES. 

Plate. Edition limited to 950 numbered copies. 8vo, cloth . $3.00 net f 

An important and hitherto unknown exploration. He was the first white man to travel much of his route, including the 
ascent of the Arkansas as far as Pueblo, and trail through Colorado, Kansas, etc. 

" What Dr. Cones has already done fully entitles him to the unique and enviable position of historian of the early history of Western North 
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" The value of the work [Fowler Journal] is very largely increased by nearly 180 notes by the editor, who is peculiarly well fitted for tha 
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No. 2 of American Explorers Series. 

The Personal Narrative of Charles Larpenteur, 1833-1872, now first printed from a hitherto unknown manuscript in the 
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portraits. Edition limited to 950 numbered copies. 2 vols., 8vo ' $6.00 net. 

"No man has done so much as Dr. Coues to accumulate and popularize knowledge on this subject [the fur trade]. His new edition of Lewis 

and Clark illuminated every page of the old one. The light thus thrown on the great fur rivers was scarcely greater than that he shed on the 

fur mountains and prairies by his three volumes on Pike, supplemented by another on Fowler.''^* Nation. 

"A notable and entirely novel contribution to our knowledge of the fur trade of the Upper Missouri, by one who has lived the life and 

worked his way through it from the position of a mere hand to that of one of its heads." Pioneer Prat. 


To the Headwaters of the Mississippi River, the Interior Parts of Louisiana, Mexico, and Texas, in the years 1805-6-7. 

Reprinted in fall, with copious explanatory notes. By Prof. ELLIOTT COUES. Edition limited. 3 vols., 8vo $10.00 net. 

Large Paper 20.00 net, 

" On the whole, the new Pike must prove monumental. It will forever link its author with Pike's fame. Its map of Mississippi sources, and 
the arduous voyage [of the editor] into the farthest fountains, will not let us wonder that the Minnesota Park Commissioner styled a lakelet 
feeding Itasca, Elliott Coues, and inscribed that name upon a boulder on that utmost shore." American Historical Review (2% pages). 

_"Dr. Coues's new edition of 'Pike's Expeditions' is a beautiful specimen of presswork, most creditable to the taste and liberality of the 
publisher. The editor has done the material portion of his work as successfully as has the publisher ; the result is a well-digested and most 
readable chronicle, instead of ill-assorted bundles of information (as in the original edition). No explorer has ever been more fully aided to 
express himself through the ampler knowledges of the generations that come after him than in this case." The Dial (2% pages). 


The Journals of Alexander Henry (Partner of the Northwest Company), with Explorations and Life with the Fur Traders 
on the Red, Saskatchewan, and Columbia Rivers, 1799-1814, now first published, with which are collated the original 
unpublished manuscripts of David Thompson, Explorer and Geographer of the Northwest Company. The whole carefully 

edited by Dr. ELLIOTT COUES. Limited edition, 3 vols., royal 8vo, $10.00 net. Large paper $20.00 net. 

Dr. Cones says of this work : " No work approaching these journals in the scope, extent, variety, and interest of its con- 
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undoubtedly take rank with that classic as a veritable mine of accurate information." Send for complete prospectus. 

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CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS, Publishers, New York 

104 THE DIAL [Fb. 16, 

Houghton, Mifflin & Company 



With Eight Illustrations by HOWARD PYLE, and Others. 
Crown 8vo, $1.50 

The first large impression of 25,000 copies was all ordered in January. A second 
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A Novel. By I. K. FRIEDMAN. Crown 8vo, $1.50. 


By his Son, CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS. 16mo, $1.25. 

This story has a special interest for Chicago, since it deals j 
with tenement life there, its experiences, its labor, its hard- CHARLES SUM.NER 

ships, its follies, as well as its heroisms and fidelities, its out- 
look on life, and its romance. Mr. Friedman's story shows 
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social level, by no means the lowest, also his kindly sympathy. 


An Account of the Battle with the Slum in New York. 

By JACOB A. Rus, author of " How the Other Half 

Lives," etc. With 12 Illustrations from Photographs. 

12mo, $1.50. 

Mr. Riis is an expert in the field of philanthropy which 
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By MOORFIELD STOREY. 16mo, $1.25. 
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A Novel. By RUFUS MANN. Crown 8vo, $1.50. 

The scene of the first part of this story is laid in a large 
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By ROWLAND E. ROBINSON, author of " Danvis Folks," etc. 16mo, $1.25. 

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By Mrs. JOHN HAYS HAMMOND. 12mo, $1.00. 

"It will be recalled that in the troubles at Johannesburg (December, 1896) an American citizen, prominent 
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SWALLOW A Tale of the Great Trek 

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finally it gives us a most valuable insight into the character of the Boer, the history of the Transvaal, and the 
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" Jess " gives in the form of a romance a characteristic picture of the events of the English-Boer war of the 
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department of practical and personal craf tship, book-binding, furniture- 
making, etc., and the reviews of American exhibitions will be carefully 
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360 pages, 12mo, cloth, gilt top, price $2.00. 



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200 pages, 12mo, cloth and gold, price $1.25. 


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Four volumes now ready in the series, which will 
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Pocket size, 250 pages, cloth and gold, $1.25 net. 

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106 THE DIAL, [Feb. 16, 

Are You Going to the Paris Exposition? 



And Every Day French Conversation. MAP OF PARIS. 

ByMAxMAURY, A. B.,LL.M., of the University of Paris, i Special Exposition Edition, entirely new, accurate, and 

Fully describes Paris and its splendor, its Boulevards, Parks, 
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Map in Colors of Exposition q/ 7 1900. Also half-tones of 
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point on the map may be located in 10 seconds. Separate 
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English-French and French-English 


By MAX MAUKY, A.B., LL.M. 60,000 words, idioms, and 
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By F. M. DE RIVAS. It contains about 250 pages of in- 
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Who Ought to Win Oom Paul or Queen Victoria? 

By T. P. O'CONNOR. A complete, straightforward history of the British-Boer struggle from the settlement of Cape 
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The 20th Century Handy Cyclopedia Britannica. 

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HlO*h ^tfll<"f*^ By LAWRENCE L. LYNCH, author of "Shadowed by Three," "The Lost Witness," etc. 

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nove l by OPIE READ and FRANK PIXLEY. Charmingly illustrated 
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An extraordinary tale of modern upheaval. By FRED. T. JANE, the celebrated 
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Standard English=Spanish Spanish = English Dictionary. 

By DON F. M. DB RIVAS, author of " Lee's Spanish Instructor." A new book ; a timely book ; a perfect book. Maps 
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A I ("ifrvl'vi Cm 1 t*f~<xh 1 n ^ v ^ EE MERIWETHER. A most entertaining story of adventures of an 
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NOTES 127 



The publication of Dr. Ibsen's latest drama 
comes a year later than his long-established 
custom had led us to expect. Since the appear- 
ance of " An Enemy of the People " in 1882, 
every second year brought its new play until 
1898, when it was learned that no work was 
then forthcoming. Coupled with this announce 
ment was a report to the effect that the vener 
able dramatist had in view the writing of a 
volume of memoirs, but it seems that this pro 
ject, if ever definitely entertained, was aban 
doned in favor of another play, which duly came 
from the press late last December, and has re 
cently reached us. It is in three acts, bears the 
suggestive title, " Naar Vi Dode Vaagner, 
and is further described as " a dramatic epi 
logue." We are given to understand that this 
description means that the author has defi- 
nitely closed the series of problem -plays, or 
studies in social pathology, which was begun 
in 1878 with The Pillars of Society," and 
which is made an even dozen by the work now 
under discussion. One in search of fanciful 
analogies might find in that first title some 
suggestion of an intellectual Samson deter- 
mined to pull down the temple of modern so- 
ciety, and in the last some suggestion of the 
nobler social structure that may be expected to 
spring from the ruins of the old order. 

This is, of course, the merest fancy and 
nothing more, but it is the prerogative of Dr. 
Ibsen's work to suggest ideas that lie far afield 
from its direct message, and it is impossible to 
remain literal-minded in the presence of the ex- 
traordinary series of compositions now brought 
to an end. Their significance is none the less 
real because it is elusive, and their larger im- 
plications must determine our judgment quite 
as much as the nicety of their dramaturgical 
craftsmanship. " When We Dead Awake " 
is a title which in itself awakens many echoes 
from the author's earlier writings. It proclaims 
anew his whole insistent gospel of the need of 
spiritual regeneration for an age sunk in sloth 
fulness the gospel of Brand's 

" Forth I out of this stifling pit ! 
Vault-like is the air of it ! 
Not a flag may float unfurl'd 
In this dead and windless world "* 



[Feb. 16, 

it sounds once more that note of high idealism 
which is never altogether missing from his 
work, and which is the real secret of the appeal 
which he has so powerfully made to all who 
have ever dreamed of the realization of Utopias 
and the permanent betterment of the social 

But, whatever aspirations may breathe 
through his symbolism, Dr. Ibsen never forgets 
that he is a dramatic artist writing for the stage, 
and that his first concern is the concrete pre- 
sentation of such men and women as we may 
at any time meet with in actual life. The new 
play opens in the most matter-of-fact way at a 
summer resort on the Norwegian coast. Pro- 
fessor Rubek and his wife Maja are seated 
outside the hotel. They have just finished 
breakfast and are reading the newspapers. 
Rubek is a sculptor of European reputation, 
who has returned to his native land after a 
lengthy sojourn abroad. Both are restless, and 
it soon transpires that neither of them has found 
satisfaction during the years of their married 
life. It is a case of the deeper sort of incom- 
patibility. An artist and a frivolous woman 
are joined together, and neither of them can 
give the other what is most wanted. To him 
has been denied inspiration for his work, to her 
the joyous round of gaiety which she craves. 
For years they have pretended a satisfaction 
they did not feel, but the breaking-point has 
nearly been reached. 

Maja. Tell me. You have begun to go restlessly about. 
You find contentment nowhere, either at home or abroad. 
Of late you have come to shun human society. 

Rubek. No, really ? Have you noticed that? 

Maja. No one who knows you could help noticing it. And 
it seems to me, it has grown so serious that you have lost all 
pleasure in work. 

Ilubtk. Have I done that ? 

Maja. Just think, you, who formerly could work so un- 
weariedly early and late ! 

Rubek. Yes, formerly, yes 

Maja. But from the time when your great masterpiece 
was once off your hands 

Rubek. " The Day of Resurrection " 

Maja. the one that bus gone all over the world, that 

has made you so famous 

Rubek. Perhaps that is the misfortune, Maja. 

Maja. Why so ? 

Rubek. When I had created that masterpiece of mine 
[making a passionate gesture], for "The Day of Resurrec- 
tion " is a masterpiece. Or it was at first. No, it is still. It 
shall, shall, shall remain a masterpiece ! 

Maja. Yes, Rubek, that is something which all the world 


nothing I 

All the world knows nothing I Understands 

At any rate they imagine something. 

Something which isn't there, yes. Something 
which was never in my thought. They fall into an ecstasy 

over that. It isn't worth the while to wear yourself out 

for the mob and the crowd and for " all the world." 

Maja. Does it seem to you better, or even worthy of your- 
self to do nothing but a portrait bust now and then ? 

Rubek. They are not strictly portrait busts that I make, 

Maja. Yes they are, God knows, during the last two or 
three years, since your great group was completed and out of 
the house. 

Rubek. Yet they are not merely portrait busts, I tell you. 

Maja. What do you mean by that ? 

Rubek. There is something suspicious, something con- 
cealed, both inside and outside the busts something secret, 
that men cannot see. 

Maja. Indeed ! 

Rubek. But I can see it. And I get my quiet amusement 
out of it. Apparently there is the "striking likeness," as 
they call it, which people stand and gaze at with wonder [in 
a tower tone\ but deep within are traced the respectable, 
even honorable lineaments of the horse, or sometimes donkey 
snouts, and close-eared low-browed dog-skulls, and masked 
swine's heads, and the counterfeit presentment of brutal ox- 

Maja. All the domestic animals, in fact. 

Rubek. Just the domestic animals, Maja. All the animals 
that man has transformed in his own image, and that have 
transformed man by way of compensation. And these tricky 
works of art are what well-to-do people come and order of 
me. And pay for in good faith, and with high praises. 
Almost with their weight in gold, as men say. 

Maja [filling his glass] . Fie, Rubek ! Drink and be con- 

Rubek. I am content, Maja. Really content. In a way , 
that is. [Pause.] For there is a certain happiness in feeling 
free and undisturbed on all sides. To have everything that 
one can think of desiring. Externally, I mean. Don't you 
feel as I do about it, Maja? 

Maja. Oh, yes, that is all very well, too. But can you 
remember what you promised me the day when we agreed 
about that difficult 

Rubek. Agreed that we should marry. It was a little hard 
for you, Maja. 

Maja. And that I should journey abroad with you, and 
live there for good and be happy. Can you remember what 
you promised me then ? 

Rubek. No, really I can't. What was it I promised you ? 

Maja. You said you would take me up on a high moun- 
tain and show me all the glory of the world. 

Rubek. Did I make you that promise too ? 

Maja. Me too? Whom besides? 

Rubek. No, no, I mean merely, did I promise to show 
you ? 

Maja. All the glory of the world. Yes, you said that. 
And all the glory should be mine and yours, you said. 

Rubek. It was a sort of phrase that I was in the habit of 
using in those days. 

Soon after this conversation, the two remain- 
ing characters of the play come upon the scene. 
One is a landed proprietor named Ulfhejm, 
the other is Irene, a pale, mysterious woman 
who turns out to be an old friend of Rubek 
no other, in fact, than the woman who had 
been his model for " The Day of Resurrection," 
and thus the inspiration of his best artistic 
effort. She is attended by a deaconess, a 
shadowy, silent figure, who speaks only three 
words at the very close of the drama. Ulf- 
hejm, who is an enthusiastic sportsman, is 
coarse of speech and unconventional in man- 
ner. Maja is attracted to him by his abundant 
animal spirits, and they plan a hunting expe- 



dition. When they have gone off together, 
Rubek is left with Irene, and memories of 
the past come surging upon him. In the 
intimacy of their earlier relations, he had 
viewed her with the artist's eye only ; she, on 
the other hand, had loved him with all the 
strength of her passionate nature. To him she 
had been an episode ; to her he had been every- 
thing that makes life desirable. When they 
had parted she had become like " The Woman 
with the Dead Soul " of Mr. Stephen Phillips's 
poem. She had existed, but the vital spark 
had been extinguished within her breast. He, 
learning too late how great was his need of her 
inspiration, had made a prosaic marriage, and 
had discovered that the creative impulse had 
fled beyond his control. The situation is some- 
thing like that of " Master Builder Solness," 
when the appearance of Hilda reawakens in the 
artist the old aspirations and the old ideal 
visions. Irene reproaches the sculptor with 
having seen in her only the beautiful figure, 
not the loving woman's soul. 

Rubek. I was an artist, Irene. 

Irene. Just that, just that. 

Rubek. An artist first of all. And I was ill and would 
create the great work of my life. It should be called " The 
Day of Resurrection." It should be produced in the likeness 
of a young woman, waking from the sleep of death. 

Irene. Our child, yes. 

Rubek. She should be the noblest, purest, most ideal 
woman of earth, she who awoke. And then I found you. I 
could use you with complete satisfaction. And you submitted 
so willingly, so gladly. Left people and home, and followed 

Irene. It was my resurrection from childhood when I fol- 
lowed you. 

Rubek. That was just why I could use you. You and none 
other. You became for me a sacrosanct creature, whom I 
might touch only in the worship of my thoughts. I was still 
young then, Irene. And I was possessed by the superstition 
that should I touch you, desire you in reality, it would be a 
desecration, and put beyond my power the work that I sought 
to do. And I yet believe there is truth in that. 

Irene. First the work of art then the human child. 

Rubek. Judge of it as yon will. But I was completely 
controlled by my task at that time, and it made me jubilantly 

Irene. And your task turned the corner for you, Arnold. 

Rubek. With thanks and blessings for you, it turned the 
corner for me. I sought to create the pure woman just as it 
seemed to me she must awake on the day of resurrection. 
Not surprised at anything new and unknown and undreamed 
of, but filled with sacred joy at finding herself unchanged 
she, the woman of earth in the higher, freer, more joyous 
lands after the long and dreamless sleep of death. So did 
I create her in your image I created her, Irene. 

Irene. And so you were through with me. 

Rubek. Irene ! 

Irene. Needed me no longer. 

Rubek. Can you say that ? 

Irene. Began to look about for other ideals. 

Rubek. But found none, none after you. 

Irene. No other models, Arnold ? 

Rubek. You were no model for me. You were the task 
set for my creative powers. 

Irene. What have you done since ? In marble, I mean. 
Since the day I left you ? 

Rubek. I have done nothing since that day. Merely trifled 
and modelled. 

Irene. And the woman with whom you are now living ? 

Rubek. Do not speak of her now. A pang strikes through 
my breast. 

Irene. Where do you think of journeying with her ? 

Rubek. Oh, some trip or other up the north coast. 

Irene. Journey rather high up among the mountains. As 
high as you can climb. Higher, higher, ever higher, Arnold. 

Rubek. Will you up yonder ? 

Irene. Have you courage to meet me once more ? 

Rubek. If we could ah, if we could ! 

Irene. Why can we not do what we will ? Come, Arnold, 
come up to me. 

" Why can we not do what we will ? " The 
whole of Ibsen is in that passionate question. 
Why does deed fall so far short of impulse ? 
Why do we cripple our lives by making them 
so much less than our ideals ? Noticeable also 
in this scene is the recurrence of the typical 
motive of " Solness," for as Hilda comes to the 
master builder, and recalls the past in such 
fashion as to rekindle his artistic energies, so 
Irene comes to the sculptor at a similar period 
of slackened will, and bids him once more be 
greatly daring. 

The two extracts thus far made are taken 
from the first act of the play. In the second 
act, Rubek and his wife, in sorrow rather than 
in passion, say some of the things they have 
long felt, and put into bare and almost brutal 
speech their attitude toward one another. After 
this discussion, Maja leaves the scene, meets 
Irene, and sends her to Rubek. 

Irene. She, the other woman, said that you were waiting 
for me. 

Rubek. I have been waiting for you year after year, with- 
out understanding it myself. 

Irene. I could not come to yon, Arnold. I lay far yonder, 
sleeping a long, deep, dreamful sleep. 

Rubek. But now you are awake, Irene. 

Irene. Yet deep and heavy sleep is still upon my eyes. 

Rubek. It will dawn and grow bright for us both now, you 
shall see. 

Irene. I can never believe that. 

Rubek. I believe it ! I know it ! For now I have found 
you again. 

Irene. Arisen. 

Rubek. Transfigured ! 

Irene. Only arisen, Arnold, not transfigured. 

A long reminiscent scene between the two now 
follows, leading at last to this poetical and 
impressive climax. 

Irene Look, Arnold. Now the sun is sinking behind the 
peaks. Just see how red the slanting rays shine upon all the 
hilltops yonder. 

Rubek. It is long since I have seen a sunset on the moun- 

Irene. And a sunrise ? 

Rubek. I think I have never seen a sunrise. 

Irene. I saw a wonderfully beautiful sunrise once. 

Rubek. Did you ? Where was it ? 

Irene. High, high up on a dizzy mountain top. You enticed 
me thither, and promised that I should behold all the glory of 
the world, if I would only 

Rubek. If you would only ? Well ? 

Irene. I did as you told me. Followed you up to the 



[Feb. 16, 

heights. And there I fell on my knees, and besought you 
and worshipped you. Then I saw the sunrise. 

The close of this act brings an appointment 
between the two to spend the warm bright 
summer night upon the heights. At the same 
time it must be remembered that Maja and 
Ulfhejm have planned a hunting expedition 
for that night also. 

Irene. Until to-night. On the upland. 

Rubek. And you will come, Irene ? 

Irene. I will truly come. Wait for me here. 

Rubek. A summer night on the upland. With yon, with 
you. Oh, Irene, it might have been a lifetime. And we have 
wasted it, we two. 

Irene. We first come to see the irretrievable when 

Rubek. When? 

Irene. When we dead awake. 

Rubek. What is it we come to see ? 

Irene. We see that we have never lived. 

With the last act comes the inevitable tragic 
ending. The scene is laid high up among the 
mountains, with precipices on the one hand, 
and snowclad peaks on the other. The time is 
just before sunrise. Maja and Ulfhejm first 
appear, and after a long dialogue, come upon 
Irene and Rubek. A storm is brewing, and 
the note of warning is sounded by Ulfhejm. 

Ulfhfjm. Do n't you see that the tempest is over our head. 
Don't yon hear the gusts of wind. 

Eubek. It sounds like the overture to the day of resur- 

Ulfhejm. It is the storm-wind from the peaks, man ! Just 
see how the clouds roll and descend. Soon they will close 
about us like a winding-sheet. 

Irene. Well do I know that shroud. 

Maja. Let us try to get down. 

Ulfhejm. I can help but one. Stop in that hut until the 
tempest is stilled. I will send people up to rescue both of you. 

Irene. Rescue us ! No, no ! 

Ulfhejm. To take you by force, if need be. It is a ques- 
tion of life and death. Now you know the truth. [To Maja] 
Come on, and trust to your comrade's strength. 

Maja. Oh, how I shall rejoice and sing if I get down with 
a whole skin. 

Ulfhejm. Just wait in that huntsman's hut until they come 
for you with ropes. 

Rubek and Irene are now left alone. The 
woman is in an ecstasy of terror at the thought 
of returning to the hopeless conditions of every- 
day life. She displays a dagger, and declares 
that she will not suffer herself to be rescued. 
She also confesses that she had meant the 
dagger for Rubek himself, that he might atone 
for all that she had suffered from his indiffer- 
ence and desertion. 

Rubek. Why did yon not strike ? 

Irene. Because the frightful thought came to me that you 
were already dead, long since. 

Rubek. Dead ? 

Irene. Dead, you as well as I. We sat there together, we 
two clammy corpses, and played together. 

Rubek. I do not call it death. But you cannot understand 

Irene. Where is now the burning desire with which you 
once fought, when I stood before you as the uprisen woman ? 

Rubek. Our love is surely not dead, Irene. 

Irene. The love which is the life of earth, the beautiful, 
wonderful life of earth, the mystery- haunted life of earth 
that is dead in us both. 

Rubek. Do n't you know that just that love is seething and 
burning in me as fiercely as ever before. 

Irene. And I. Have you forgotten what I now am ? 

Rubek. Be who and what you will. For me you are the 
woman I dream that I behold in you. 

Rubfk. We are free. There is yet time for us to live our 
life, Irene. 

Irene. The desire of life died within me, Arnold. Then I 
arose, and spied you out, and found you. And now I see that 
both you and life are lying dead, as I lay. 

Rubek. How are your thoughts astray ! The stir and the 
ferment of life are in us and about us as before. 

Irene. The young uprisen woman sees the whole of life 
upon its couch of death. 

Rubek. Then let us two dead live life once to the dregs, 
ere we go down again into our graves. 

Irene. Arnold ! 

Rubek. But not here in the twilight. Not here, where the 
wet, hideous shroud flaps about us. 

Irene. No, no. Up into the light and all the glittering 
glory ! Up to the peaks of divination ! 

Rubek. Up there we will celebrate our bridal festival, 
Irene, my beloved. 

Irene. The sun will see us gladly, Arnold. 

Rubek. All the powers of light will see us gladly. And 
all the powers of darkness. [Taking her hand] Will you 
follow me then, my gracious bride ? 

Irene. Willingly and gladly will I follow my lord and 

Rubek. We must first make our way through the mists, 
Irene, and then 

Irene. Yes, through all the mists, and so straight up to the 
towering peak, that gleams iu the sunrise. 

As the two pass upward hand in hand, the 
tempest increases in violence. The silent 
attendant of Irene appears and looks about for 
her mistress. The jubilant voice of Maja is 
heard from far below. Then, with a roar like 
thunder, an avalanche sweeps down the moun- 
tain side, and buries the devoted two in its 

Such is the scene which, like the similar 
scene in " Brand," leaves us awe-stricken at 
the close of the drama. We leave to others 
the task of reading a lesson into this tragic 
presentment of two human souls thus brought 
to the crisis of their lives. Journalism and 
by journalism we mean the sort of writing 
which, whether found in newspapers or in 
books, invariably balks at every form of ideal- 
ism, and always, of the possible motives for any 
course of action, assumes the basest or the least 
worthy to offer the most rational explanation 
journalism, we say, will scoff at this story, just 
as it scoffed at " L'Abbesse de Jouarre " and 
" Die Versunkene Glocke," with both of which 
works this drama has suggestive affinities. But 
we pity the reader who can contemplate the 
situation here created by the genius of Dr. 
Ibsen, and find only prosaic emotions to feel, 
only prosaic things to say. An awful pity and 




an awful sense of omnipotent fate seem the 
fitting subjective accompaniment of the tragedy 
here worked out with unerring objective mas- 
tery. In the presence of such creative power, 
of such a certain grasp upon the very core of 
passion, such an envisagement of the problem 
of life when stripped of all adventitious trap- 
pings, all criticism seems futile, and all com- 
ment superfluous. For this occasion, at any 
rate, we will remain content with the outline 
of the story that has been given, and with the 
illustrative extracts that have been translated. 
We understand that an English version of the 
drama, made by Mr. William Archer, will soon 
be offered to the public. 




(To the Editor of THB DIAL.) 

Your recent notice of Mr. Pollock's little book on 
Jane Austen recalls a story I happened to see in a New 
York journal last summer. " Mrs. Ritchie," it was 
remarked, " has presented somewhere a picture of the 
personality of Jane Austen. Miss Austen visited the 
Thackerays and took tea with them. Her hosts waited 
in vain for the brilliant conversation, or even intelligent 
remarks that they expected. Thackeray, before the 
evening was half over, made his escape to the club." 
The writer is wisely vague as to where Mrs. Ritchie 
relates this precious story, for it is impossible that she 
could have originated anything so absurd. Born in India, 
Thackeray, according to his own statement in "The 
Four Georges," " first saw England when she was mourn- 
ing for the young Princess Charlotte," who died No- 
vember 6, 1817. As Jane Austen had died the 18th of 
the previous July, it is obvious that the alleged meeting 
could not have taken place. But let us suppose that 
Thackeray's memory was at fault, that he reached En- 
gland somewhat earlier, and that the two novelists met: 
what then ? On the day of Jane Austen's death, Thack- 
eray had reached the ripe age of six; and it is safe to 
assume that the boredom was on the part of Jane Austen, 
and that Thackeray retired, not to the club, but to the 

Baton, Feb. 5, 1900. 


Since earth was beauty first to human eyes, 

And truth grew wonderful in man's desire, 
No other soul has felt such longing rise, 
Such passion for them, as a living fire 
Of noblest aspiration making sweet 
The pathway of the dust for aching feet. 
Out of this earth his spirit-blooms unfold, 
As some pure lily from the age-black mould. 




Mr. Gamaliel Bradford owes such public 
reputation as he enjoys mainly to the numerous 
contributions that he has made, in the last 
thirty years or so, to certain leading journals 
of the country, in which he has freely criticised 
the course of our governments and confidently 
offered a specific remedy for the evils that have 
furnished the subjects of his criticism. He 
now comes before the public with an elaborate 
work, which comprises two volumes of more 
than eleven hundred pages, devoted to a much 
fuller and abler presentation of his well-known 
views. The range of his argument is very wide, 
and it is impossible in these columns to do more 
than to state his leading ideas. First, however, 
we must seize the author's point of view. 

Perhaps occasional readers, or even regular 
readers, of his newspaper lucubrations have 
formed the opinion that Mr. Bradford despairs 
of popular government. Not at all ; he is 
rather a thorough believer in democracy. On 
this point he takes pains not to be misunder- 
stood. He begins with the well-known yet 
almost astounding fact that " within little more 
than a century a force has made its appearance 
in the world which was never before known, 
and which, having already changed the whole 
face of society, points to still greater changes 
in the future "; the allusion being " not to a phys- 
ical but to a moral cause ; that is, the carrying on 
of government, if only in theory, in accordance 
with the expressed wish of the great mass of the 
people." His first chapter is devoted to histor- 
ical illustrations of this proposition. He ex- 
amines and thrusts aside " some criticisms of 
democracy " that have been made by such well- 
known writers as President Woolsey, Francis 
Parkman, and Sir Henry Sumner Maine, and 
asserts a confident faith in popular government. 
He insists that history furnishes no good reason 
for discarding it, but the contrary. If popular 
governments have made mistakes and fallen 
into excesses, so have all other governments 
since society began mistakes and excesses 
both greater and more numerous. At the same 
time, popular governments have been the source 
and cause of reforms and benefits of the most 
extended and beneficent character. The facts 
of history that he marshalls to support these 

Bradford. In two volumes. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[Feb. 16, 

propositions, and particularly the last one, are 
extremely effective. Think of it ! when Black- 
stone wrote his " Commentaries " in 1760-70 
there were a hundred and sixty capital crimes 
underthe English law; up to 1838, poor debtors 
were immured in the miserable prisons of the 
time ; down to 1833, Parliament had done noth- 
ing whatever for popular education in England 
and Wales, and then began with the pittance 
of .20,000 a year ; while as late as 1815 the 
tax on a copy of a newspaper was fourpence. 
The extraordinary changes that have been 
made in these matters, and many more, are 
the work of democracy. "Much space has 
been given to the experience of Great Britain, 
because it is there that the best results of pop- 
ular government have been worked out." The 
other countries that have been deeply touched 
by the democratic spirit are passed in review, 
with an outcome that, on the whole, is encour- 
aging. If the United States has not made as 
much progress in matters of government as 
some other countries which must be admitted 
" one reason is that we began at a point so 
relatively high that a proportionate improve- 
ment was not to be expected, especially when 
it was encumbered during the first half cen- 
tury with the conflict with slavery, and since 
then with the tide of promiscuous foreign em- 

Before passing on, we may remark upon the 
almost universal tendency to exaggerate the 
weaknesses and excesses of democracy as com- 
pared with those of aristocracy or monarchy. 
The fact is a distinctly interesting one, and its 
psychology well worth investigation. Somehow 
it is far worse for the people to kill than it is 
for the prince or the lord ; also far worse to 
kill a prince or lord than it is to kill the peo- 
ple. And yet Mr. Froude assures us, in a pow- 
erful paragraph of his " Caesar," that the 
popular party, as compared with the aristo- 
cratic party, has always been the party of mod- 
eration and mercy. 

" Patricians and plebians, aristocrats and democrats, 
have alike stained their hands with blood in the work- 
ing out of the problem of politics. But impartial his- 
tory also declares that the crimes of the popular party 
have in all ages been the lighter in degree, while in 
themselves they have more to excuse them ; and if the 
violent acts of revolutionists have been held up more 
conspicuously for condemnation, it has been only be- 
cause the fate of noblemen and gentlemen has been 
more impressive to the imagination than the fate of the 
peasant or the artisan. But the endurance of the ine- 
qualities of life by the poor is the marvel of human 
society. When the people complain, said Mirabeau, the 
people are always right. The popular cause has been 

the cause of the laborer struggling for a right to live 
and breathe and think as a man. Aristocracies fight 
for wealth and power wealth which they waste upon 
luxury, and power which they abuse for their own 
interests. Yet the cruelties of Marius were as far ex- 
ceeded by the cruelties of Sylla as the insurrection of 
the beggars of Holland was exceeded by the bloody 
tribunal of the Duke of Alva; or as ' the horrors of the 
French Revolution ' were exceeded by the massacre of 
the Huguenots two hundred years before, for which the 
Revolution was the expiatory atonement." 

But while a firm believer in democracy, Mr. 
Bradford contends that in the United States, 
and in some other countries where popular 
government is found, democracy is out of joint. 
Popular government is not producing its legit- 
imate fruits. Incompetence, extravagance, and 
corruption abound and grow apace. He passes 
in review our National, State, and municipal 
governments, as they bear upon this point. 
The suppression of the Southern rebellion and 
the maintenance of the Union, together with 
" the crowning glory," the restoration of peace, 
and the speedy reestablishment of fraternal 
relations between the sections, shows what the 
American democracy is capable of doing when 
it has a fair chance. 

" A firm conviction is justified that the spirit which 
did these things is just as available to-day for the vic- 
tories of peace as it then was for those of war; that it 
can be made use of for reforms which would immedi- 
ately insure the purity and efficiency of government in 
the Nation, the States, and the cities. Why it is not, 
and how it may be so made, it is the object of this book 
to examine." 

What, then, is the matter ? Why does not 
popular government work as it ought to work ? 
Why is it that our governments are inefficient, 
costly, and often corrupt ? The answer comes 
in such propositions as that " The executive is 
the essential branch of government," " Neither 
the people nor the legislature can govern," and 
" Our dangers arise from the legislature." 
Much of the author's argumentation is really, 
but not formally, an expansion of the well- 
known sentences that Madison sent in one of 
the papers of " The Federalist." 

" Experience proves a tendency in our governments 
to throw all power into the legislative vortex. The ex- 
ecutives of the States are little more than ciphers. The 
legislatures are omnipotent. If no effectual check can 
be devised on the encroachments of the latter, a revo- 
lution will be inevitable." 

Such was Mr. Madison's prophecy. If he and 
his compeers could have seen the spectacle of 
mingled incompetence and corruption that our 
worst State legislatures present year after year 
the carnivals of folly and selfishness they 
might have been too disheartened to go farther 




with the experiment of popular government. 
Fortunately, the character of Congress has 
never fallen so low, although that is low enough ; 
but the municipal legislatures have gone still 

Good government, we are told, is impossible 
without leadership, and legislatures cannotlead. 
Political leadership, like all other leadership, 
is necessarily individual, and it must reside in 
or be directly connected with the executive. 

" In all cases in history where a nation has been 
lifted out of almost desperate complications, it has been 
always under the leadership of one man. Take the 
dawn of modern civilization in Europe under Charla- 
magne. There is William the Silent in Holland, William 
Pitt in England, Richelieu and Napoleon in France, 
Stein and Bismarck in Germany, Cavour in Italy, 
Washington and Lincoln in America." 

If it were objected that some of these names 
are of ominous sound to believers in popular 
government, the author would reply that they 
stand for the power and value of leadership, 
which is just as important in popular govern- 
ments as in any other. 

What then is the remedy for the ills of the 
body politic? What must be done to put 
democracy in joint ? In general the answer is 
that the power of the legislatures must be 
limited and the power of the executives be 
increased, while the two are brought into closer 
affiliation. In a word, the answer is the spe- 
cific if the word may be allowed that Mr. 
Bradford has been holding up to view all these 
weary years, a form of cabinet government. 

" For this it is necessary that they [Congress and the 
President] should come physically into contact; that 
the executive should have just as good an opportunity 
of stating his position and defending his rights before 
the great arbitrating tribunal of public opinion as the 
legislature has, and that each branch should enforce 
responsibility upon the other." 

" The prescription for the complaint," Mr. 
Bradford tells us, " is furnished to us by good 
authority," namely, a bill that was submitted 
to the National Senate by an influential com- 
mittee of its members in February, 1881, of 
which the following are the two leading para- 
graphs : 

" That the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the 
Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the 
Navy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Attorney Gen- 
eral, and the Postmaster General shall be entitled to 
occupy seats on the floor of the Senate and House of 
Representatives, with the right to participate in debate 
on matters relating to the business of their respective 
departments under such rules as may be prescribed by 
the Senate and House respectively. 

" That the said Secretaries, the Attorney-General, 
and the Postmaster-General shall attend the sessions of 
the Senate on the opening of the sittings on Monday 

and Thursday of each week to give information asked 
by resolution or in reply to questions which may be 
propounded to them under the rules of the Senate and 
House; and the Senate and House may by standing 
order dispense with the attendance of one or more of 
said officers on either of said days." 

So far as remedy is concerned, Mr. Bradford's 
reasoning in great part may be described as the 
expansion and enforcement of these main ideas. 

We have now outlined, very roughly, the 
general course of the argument. It will not be 
at all new to many readers. These ideas have 
been more or less familiar to the country for a 
generation. Criticism of them, to be of value, 
would necessarily require space that we cannot 
devote to the subject. We have long been of 
the opinion that it is desirable to bring the 
legislative and executive branches of our gov- 
ernments into much closer connection, borrow- 
ing, as far as we fairly can considering out 
institutions, the cabinet idea of England ; but 
we must confess to not being fully persuaded 
that if this were done the effects would be as 
far-reaching and as beneficent as Mr. Bradford, 
in his enthusiastic advocacy, is disposed to 
think. For the rest, it must suffice to say that 
he conducts the discussion with decided ability 
and earnestness ; that he brings before us an 
amount of historical and political information 
that makes his work valuable for the purposes 
of comparative study, and that, even if one does 
not agree with him fully, or not at all, in his 
main theses, he must admit the great import- 
ance of the subject and the value of all discus- 
sions of it that show marks of serious study by 
an earnest and able mind. 

We have a single reflection to add. If salva- 
tion can come to us only in the manner that 
Mr. Bradford believes, the outlook is not very 
encouraging. His main idea has now been for 
some time before the country. We have not 
forgotten although he does not mention it, 
that we have observed a resolution which 
was before the House of Representatives in 
1865, in the identical words, or nearly so, that 
are quoted above from the report of 1881, 
and that nothing came of it but talk. Mr. 
George H. PendletOn, then in the House, was 
the real author of the measure, as he was no 
doubt of the later one. General Garfield, who 
was always deeply interested in whatever prom- 
ised to improve government, then serving his 
first term in the House, supported it in an able 
speech that may be found in the first volume of 
his published works. This was his peroration : 

" I hope, Mr. Speaker, that this measure will be 
fairly considered. If it do not pass now, the day will 



[Feb. 16, 

come, I believe, when it will pass. When that day 
comes, I expect to see a higher type of American States- 
manship, not only in the cabinet, but also in the legisla- 
tive hall." 

Unhappily, we see no sign of progress since 
that day, and the realization of the prophecy 
seems as far off as ever. g A. HINSDALE. 


" To note the varying forms of government, to trace 
the ancient origin of modern laws and customs, to mark 
the encroachment of absolutism on popular rights, to 
describe the long-continued struggle of the many to 
throw off the yoke of the few, to emphasize the cor- 
rupting influences of the union between Church and 
State, to illustrate once more the blighting effects of 
superstition, ignorance, blind obedience, unjust laws, 
confiscation under the disguise of unequal taxes, and 
the systematic plunder, year by year, of the weaker 
classes by the stronger, have been the motives which 
led to the enormous labor involved in this book." 

Thus forcibly stated is the comprehensive 
proposition of which Mr. Watson's " Story of 
France " is the demonstration. He explicitly 
disclaims any attempt to fill in details in his 
study of the development of a great people, 
and protests that nothing less than a great pur- 
pose would have led him to undertake the pro- 
duction of these two large volumes. This 
purpose, then, is the raison d'etre of the work ; 
it looks out on every page, it is apparent be- 
tween the lines, it colors the facts and makes 
an untrue perspective ; and the question ever 
recurs, Does the end justify the means ? 

If, however, we accept this proposition and 
make allowance for the purpose, we have only 
applause for the consistent attitude and fear- 
less honesty of the author. His aggressive 
truth-telling makes French history superla- 
tively realistic, and his fertile mind, keen wit, 
and dramatic power combine to make a story 
of absorbing interest. He is no technical his- 
torian whose qualifications invariably include 
scholarly research, accuracy, and discriminat- 
ing judgment. He is, rather, the philosopher, 
who, after wide reading and assimilation, has 
been inspired to present in entertaining form 
the historical discoveries of others. In other 
words, Mr. Watson is the popular historian in 
vogue to-day. 

The historian of a half-century ago was the 
man whose work showed care, symmetry, grace 
of style, fluency, and finish. Accuracy was 

. Watson. Iu two volumes. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

necessary, to be sure ; but the manner was of 
greater importance than the matter, and errors 
of characterization, if there were such, were 
uniformly in favor of the personage depicted. 
To-day we seem to see a reaction, and the dan- 
ger of an extreme in the other direction seems 
imminent. If, as has been stated, we had " by 
a slow process of evolution well-nigh discarded 
from the lives of our greatest men of the past 
all human faults and feelings ; have enclosed 
their greatness in glass of the clearest crystal 
and hung up a sign ' Do not touch,' " we are 
on the verge of another extreme wherein a com- 
mendable ambition to " humanize " runs riot 
and renders inhuman. It is apparently true 
that the public has outlived the days of myth- 
ology and is tired of hero-worship. Nothing 
is so relished as the " True Story," wherein 
the traditional bundle of valor and virtue is 
invested with real flesh and blood and painted 
with true, if less vivid, colors. It is a refresh- 
ing performance, and when the task is under- 
taken with sympathy and enthusiasm, and the 
attributes of the writer include fluency and a 
well-balanced use of dramatic effect, he is then 
able to count upon the support of that uncer- 
tain quantity the reading public. 

Mr. Watson has succeeded admirably in 
meeting the demands of this exacting critic. 
The sympathy and enthusiasm are not wanting, 
his creatures are men, not mere historical fig- 
ures, the style is dramatic and the interest sus- 
tained. But having got the ear of the public, 
is it fair to impose upon the credulity of his 
audience ? Is there any justifiable excuse for 
working upon the feelings of the reader with 
the weapons of the emotional evangelist ? Will 
not the effort to paint dark days blacker 
to ignore the rays of light and truth which 
have never been quite obscured react in a 
way to bring discredit upon the narrative? 
If this tendency develops, shall we not ex- 
pect a protest against extravagant realism in 
history ? 

Let us examine, by way of illustration, Mr. 
Watson's portrait of Frederick II. of Prussia. 

" Frederick the Great is one of the ' great men ' of 
history. Like most members of that order, he was 
unscrupulous, ungrateful, cruel, and treacherous. He 
played politics with a callous double-facedness that was 
Machiavellian in its perfect art. He could lie like 
Queen Elizabeth, could be as merciless as Caesar, as 
vindictive as Philip II., and as cynical as Sylla." 

We fail to find a syllable of commendation in 
a score of references to this celebrated monarch. 
It is fierce treatment for a personage of such 




achievements, by a writer who goes out of his 
way to accord credit to a king so universally 
condemned as Philip II. 

Mr. Watson's cordial condemnation of affairs 
existing under our own flag finds expression in 
an interpolated paragraph on Taxation, which, 
with its prophecy between the lines, we quote. 

" Taxation, after all, is confiscation. When the gov- 
ernment takes no more than its just dues, the evil is a 
necessary one, for the government must live at the 
public expense. . . . More than it needs is tyranny. 
. . . Exceptions are made of those ablest to pay. . . . 
Now let the wrong go one step further. Let the privi- 
leged be salaried, pensioned, and sinecured out of the 
tribute wrung from the unprivileged, and we have a 
government which will become as rotten, as cruel, as 
vicious, and as intolerable as any that ever existed in 
the days of paganism. 

"This was precisely what Bourbon was driving at, 
precisely what Richelieu achieved, precisely what Louis 
XIV. enjoyed, precisely what went to pieces under 
Louis XVI., and precisely what now exists in all Chris- 
tian lands." 

Is this history, or has history simply furnished 
an excuse for a political stump-speech or a text 
for a campaign argument ? That Mr. Watson 
was not unprepared for criticism because of 
these frequent digressions, is apparent ; for he 
discusses the province of the historian, and 
defends his " right to meddle with politics." 

" Is it not, then, the legitimate right of the historian 
to deal with laws as well as battles ? With robberies 
by statute as well as robberies by riot ? Must he write 
of the crimes of the sword and never speak of the crimes 
of the pen ? " 

But whether in sympathy or at variance with 
this purposeful historian, we read on. The force 
and sincerity of the writer are unmistakable, 
and the tale is fascinating. Mr. Watson's first 
essay in history has succeeded, without doubt, 
in stimulating interest in his subject ; and 
herein must lie one of the chief merits of a 
book, where the facts of history are too often 
sacrificed to striking epigram and entertain- 
ment. There are scores of statements in these 
absorbing pages which cannot be corroborated ; 
and more numerous than these are the distor- 
tions of fact, or the failure to give all the 
facts, which make it impossible to designate 
the work as history in an authoritative sense. 
There are so many examples which illustrate 
one or the other of these faults, that it is diffi- 
cult to choose. However, the revolting account 
of life under the Ancien Regime, in the second 
volume, is a conspicuous illustration. Should 
we accept it in its entirety, we must believe in 
the unspeakable degradation of French Royalty 
and nobility universal and without excep- 
tion ; we must count virtue and decency un- 

known except among shopkeepers. Indeed, 
even from a champion of the people, is not the 
argument against classes weakened by whole- 
sale denunciations ? 

Thus we have the partisan, the prophet, the 
reformer. Yet, whatever the role, the promise 
in the preface has been faithfully kept, and 
these two readable volumes bear conspicuous 
evidence of sincerity and ability. 

M. S. B. A. 



The study of all matters pertaining to the 
Roman Empire has of late years taken on 
something of a new phase. In the place of the 
universal vilification of a generation ago, stu- 
dents of to-day accord to Roman life some- 
thing like a just measure of credit. In the 
same proportion as the study of the first few 
centuries of the Empire has not been carried on 
from the point of view of Christian apologetics, 
have we come to see the extraordinary mod- 
ern quality of the life then lived. Professor 
Thomas, in " Roman Life under the Caesars," 
has given a somewhat general treatment of 
this subject from the new point of view. He 
is well grounded in his literature, and has very 
properly made use of archaeology as furnishing 
materials for reconstructing the life of the time. 
Especially does this appear in his study of the 
Roman home life and the barbarians. The 
subjects handled are somewhat miscellaneous, 
and the student of Friedlander will find few 
things new, but the work makes a capital hand- 
book of its subject. 

Another phase of the present interest in 
classical history is to be seen in the study of 
numismatics, a branch of archaeology that has 
to-day some better use than to amuse amateur 
collectors. The " Handbook of Greek and 
Roman Coins," by Mr. Hill of the British 

Professor at the University of Lille. Illustrated. New York : 
Q. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Hill, M.A., of the Department of Coins and Medals in the 
British Museum. With fifteen collotype plates. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

An Introduction to the Study of the Religion of the Romans. 
By W. Warde Fowler, M.A., Fellow and Sub-Rector of 
Lincoln College, Oxford. New York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE HOMERIC HYMNS. A New Prose Translation, and 
Essays, Literary and Mythological, by Andrew Lang. With 
illustrations. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Charles Godfrey Leland. New York : The Macmillan Co. 



[Feb. 16, 

Museum, is something more than a mere de- 
scription of different coins, and for that reason 
is exactly the work that has been wanted. It 
will be difficult to find a better presentation of 
such matters as the manufacture of the coin, 
and the process of dating coins, than is given 
in this handbook. Occasionally, however, one 
might be inclined to differ with his judgment 
as to the authenticity of issues : as, for example, 
in the case of those issued in the year three of 
Judaea, which have been commonly assigned to 
Simon the Maccabee. Mr. Hill refers this to 
the period of the great revolt under Nero, but 
gives no reason for his decision. The volume 
contains a series of valuable appendices, not the 
least important of which is a select bibliog- 
raphy. In addition it has fifteen collotype 
plates, which are as beautiful representations of 
the coins as one is likely to see. 

Equal commendation can be given the work 
upon Roman Festivals, by W. Warde Fowler. 
The plan of the book is perhaps somewhat 
arbitrary, as it follows the calendar in its de- 
scription of the festivals. This, of course, has 
a certain encyclopaedic advantage, but at the 
same time does not give the assistance which 
comes from a classification of festivals on the 
basis of their intention. In this connection, 
however, it should be stated that the author is 
not as greatly interested as are men like Mr. 
Frazer in the origin and deep-seated intention 
of the festivals, but is more concerned in de- 
scribing the customs as they actually existed. 
Within these limits, the book is most admira- 
bly constructed, and forms an exceedingly val- 
uable addition, not only to our knowledge of 
Roman life, but also to our knowledge of Roman 
religion ; for notwithstanding the praiseworthy 
absence of speculation on the part of the author 
as to the question whether the Roman festivals 
preserved primitive customs, no one can read 
the mass of material brought together so care- 
fully without feeling the force of the claim that 
religious festivals are largely the conventional- 
ized customs of primitive people preserved as 
forms of worship long after their original inten- 
tion has been forgotten. 

It is somewhat startling, however, to find 
this thesis carried out so rigorously by Mr. 
Andrew Lang within the somewhat narrow 
limits of the Homeric Hymns. Mr. Lang is 
very sure that the Hymns are fragments of a 
school which had a great master and great tra- 
ditions. This, of course, is not especially sen- 
sational, but he also seeks " the origins of 
Apollo, and of the renowned Eleusinian Mys- 

teries, in the tales and rites of the Bora and 
the Nanga ; in the beliefs and practices of the 
Pawnees and Larrakeah, Yao, and the Khond." 
This purpose Mr. Lang elaborates in his strik- 
ing conclusion, all of which would well bear 
quotation, but perhaps the following sentences 
most of all : 

"The confusions of sacred and profane; the origins 
of the Mysteries; the beginnings of the Gods in a mental 
condition long left behind by Greece when the Hymns 
were composed; all these matters need elucidation. I 
have tried to elucidate them as results of evolution from 
the remote prehistoric past of Greece, which, as it 
seems, must in many points have been identical with the 
historic present of the lowest contemporary races. In 
the same way, if dealing with ornament, I would derive 
the spirals, volutes, and concentric circles of Mycenaean 
gold-work, from the identical motives, on the oldest 
incised rocks and kists of our Islands, of North and 
South America, and of the tribes of Central Australia, 
recently described by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen, and 
Mr. Carnegie." 

" Greek religion, Greek myth, are vast conglomerates. 
We find a savage origin for Apollo, and savage origins 
for many of the Mysteries. But the cruelty of savage 
initiations has been purified away. On the other hand, 
we find a barbaric origin for departmental gods, such as 
Aphrodite, and for Greek human sacrifices, unknown to 
the lowest savagery. From savagery Zeus is probably 
derived ; from savagery come the germs of divine 
amours in animal forms. But from barbarism arises 
the sympathetic magic of agriculture, which the lowest 
races do not practise. From the barbaric condition, not 
from savagery, comes Greek hero worship, for the low- 
est races do not worship ancestral spirits." 

It goes without saying that the translation of 
the Hymns is done into excellent English^ 
perhaps just a trifle over-classic. 

It is a far cry from this work of Mr. Lang's 
to mediaeval legends as to Virgil. To most 
readers of Mr. Leland's collection of the " Un- 
published Legends of Virgil," one may suppose, 
it will come as a surprise to know that the 
friend of their school days, like so many wor- 
thies, was transformed by mediaeval popular 
imagination into a sorcerer, generally with hon- 
orable and kindly intentions, and that through- 
out Italy there are still in existence among the 
people stories of his extraordinary perform- 
ances. The probability is that they all spring 
from the Sixth Book of the u^Eneid, and are 
thus humble guarantees of the guide chosen by 
Dante ; but apart from that, is not Virgil the 
last man, unless it be Horace, who would ex- 
pect to find himself made into a mediaeval demi- 
god ? The stories are translated from a large 
number of sources, and form as curious a tail- 
piece to classical study as they are serviceable 
to the student of folk-lore. 






" A Century of Science " is the slightly 
misleading title, explained by the sub-line " and 
Other Essays," of a little book which will be 
welcomed by many readers. While the Other 
Essays which, in fact, include addresses, 
biographies, and book reviews, as well as essays 
proper form much the larger portion of the 
book, the spirit of a century preeminently sci- 
entific runs through the whole and does much 
to justify the leading title. The initial essay of 
the volume is an excellent presentation of the 
principal results of the scientific work of the 
last hundred years stated in terms of philos- 
ophy. The extension of the knowledge of 
chemical and physical laws over the extra- 
terrestrial sphere, the development of uniform- 
itarianism in geology, of the doctrine of corre- 
lation of forces in physics, of natural selection 
in biology, and of the philosophy of evolution 
in all branches of research, are all well shown 
in proper relations. Where, however, one 
attempts so much in a single essay, mistakes 
of fact or emphasis are hardly to be avoided. 
In the present case, for example, while the 
pre-Darwinian evolutionists have been treated 
to a refreshing meed of justice, the pre-Lyellian 
geologists are more scantily served. Particu- 
larly are the earlier French geologists ignored ; 
and this is the more unexpected since Sir Archi- 
bald Geikie has so recently called fitting atten- 
tion to them. 

The chapters on the " Scope and Purpose 
of Evolution " and on " The Part Played by 
Infancy in the Evolution of Man " belong to- 
gether, and include a discussion of Mr. Spen- 
cer's views, which, in the light of the fund of 
personal anecdote brought in, we must con- 
sider as almost ex-cathedra. In " Guessing at 
Half and Multiplying by Two," a much needed 
dressing-down is given to some would-be critics 
of science. In lighter vein is the essay on 
circle squarers, perpetual - motion inventors, 
and others of similar pursuits who are consid- 
ered under the caption " Some Cranks and 
their Crotchets." 

The remaining miscellaneous essays include 
a discussion of the late lamented " Arbitration 
Treaty," " Cambridge as a Village and City," 
" The Origins of Liberal Thought in Amer- 
ica," " A Harvest of Irish Folk-Lore," and the 
well-known summary of " Forty Years of the 
Bacon-Shakespeare Folly " contributed to the 

* A CENTURY OF SCIENCE, and Other Essays. By John 
Fiske. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

anniversary number of "The Atlantic Monthly." 
The biographies are four in number. They 
deal with Edward Livingston Youmans, Sir 
Harry Vane, Edward A. Freeman, and Francis 
Parkman. Of these essays, the first is mainly 
a personal tribute. The second and third are 
concise interpretations of the work of the men. 
The fourth is a really notable summary of the 
life and work of a very notable man. Pro- 
fessor Fiske, vigorous fighter that he is, can 
hardly hide himself and his opinions even in 
writing biography, and in speaking of You- 
mans he finds place for a word on the intem- 
perance of the temperance party (p. 76), and 
he turns from Parkman for a side-thrust at 
forty per cent tariffs (p. 223). 

On the whole, the book is a collection of 
exceedingly readable and thoughtful papers 
previously widely scattered. 



In no part of the industrial sphere has the failure 
of the classical economy to explain the new order of 
affairs, following the widespread use of machinery 
and the consolidation of industries, been so apparent 
as in the field of Distribution. Realizing that this 
failure had its origin in the theory developed by 
the older economists, that the value and prices of 
commodities were determined under conditions, of 
free competition, the later economists, notably the 
Austrian school, have brought forward the marginal- 
utility theory of value, explanatory of monopolized 
as well as competitive industries, of conditions in a 
dynamic as well as in a static society. This theory, 

* VALUE AND DISTRIBUTION. By Charles William Mac- 
farlane. Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Co. 

Translated by Julia Franklin. New York: Imported by 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

New York : The Macmillan Co. 

THE PROFIT OF THE MANY. By Edward Tallmadge Root. 
Chicago : Fleming H. Revell Co. 

By Fred. S. Hall, Columbia University Studies. New York : 
The Macmillan Co. 

By William Maxwell Burke. Columbia University Studies. 
New York : The Macmillan Co. 

A DIVIDEND TO LABOR. A Study of Employers' Welfare 
Institutions. By Nicholas Paine Gilman. Boston : Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co. 

PAUPERIZING THE RICH. By Alfred J. Ferris. Philadel- 
phia : T. S. Leach & Co. 

K. Urdahl. Madison, Wis.: Democrat Printing Co. 

Helen Marot. Philadelphia : T. S. Leach & Co. 



[Feb. 16, 

subject to slight modifications by individual writers, 
may be said to have found a permanent place in the 
writings of present-day economists. But the appli- 
cation of this theory to the problems of Distribution 
has proceeded but slowly. Some valuable work in 
this direction has been done, it is true, especially by 
American economists. But the work so done is 
fragmentary, and is so scattered through the maga- 
zines that there is danger that its real value will not 
be recognized. 

It is the work of bringing together this scattered 
material, and of constructing out of it and the work 
of the Austrians a theory of Distribution consonant 
with modern conditions, that Dr. Macfarlane has 
attempted in " Value and Distribution." His work 
is, however, not entirely one of construction, as his 
criticism of other writers and modification of their 
views ultimately leads him to a presentation of a 
theory of his own. This theory of Distribution 
originates in his belief that neither the cost theory 
of Bicardo nor the marginal-utility theory of the 
Austrians serves as a complete explanation of the 
way in which price is determined. The former 
fails because it does not show that in the case of 
monopoly or scarcity of goods the producer obtains 
a surplus over costs ; the latter fails because it does 
not take account of consumers' surplus. The au- 
thor's contention is that the point at which price is 
fixed is more or less indeterminate, being some- 
where between the marginal utility of the good to 
the consumer and its marginal utility to the pro- 
ducer, the exact point depending on the relative 
monopoly strength of buyer and seller. This he 
terms the monopoly theory of price, true of all 
goods which are not freely reproducible. In dis- 
tributing the social product among the various 
factors of production, we may find, the author con- 
tends, three forms of surplus : We have rent, which 
is a differential surplus peculiar to all factors, and 
is due to actual differences in the productivity of 
different portions of land, capital, labor, or em- 
ployers. It does not enter into price, but is deter- 
mined by price. We have also a marginal or 
monopoly surplus, which is secured by all factors in 
case they are engaged in the production of com- 
modities which have a monopoly or scarcity value. 
This is the surplus over the marginal utility to the 
producer mentioned above in treating of price. 
Unlike the surplus rent, this is secured by all pro- 
ducers, those on the margin as well as those above 
it ; and, unlike rent, it does enter into price. The 
author would call this monopoly surplus profits ; 
but it would seem likely to cause confusion to use a 
word of common usage to denominate this unfa- 
miliar conception of monopoly earnings. The third 
form of surplus is the normal surplus secured only 
by the factors that are freely reproducible, capital 
and labor. The normal surplus in the ease of cap- 
ital is interest, in the case of labor it is gain. Both 
result from the fact that the supply of these factors 
is limited by the abstinence of the marginal saver 
or laborer, as the case may be, who sacrifices present 

enjoyment in order to continue producing for the 
future. Like the surplus profits, this normal sur- 
plus enters into price. From this brief statement of 
the theory it will he seen that confusion must inevi- 
tably result from the attempt to keep separate these 
three forms of surplus. Little seems to be gained 
by the effort to treat interest and gain as a surplus. 
The author himself admits that in a progressing 
society they become a part of costs. The writer's 
criticism of recent theories is characterized by much 
acuteness, but the continuity of his own argument 
is broken by the unnecessarily long excursions into 
the history of theory, and by the numerous and 
lengthy quotations with which the pages of his book 
are filled. 

The present system of distribution finds a sharp 
criticism from the extreme socialistic standpoint in 
Rodbertus's " Overproduction and Crises," an ex- 
cellent English translation of which has been made 
by Miss Julia Franklin. Rodbertus's theory of 
crises is, in brief, as follows : In spite of an increas- 
ing productivity of labor, the wages of the laboring 
classes become an ever smaller portion of the na- 
tional product. Because of this fact, "the pur- 
chasing power of four-fifths or five-sixths of society 
does not expand in proportion to the progressive pro- 
duction, but rather simultaneously contracts in like 
proportion, from which it would be just and easy to 
demonstrate the necessity of gluts." If every partici- 
pant in exchange retained the entire product of his 
labor, then no glut could arise from over-production 
of any one or of all commodities until more of them 
had been produced than were required by society. 
The purchasing power of society would then always 
remain commensurate with its productiveness. In 
a critical Introduction to this work, Professor J. B. 
Clark points out that crises do not result either 
from over-production or from a wrong distribution, 
but from misdirected production ; i. ., employers 
have made speculative and inaccurate estimates of 
incomes that are to exist in the future. Even if 
Rodbertus's theory of wages as a steadily declining 
share of product were true, it would not lead to a 
crisis. " Whatever qualities producing employers 
may lack, they have the capacity to bring the kinds 
of goods that from year to year they make into a 
general conformity to any gradually changing de- 

" The Psychology of Socialism," by the author 
of " The Psychology of Peoples " and " The Psy- 
chology of the Crowd," is an interesting and sug- 
gestive book. To suggest, however, is not to 
demonstrate ; and, unfortunately, the writer has 
accepted his suggestions as though they were al- 
ready beyond the pale of controversy, and has been 
at little pains to examine the premises on which he 
bases his conclusions or to carefully weigh the evi- 
dence with which he supports them. As a conse- 
quence, many of his statements are without foun- 
dation, and even such of his interpretations of 
phenomena and tendencies as seem reasonable need 
far more proof than has been offered before we can 




accept them as final. They suggest an explanation, 
but do not warrant it. Socialism, the author thinks, 
is rapidly gaining converts, and gives promise of a 
speedy adoption by one of the nations of Europe. 
It owes its power, however, not to any inherent 
truthfulness of its theories, nor to the fact that it 
would bring to its adherents the results at which it 
aims. Socialism is essentially a belief, and one 
which is rapidly assuming a religious form. It ap- 
peals to the emotions rather than to the reason, and 
its success, like that of all religious beliefs, is en- 
tirely independent of the proportion of truth which 
it contains. Its present success is due to the fact 
that it has appeared at a period in the world's his- 
tory when men have become skeptical concerning 
the old doctrines and distrustful of the promises 
held out by the old religions. Something must re- 
place the old doctrines, for " humanity has not 
been able to exist without beliefs." Socialism fits 
the needs of the hour. It is not based on logic, 
and it does not equal the old beliefs in the grandeur 
of its ideals ; but it does constitute an ideal which, 
however low, " possesses the merit of bestowing on 
man a hope which the gods no longer give." Ow- 
ing to the fact that it appeals to the imagination 
rather than to reason, socialism appeals to the 
Latin mind much more forcibly than to the people of 
Teutonic origin. M. Le Bon apparently regards it as 
inevitable that at least one among the Latin nations 
of Europe (present circumstances point to Italy) 
should make an experiment with socialism on a 
large scale. No latter-day prophet of Latin degen- 
eracy has been more unsparing in his denunciation 
of the Romanic peoples than is this French psy- 
chologist and sociologist in the several chapters 
which he devotes to this subject. The Latin peo- 
ples, he asserts, are " characterized by feebleness 
of will, energy, and enterprise." Lacking the indi- 
vidual initiative of the Anglo-Saxons, they are con- 
stantly seeking to be guided and governed. Their 
past history, their present needs and lack of capac- 
ity, their system of education which teaches de- 
pendence and the need of external discipline, and 
their failure to modify the old concepts of religion 
without rejecting all belief, have " doomed " the 
Latin nations " to suffer the State socialism which the 
collectivists are preaching to-day." Had M. Le Bon 
confined himself to the work for which he is fitted and 
for which his book professes to stand a psycholog- 
ical analysis of the social mind, with the purpose of 
discovering the grounds for the reception and rapid 
spread of socialistic doctrines his book would 
have been of more worth and would have inspired 
more confidence than it will in its present shape. 
His knowledge of economic phenomena is not pro- 
found, and he lacks the sympathy for the laboring 
classes which is necessary to a fair discussion of the 
social problems of to-day. His fondness for gen- 
eralizations and striking statements has led him into 
statements not only careless and crude, but such 
as are unwarranted by even the most superficial 
knowledge of the facts. Numerous examples might 

be quoted, but one must suffice an account of 
the Chicago strike of 1894. " It ended," says the 
author, " in the strike of all the railway men in 
the United States, and had as its further results the 
burning of the palaces of the Exposition and the 
immense workshops of the Pullman Company. 
The Government assumed the upper hand only by 
suspending civil rights, proclaiming martial law, 
and delivering veritable battle to the insurgents. 
The strikers were shot down without pity, and de- 

" The Profit of the Many " is a strong appeal 
from a Christian socialist for unselfishness in the 
production, distribution, and use of wealth. The 
appeal is made on economic as well as on ethical 
grounds. Self-interest, says the author, is inade- 
quate as a motive to secure the largest production 
of wealth. Production will not attain its true pos- 
sibilities until every producer takes as his motto, 
" I seek not mine own profit but the profit of the 
many." The greater part of the book is taken up 
with a review and analysis of the social teachings 
of the Bible, wherein the author finds support for 
his thesis. Much of this work is well done. The 
treatment of the Mosaic code is especially suggest- 
ive. There is always the danger, however, that 
students of modern social problems who use the 
Bible to illustrate social teachings will read into 
the Scriptures lessons which they were never in- 
tended to convey. This, our author seems at times 
to have done, as when he tries to teach the necessity 
of cooperation from the story of Cain ; equality of 
wealth from the account of the gathering of the 
manna ; and sees in Christ's statement, " Seek first 
the kingdom," not its obvious meaning, seek right- 
eousness, but a command to adopt socialism. No 
one can for a moment doubt the beauty of the ideal 
contained in the principle, " Seek the profit of the 
many," or can wish to withstand the effort to realize 
this ideal. But the author is wiser than his doc- 
trine when he says that " only the universal preva- 
lence of such a spirit can make socialism practicable ; 
and with such a spirit, individualism would accom- 
plish all the ends of socialism." The fact that 
Christ addressed himself to the individual in pre- 
senting the claims of a Christian life, and did not 
seek to overthrow existing social institutions, shows 
that society does not, because it cannot, enforce this 
ideal. The beauty of the principle lies in the very 
fact that it is to be voluntarily and cheerfully ac- 
cepted, not enforced. 

A timely and excellent monograph on an inter- 
esting subject is that of Dr. Fred S. Hall, entitled 
" Sympathetic Strikes and Sympathetic Lockouts." 
Dr. Hall defines a sympathetic strike as one in 
which " workmen having no grievance of their own 
take action out of a belief that another body of 
workmen is not fairly treated, and so take up the 
cause." A sympathetic lockout, on the other hand, 
" occurs when an employer discharges men against 
whom he has no grievance in order thus to enforce 
the settlement of some other dispute." The author 



[Feb. 16, 

reviews briefly the efforts of statisticians and others 
to give precise meaning to the terms " strike " and 
" lockout," and decides that no absolute line of dif- 
ference can be drawn. What the employer calls a 
strike, the laborer terms a lockout. Each party to 
the controversy tries to throw the responsibility for 
initiating the disagreement on to the other's shoul- 
ders. Our author concludes, therefore, that the 
attempt at distinction is both valueless and mis- 
chievous, and in scientific classifications should be 
dropped. But with what seems a strange inconsist- 
ency, the writer immediately insists that there is a 
clear distinction between a sympathetic strike and 
a sympathetic lockout. It would be interesting to 
know how he would make use of this distinction in 
a statistical table in which the distinction between 
strikes and lockouts had been abandoned. Is a 
sympathetic lockout a lockout and not a strike ? If 
so, what shall be done with lockouts that are not 
sympathetic? If the o.nswer be that there are no 
such lockouts, may we not ask why then the quali- 
fying adjective " sympathetic " ? The sympathetic 
strike is a comparatively recent invention, intended 
to further the purpose of the original strike. Its de- 
velopment does not indicate a growth of sympathy 
among the working classes, but a better knowledge 
of their common interests. The sympathetic lockout 
was of much earlier development. It was intended 
to prevent laborers from contributing to the support 
of fellow-laborers during a strike. The necessity for 
it is thus as old as the habit of contributions, and 
this is as old as unionism itself. The sympathetic 
strike is a powerful weapon, but it is like a two-edged 
sword.: it cuts both ways, and requires intelligence for 
its effective use. The most powerful labor organi- 
zations do not make use of it. It has caused the 
downfall of the Knights of Labor and the American 
Railway Union. It cuts off financial assistance to 
the original strikers by a cessation of earnings of 
the sympathizers, and this financial assistance is of 
supreme importance. Dr. Hall, accordingly, does 
not believe that the future holds much in store for 
the sympathetic strike, and thinks that it is likely 
to be displaced by the " successive strike." The 
sympathetic lockout is even less likely to succeed. 
Prices rise, and competing firms who may have 
reached an agreement to assist each other find the 
temptation constantly growing stronger to break 
the agreement, either secretly or openly, in order 
to reap the advantage of high prices. The weakness 
of the sympathetic lockout thus constitutes a con- 
tinual and automatic check to its application. 

Another excellent monograph in the same series 
as the foregoing is that on the " History and Func- 
tions of Central Labor Unions," by Dr. William 
Maxwell Burke. By Central labor unions is meant 
the general union which is caused by the federation 
of the trade unions of a given locality, usually a 
city, for the purpose of rendering mutual assistance 
as in case of strikes, or of cooperating to secure a 
desired end. The unions that make up the Central 
union are not necessarily, or even generally, unions 

of allied trades. In this respect the Central union 
differs from a national trade union, which is nearly 
always a federation of allied trade unions. The 
objects of the Central union are (1) to aid and 
strengthen the organization of the local unions ; 
(2 ) to educate the laborers and the public " along 
those lines in which they hope to accomplish ame- 
lioration in the conditions of labor or to effect cer- 
tain reforms "; and (3) to protect the rights and 
to defend the interests of the laboring classes by 
offensive and defensive alliances of the workers of 
the district or municipality, especially those in the 
local unions. Although Central labor unions were 
not unknown in earlier years, the period of rapid 
development of this form of organization in this 
country has been since 1880. Within this period 
they have grown both in numbers and in influence, 
and have done much to accomplish the above ob- 
jects, especially that of organization. In furthering 
the great object of all trade union organizations 
that of collective bargaining the Central labor 
union has indirectly been of great assistance, espe- 
cially where, as in Cleveland, the union has a sal- 
aried agent to transact the business. The chief 
defect is the looseness of the organization, and the 
fact that the local unions cannot be made to accept 
the decisions of the Central. Unless a radical 
change should take place in the organization of the 
Central unions, Dr. Burke does not think that they 
will be able to directly undertake the function of 
collective bargaining. 

Plans for a reform of the existing wage system 
may be separated into three main classes. The 
first class is composed of those in which the em- 
ployer takes the initiative and which are carried 
out under his supervision. In the second class, the 
laborers combine into organizations, such as trade- 
unions, with the view of obtaining better terms from 
employers. In the third class, the State takes the 
initiative and seeks to effect reforms through leg- 
islation. Such legislative measures range all the 
way from factory laws to the complete suppression 
of the wage system through socialism. It is prob- 
able that most economists and students of the labor 
question to-day expect the ultimate solution of 
the problem to be reached through one of the two 
last-named methods. But only the most rabid advo- 
cates of trade unionism or of socialism would deny 
the possibility of making substantial contributions 
toward the end of industrial peace through the first 
method proposed. It is further to be remembered 
that, as Mr. Gilman, in his work entitled " A Div- 
idend to Labor," says, while " the distant future of 
industry may belong to cooperative production, or 
even to the socialistic stage, the present and the 
near future belong very plainly to capitalistic pro- 
duction on a large scale." In this system the 
employer-manager is an essential part, and his re- 
sponsibilities to his employees and his power of 
establishing friendly relations between capital and 
labor are not slight. Many employers have shown 
their interest in and sympathy for their workmen by 




the adoption of profit-sharing, or by what Mr. 
Gilman calls " an indirect dividend to labor " the 
establishment of certain institutions designed to 
promote the welfare of their employees as a class. 
Some of these institutions, which include social 
clubs, hospitals, dispensaries, schools and libraries, 
restaurants and lodging houses, cooperative savings- 
banks, accident and old-age insurance, etc., have 
frequently been described in newspapers and mag- 
azines, but Mr. Gilman has rendered an important 
service by bringing together in one work the infor- 
mation concerning these institutions and the firms 
which have founded them. Not all the establish- 
ments maintaining these welfare institutions have 
been considered, but the most important ones in 
Germany, France, England, and the United States 
are described, and several chapters are devoted to a 
discussion of the principles on which such institu- 
tions should be founded and maintained. One point 
mentioned by the author needs to be noted, and that 
is the danger of paternalism in the management of 
such institutions. Especially in America is it de- 
sirable to leave to the workmen the chief part in 
the administration of such institutions. Many phil- 
anthropic measures have been wrecked through a 
dictatorial policy or a patronizing spirit on the part 
of the employer. In the concluding chapters of the 
book, Mr. Gilman supplements his earlier work 
by some additional information concerning profit- 

The reader of economic literature who can afford 
to devote some time to the consideration of panaceas 
for social disorders will find entertainment, if not 
instruction, in the perusal of Mr. Alfred J. Ferris's 
book entitled " Pauperizing the Rich." Like most 
social reformers, Mr. Ferris finds the cause of pov- 
erty and distress to be the inequality in the distri- 
bution of wealth ; but, unlike many reformers, he 
does not propose, in order to bring about a better 
distribution, to reconstruct the present system of 
production or to abolish in its entirety the competi- 
tive system of distribution. The enormous produc- 
tion of wealth which has characterized the nineteenth 
century the author attributes to the great discov- 
eries and inventions and the improvements in the 
processes of industry which have been made since 
1770. These inventions have usually been patented 
by their inventors, and royalties charged for their 
use under governmental protection for a series of 
years, at the end of which period they have been 
thrown open to the public. It is the latter part of 
this plan to which Mr. Ferris objects. He admits 
that at the expiration of the patent period the ben- 
efit of the invention goes to the consumer ; but he 
is not satisfied with this. He apparently regards 
the consumer as, in some sort, an enemy of society, 
and thinks that in reaping the benefits of improved 
production the consumer is receiving an advantage 
which he has not earned. He would have the na- 
tional government assume the ownership of these 
expired patents, copyrights, etc., in perpetuity and 
would furthermore have the government assume 

control over all improvements that have been made 
in industry since 1770. The government should 
collect the royalties on the same principle that would 
be followed by an individual, and should then divide 
the proceeds equally among the people of the coun- 
try. The effect would be, he thinks, to raise prices 
about one hundred per cent ; but each person would 
receive as his share of the " Property in Ideas " an 
income, estimated by our author at one hundred and 
sixty dollars. " Rated in purchasing power, as 
compared with the present, therefore, each man's 
income would be equal to one half of his present 
income plus one-half of the average income." This 
plan, he thinks, by guaranteeing everyone some sort 
of a living, would abolish poverty, do away with 
much of the present social inequality, abate sinful 
extravagance and remove the temptation to display, 
prevent crises, raise wages and guarantee employ- 
ment to labor, prevent friction between employer 
and employed, check intemperance, gambling, and 
the social evil. It would even do much toward 
reforming the criminal and curing the defective 
classes. There is always some danger of doing 
injustice to a writer by thus epitomizing his theories, 
and, of course, we have not attempted to describe 
the ways in which Mr. Ferris's plan is to bring 
about these desired results. Still, we think that 
this brief statement of method and results exag- 
gerates in no way the absurdity of the book. It is use- 
less to criticize the theory, or to try to show what 
effects such a measure proposed would have on the 
social and economic habits of the people. Mr. Ferris 
is not unaware of the objections which would be 
raised to his measure, but he puts them lightly 
aside as mere trifles the obstacles certain to be 
thrown in the path of any reformer. A careful 
study of the principles of taxation and an investiga- 
tion as to the results of our pifesent pension system 
would richly reward him. 

The State influences distribution in many ways 
that do not savor in the least of Socialism. Per- 
haps the most important of these ways is through 
its taxing power. How it may use this power to 
enrich individuals at the same time that it dimin- 
ishes the resources of others, is well shown by Dr. 
Urdahl's monograph on " The Fee System of the 
United States." This is a carefully-prepared work 
whose value is accentuated by the fact that this 
subject has hitherto received scant attention in the 
American treatises on public finance. The scope of 
the monograph is somewhat wider than its title 
implies, since it treats not only of the fee system in 
this country but gives an historical review of the 
fee systems of Europe, both ancient and modern, 
and has a chapter on the theory of fees in general. 
The author quite rightly defends fees on the prin- 
ciple of benefits or service performed by the State, 
thus distinguishing them from taxes which are levied 
in proportion to the ability of the tax-payer. He 
follows Neumann, Seligman, and Rosewater, in 
separating fees from special assessments ; a distinc- 
tion which, in the opinion of this reviewer, none of 



[Feb. 16, 

these writers has succeeded in justifying. Special 
assessments seem to be only an important class of 
fees. Among the most important abuses which the 
author finds connected with the fee system to-day is 
its employment in police and other minor courts as 
a means of payment of judicial officers and others. 
The tramp problem is aggravated by the encourage- 
ment which the fees give to the judges and jailers 
to confine these men in the jails, and direct encour- 
agement is often given to tramps to return. So 
with petty criminals. Payments according to the 
number of arrests or commitments swell the num- 
ber of persons convicted in the police courts. This 
is shown whenever a change is made from fee pay- 
ments to salaried court officials. The existence of 
court money paid to the wife who has made appli- 
cation for a divorce in order that she may hire an 
attorney, the author thinks, encourages divorce 
proceedings. Finally, the existence of offices which 
yield to their holders immense sums in fees is a 
standing premium to political corruption. The 
replacement of fee-paid public officers by salaried 
officials would do much to remove the political 
corruption connected with purely administrative 

Miss Helen Marot has compiled a bibliography 
of writings on the labor problem which will be of 
assistance to the readers of the literature on that 
subject. The execution of the work, however, is 
not entirely satisfactory. The titles of books are 
not always correctly given. The periodical litera- 
ture is not included, on the ground that it is to be 
found in " Poole's Index " and the " Review of 
Reviews," while the compiler has included a mass 
of literature which, like " Monopolies " and the 
" Land Question," have no reference to the labor 
problem. The classification is peculiar in some 
respects, and we fine'Vsuch headings as " Utopias " 
and " How the Other Half Lives." One of the best 
features of the book is the list of the labor period- 
icals and labor songs. It would have been interest- 
ing to have included a list of the important works 
of fiction and the poems dealing with labor questions. 



England in England, in the day of her military 

the day saj her decadence and humiliation, may de- 
tupremacy. r j ye & me i ancno iy satisfaction from 

the contemplation of the deeds by land and sea of 
the sturdier sons of her heroic past. In his " How 
England Saved Europe" (Scribner), Dr. W. H. 
Fitchett undertakes to tell, in two moderate-sized 
volumes written from the British point of view, the 
story of the long struggle against Bonaparte (1793- 
1815). Dr. Fitchett's picturesque and animated 
style, and his unfailing sense of the logical and 
dramatic unity of events, make his book an unus- 

ually entertaining and impressive piece of military 
history. He regards the Napoleonic war as essen- 
tially a contest in which, through the instrumental- 
ity of England, the modern world was delivered 
from the thrall of a despotism of the later Roman 
type ; and in his opening chapter he forestalls the 
catastrophe of the great drama he is about to unfold, 
by showing us the fallen Caesar, a volubly complain- 
ing prisoner in the cabin of the " Bellerophon," sunk 
so low as to crave the favor of British citizenship 
from his captors. " Who," exclaims the author, 
" shall assess the value of these memories to the 
new and vaster England of to-day ? " The value 
of these memories has, we are inclined to think, 
been in some regards doubtful. Have they not 
contributed to breed in Englishmen that arrogance 
that has caused the world to-day to jeer at them in 
their hour of humiliation, that blind self-confidence 
that has resulted in the rout of their gorgeous Bond 
Street generals by the unkempt farmer- strategists 
of the Transvaal ? Perhaps, instead of persistently 
pluming herself on the " splendid memories " of 
the Nile and Waterloo, it would be better for En- 
gland to reflect that it is for what she is to-day, not 
for what she was a hundred years ago, that the world 
is going to rate her. What her army is to-day is 
manifest ; if it cannot stand before the Boers what 
showing could it make in a contest with a first-class 
power? Her navy, in respect of ships and arma- 
ment, is powerful ; but what, at present, must be 
the natural inference as to its personnel ? There 
is great reason to fear that that natural inference 
will govern the political enterprises of her rivals 
in a momentous way at no distant date. But 
nevertheless, as we have already said, Englishmen 
may derive a melancholy satisfaction from the con- 
templation of the deeds of their forefathers ; and 
they should find Dr. Fitchett's book much to their 
liking. He has not attempted to deal with En- 
gland's political history during the period covered, 
nor are the continental wars of Napoleon touched 
upon, save incidentally. What is undertaken is " a 
living and realistic account of the greatest war En- 
gland ever waged." The opening volume is mainly 
a record of naval actions, with, incidentally, an ac- 
count of the surprisingly disaffected and even mu- 
tinous spirit prevalent in the navy at this period of 
great warlike achievements. Dr. Fitchett is an 
effective painter of sea-fights. His style is one that 
wakes and feeds the imagination, and his forth- 
coming and concluding volume will be awaited with 
widespread interest. The work is attractively 
printed, and liberally supplied with portraits, plans, 

Mr. Ooldwin 
Smith's lalett 

In the preface to his new two-volume 
work entitled " The United King- 
dom " (Macmillan), Mr. Goldwin 
Smith writes : " The friends who urged the writer 
to undertake this task know that it has been per- 
formed by the hand of extreme old age." If by 
this the author intends to disarm criticism or to 




apologize for fancied shortcomings in the present 
labor, he has no occasion for it. As in his earlier 
writings, one finds in " The United Kingdom " the 
same clearness of insight and just appreciation of 
men and events, the same facility of expression, the 
same methodic grace, and, above all, the same mas- 
terly ability in so arranging and classifying material 
as to leave an ineffaceable impression of each historic 
period. The work is, in fact, more free from the 
faults and more replete with the beauties of the 
author's accustomed style than is usual to the labors 
of old age. If it was ever true, as a reviewer said 
of him a few years ago, that " with age he seems 
to have grown fond of crossing the ideas of all 
other men on all subjects and of arguing the worst 
result from any given present condition of affairs," 
the tendency has not developed, and old age has 
mellowed rather than heightened the historian's ag- 
gressiveness. The reverse of this is rather a most 
noticeable characteristic. Mr. Smith was once prone 
to berate the Irish race, to deny their fitness under 
any conditions for self-government, to prophesy 
naught but evil of all projects for political inde- 
pendence, and to insist upon the necessity for strong 
coercive measures if Ireland and England were to 
live in harmony. But in turning from the role of 
pamphleteer to that of historian, the just historical 
attitude has been adopted, and differences of location, 
race, and religion, together with certain unfortunate 
incidents in the history of the two peoples, are made 
responsible for the failure of peaceful union between 
England and Ireland. No word is spoken of the 
future ; for prophecy, the author insists, is not the 
work of the historian. To be sure, Mr. Smith does 
not renounce previous views ; but greater deference 
to contrary beliefs, as well as greater kindliness in 
general, characterize his statements. Again one is 
reminded of an earlier work in which Mr. Smith 
held up the empire to ridicule as a discordant whole, 
emphasizing its lack of unity and expounding upon 
the bitter hostility shown by the races subject to 
Great Britain. Even Canada was depicted as per- 
meated with factional strife and little likely to be 
a source of strength to the mother country in time 
of danger. Mr. Smith's " Empire " of to-day is a 
marvellous achievement, and its organizers are 
men of genius. Due credit is accorded British phil- 
anthropy for its treatment of subject states, and 
England's services as a world-civilizing force are 
justly estimated. Yet the shadows are there also, 
and are portrayed with a keen but friendly criti- 
cism. Mr. Smith has, in a word, abandoned the 
argumentative method in writing this history, and 
chosen to become the scholarly critic of historic 
events. He no longer belittles or magnifies some 
fact in support of his premises ; and as historical 
accuracy combined with brilliant execution are of 
more permanent value than mere brilliance in po- 
lemics, it is certain that the present volumes will 
bring more lasting fame to their author than any 
of his earlier writings. The work practically closes 
with the year 1840. 

As a record of stirring adventure, 
i * k Sir Stephen St. John's "Rajah 

Brooke " (Longmans) is delightfully 
entertaining, while as an account of pioneer en- 
deavor in private enterprise among Eastern peoples, 
it depicts in a clear light conditions of government 
and custom hard to realize by the Western world. 
After a brief career in India, Sir James Brooke, upon 
falling heir to a small fortune, determined in 183$ 
to fit out a ship for the exploration of the then un- 
known peoples of the islands of the eastern Pacific. 
The expedition ended in a remarkable manner, for 
Brooke in the course of a year or so found him- 
self ruler, under the title of Rajah, of a small ter- 
ritory called Sarawak, on the northwest coast of 
Borneo. His title was earned by judicious services 
rendered to the native Sultan, while the allegiance of 
his subjects, Malay, Dyak, and Chinese, was secured 
by the unfailing courage and ability with which he 
defended them against numerous pirate tribes. His 
kingdom of Sarawak, now largely increased in ter- 
ritory and population, still exists under the rule of 
his nephew, Sir Charles Brooke, and furnishes the 
unique spectacle of an Eastern state ruled by an 
Englishman. In a strict sense Brooke was not a 
" Builder of Greater Britain," for his kingdom has 
never passed under the dominion of England, 
though at one time a " protectorate " was immi- 
nent ; but as an example of that adventurous spirit 
which has played so important a part in the exten- 
sion of England's empire, Brooke's name is illus- 
trious. The very fact that his enterprise was indi- 
vidual rather than the result of governmental 
action lends an added interest to the story of his 
successes. The story itself is well told, and with 
an intimate familiarity with the events related, for 
the author was himself an official of the Sarawak 
government in its earlier history, and always a per- 
sonal friend of Brooke. Possibly this friendship 
blinds him to some of the shortcomings of his hero, 
as in the case of the heated controversy with Cob- 
den and Bright, but in general the treatment, while 
sympathetic, is eminently fair. The main interest 
of the work is, however, in the narrative of Brooke's 
achievements. The concluding chapters furnish an 
account of Sarawak, and of British North Borneo, 
at the present day. 

An historical ^ contribution of more than ordinary 
Encyclopedia interest to the annals of American 
oflihnoM. commonwealths is the " Historical 

Encyclopaedia of Illinois " (The Munsell Publishing 
Co., Chicago), edited by Messrs. Newton Bateman 
and Paul Selby, themselves a part of the things they 
set forth. The death of Dr. Bateman, during the 
early stages of the work, left the lion's share of it 
to be performed by Mr. Selby, a veteran journalist 
and citizen of Illinois, and familiar with its leading 
events and men for more than half a century. In 
one aspect the work is a biographical dictionary 
containing the names of 1200 persons whose lives 
are largely identified with that of the state ; in an- 



[Feb. 16, 

other, it is a gazetteer, the counties of the state and 
all settlements with more than five hundred inhab- 
itants being treated ; in a third, and most important, 
it contains historical material of value to all students 
of human affairs, whether in the history of legisla- 
tion, the growth of institutions, the part borne by 
the people in the various wars of the nation, the 
economical development of railroads and canals, the 
geological and other scientific characteristics of the 
state, or in the ideas for which Illinois is known to 
stand in legislation and political precedent. Espe- 
cially to be noted is the extended essay on the 
" Underground Railroads " which carried so many 
thousands of slaves from the neighboring states of 
Kentucky and Missouri to safety across the great 
lakes into Canada. " Remarkable Inundations," 
" Natural Scenery," " Northern Boundary Ques- 
tion," " Camp Douglas Conspiracy," and " Naviga- 
ble Streams " are all interesting and important 
entries. Where there is so much to commend there 
are, almost of necessity, some omissions to be noticed. 
While the investigator can find " Minority Legisla- 
tion," " Australian Ballot," and " Torrens Land 
Law," he looks in vain for " Factories Act," "Arbi- 
tration Board," " Prison Reform," " Union Labor," 
" Strikes and Lockouts " (other than those in 1877 
and 1894), " Great Trials " (as of the so-called 
anarchists and the murderers of Dr. Cronin), and 
many other matters of the first importance, as it 
would seem ; the treatment of others, as " Labor 
Troubles," being wholly insufficient. It may be 
said generally of the political aspect of the book 
that it is unsympathetic so far as the democratic 
party is concerned, even to a total omission from 
its pages of all mention of the democratic plan of 
nominating United States Senators in State conven- 
tions, a matter held in favor by thoughtful persons 
everywhere ; while the almost infinite obligations of 
the people of Illinois to its one democratic governor 
for placing it among the most progressive of English- 
speaking commonwealths in respect of scientific leg- 
islation find neither expression in the book nor justi- 
fication from its contents. With these limitations, 
the work is deserving of much praise, and has an 
historical value beyond that of any work in its field. 

The trump of America's naval fame 
is blown with no faltering or uncer- 
tain sound in Mr. Edgar Stanton 
Maclay's " History of American Privateers " ( Ap- 
pleton). The volume is published in uniform style 
with the author's valuable " History of the United 
States Navy," now the standard text-book on the 
subject, to which it forms a needed supplement. 
The story of American privateering is a stirring 
and romantic one, and Mr. Maclay tells it with due 
verve and patriotic fire without, however, allow- 
ing his patriotism to sink into mere buncombe. 
The book denotes a considerable degree of inde- 
pendent research, and that its theme is by no means 
relatively unimportant is sufficiently shown by the 
fact that the value of prizes and cargoes taken by 

History of 

privateers in the Revolution was three times that 
of the prizes and cargoes taken by regular naval 
vessels, while in the War of 1812 we had 517 pri- 
vateers and only 23 vessels in the navy. It was 
undoubtedly mainly the losses inflicted by our 
ships on Great Britain's commerce at sea that con- 
tributed most to bringing our wars with England 
to a close favorable to us. Mr. Maclay points out 
that in all the memorials presented to Parliament 
the arguments used to bring about peace with Amer- 
ica were based on the ruinous destruction of British 
commerce, the increased rates of insurance, the 
diversion of cargoes to foreign bottoms, etc., due to 
the sleepless activity of our privateers. It is to be 
remembered, too, that these vessels fitted out by 
private enterprise were the training school, to a great 
extent, of our navy. Most of the naval heroes of that 
day such men as Truxton, Porter, Biddle,Barney, 
Decatur, Perry, Rodgers, Hopkins served their 
fighting apprenticeship as privateersmen. Mr. Mac- 
lay's spirited and sufficiently thorough book fills a gap 
in American naval history, and should find a place 
on the student's shelves beside its popular prede- 
cessor. The plans and illustrations are satisfactory. 

Life without ^ n a ^ human likelihood, the incre- 

ennut among dulity with which " The Adventures 

Australians. Q f Lou j g de R ougemO nt, as Told by 

Himself" (Lippincott) have been generally received, 
is due to nothing so much as the straining of the 
autobiographer to prove his case. When every- 
thing that can bear out the adventurer's account 
of his stay for half a lifetime in the Australian 
wilds is printed in italics and small capitals, the 
reader's mind goes back to Pooh-Bah's " merely 
corroborative detail, intended to give artistic veri- 
similitude to a bald and unconvincing narrative." 
Mr. William G. Fitz-Gerald writes a preface for 
the book, in which he says : "There are many men 
in England who know Australia. Most of these 
wanted to get at de Rougemont in order to over- 
whelm him ; many had the opportunity, and were 
soon converted into devoted adherents." The name 
of a single authority of all these would have been 
better than the typographical hysterics ; or, failing 
this, Mr. Fitz-Gerald's mere statement. For the 
adventures, wonderful as they are, and wholly out 
of the beaten track of exploration and adventure, 
are still in no degree improbable, if the difference 
in point of view between the Frenchman and the 
ordinary Englishman are taken into account. M. 
de Rougemont is somewhat more effusive on paper 
than most persons speaking English would be ; but 
it can hardly be said that he regards his own per- 
formances more highly than Mr. Theodore Roose- 
velt and several of the newspaper correspondents 
regarded theirs during the war with Spain, as ap- 
pears from their published writings. Without ref- 
erence to the question of veracity, it is safe to say 
that life among the Australian natives as here de- 
scribed, if not wholly desirable, is yet fairly free 
from ennui. 




The life of that delightful lying auto- 
. biographer, assassin, and matchless 

craftsman, Benvenuto Cellini, is in- 
telligently sketched in a suitably illustrated volume 
of 154 pages by the anonymous author of " Falk- 
lands," etc. The little book may be read through 
in an evening (as it probably will be, when once 
begun, as we gladly testify) ; and as Benvenuto 
sustained his own life with his chisel, took the lives 
of several others with his poignard, and provided 
entertainment for future lives with his pen, its 
author has entitled it " Chisel, Pen, and Poignard " 
(Longmans). The authorities seem to have been 
carefully examined and collated ; and the book may 
be read to advantage as a preparative for Benve- 
auto's romantic but indispensable chef-d'oeuvre. 


The collection of "Songs of All Lands" (American 
Book Co.), which Mr. W. S. B. Mathews has edited 
for school and home use, is a work that meets with our 
most cordial approval. It includes the national songs 
-or hymns of many nations, an interesting selection of 
folk-melodies, a number of worthy old-time favorites 
that we fear the younger generation is in danger of not 
learning, and a few part-songs and glees. The selec- 
tion is altogether admirable, and the reconstruction 
of some of the newer material by Mrs. Jessie L. Gay- 
nor is a feature that deserves special mention. Most 
of the selections are arranged in plain four-part har- 
mony, and in a few cases piano-forte accompaniment is 

The two " Columbia University Studies in Litera- 
ture " (Macmillan) that have just been published carry 
on the series so solidly begun a few months ago with 
Mr. Spingarn's monograph on the literary criticism of 
the Renaissance. Both are doctoral dissertations, and 
one of them, Mr. F. W. Chandler's "Romances of 
Roguery," is but half completed, for the volume on 
" The Picaresque Novel in Spain," now at hand, is to 
be followed by a second volume exhibiting the Euro- 
pean influence of that literary form. Our other mon- 
ograph is Mr. John G. Underbill's "Spanish Liter- 
ature in the England of the Tudors." Both works 
are so well done that we may most heartily congratu- 
late Professor Woodberry upon his department of 
the University, since that is the source of this scholarly 

The "Journal " of the National Educational Associa- 
tion for the Los Angeles Meeting of 1899 has just been 
issued from the University of Chicago Press. It is a 
volume of 1258 pages, and its contents make it a ver- 
itable encyclopaedia of current educational discussion. 
The noticeable features are the three special reports of 
the committees on public libraries, normal schools, and 
college-entrance requirements. These should be read 
by every teacher, for they are among the fundamental 
documents of the modern educational movement. From 
the hundreds of lesser contributions to the volume, it 
would be invidious to select for special mention. It 
must suffice to say that no department is neglected, 
and that much matter of weight is to be found among 
these minor features of the work. 


" The story of Eclipses," by Mr. George F. Chambers, 
is an interestingly written little volume published by 
the Messrs. Appleton. 

" Canada," by Mr. J. N. Mcllwraith, is a small vol- 
ume of " History for Young Readers " published by 
Messrs. D. Appleton & Co. 

A complete bibliography of the drawings of Aubrey 
Beardsley, prepared by Mr. A. E. Gallatin, will be 
issued at once by the A. Wessels Co. 

Captain Alfred T. Andreas, well-known in Chicago as 
the author of a comprehensive history of the city, died 
in New Rochelle, N. Y., on the 10th inst. 

The Macmillan Co. have just republished, in an 
abridged edition, Mr. Frederic Harrison's " Annals of 
an Old Manor-House, Sutton Place, Guilford." 

An artistic little booklet containing Cardinal New- 
man's "Valentine to a Little Girl" is issued by the 
" Brothers of the Book " as a valentine greeting to their 

Announcement is made that the firm of M. F. Mans- 
field & A. Wessels has changed its name to A. Wessels 
Company, Mr. Mansfield's connection with the firm hav- 
ing been severed. 

The first number of the new " Magazine of Poetry," 
to be issued in March by Mr. Daniel Mallett of New 
York City, will bear an attractive cover-design by Mr. 
Louis J. Rhead, the well-known poster artist. 

A collection of the stories contributed by Mrs. Kate 
Upson Clark to various American magazines is an- 
nounced for Spring publication by Messrs. J. F. Taylor 
& Co., under the title " White Butterflies." 

"Plant Structures" (Appleton) is a second book of 
botany by Professor John M. Coulter, and thus a sequel 
to the author's earlier " Plant Relations." Both are of 
the series of " Twentieth Century Text-Books." 

The Messrs. Scribner publish a uniform library edi- 
tion, in eighteen volumes, of " The Novels and Stories of 
Frank R. Stockton." Six volumes are now ready, and 
we presume the others will follow in due time. The 
books are handsomeiy printed, and the set will be wel- 
comed by all lovers of this genial author. 

" Nature's Miracles " is a volume of short papers on 
popular science by Dr. Elisha Gray. It is the first of a 
series by the same hand, and has for its special subject 
" World- Building and Life." Messrs. Fords, Howard, 
& Hulbert are the publishers. 

Jowett's translation of Thucydides, in a second edi- 
tion, as revised by Messrs. W. H. Forbes and Evelyn 
Abbott, has just been published in two volumes by the 
Oxford Clarendon Press. The notes of the original 
edition are, however, not reprinted. 

A " Florilegium Latinum " (Lane), edited by Messrs. 
Francis St. John Thackeray and Edward Daniel Stone, 
has just been published as a " Bodley Anthology." The 
translations into Latin are by many hands, and from 
Greek, English, and Continental poets. 

The Smithsonian Report for 1897, issued from the 
Government Printing Office, is a thick volume of more 
than a thousand pages, and something like the same 
number of illustrations. The latter includes a fine 
series of eighty full-page plates, illustrative of recent 
Foraminifera, as described in a monograph by Mr. 
James M. Flint. The remaining monographs include 
two of unusual length: " Pipes and Smoking Customs 




of the American Aborigines," by Mr. J. D. McGuire; 
and " Arrowpoints, Spearheads, and Knives of Prehis- 
toric Times," by Mr. Thomas Wilson. 

Volume X. of the " Harvard Studies in Classical 
Philology," published by Messrs. Ginn & Co., contains 
eleven papers, mostly concerned with the minuter mat- 
ters of scholarship, although one or two of them offer 
an exception to this general characterization. 

" The Russian Journal of Financial Statistics " for 
1900 is an octavo volume of over two hundred pages, 
written in excellent English, and likely to be of great 
value for reference purposes by economists and stndeuts 
of finance. It is an official publication of the Russian 
government prepared for free distribution to librarians, 
editors, and others interested in the subject. 

The edition of White's " Natural History of Sel- 
borne," which Mr. John Lane has just published, is 
everything that the most exacting demand could specify. 
It is a handsome royal octavo of more than five hun- 
dred pages, with hundreds of illustrations. The late 
Grant Allen edited this sumptuous volume shortly be- 
fore his death, and a more competent editor and anno- 
tator could not have been found. 

" The Jew and Other Stories," by Ivan Tourgue'nieff, 
forms the fifteenth, and, we understand, the final vol- 
ume in Mrs. Garuett's admirable translation of the great 
novelist. For the first time we have practically the 
whole of Tourgue'nieff's fiction in a uniform set of vol- 
umes, and the recent prize award of the " Academy " to 
Mrs. Garnett was a richly-deserved recognition of the 
meritorious character of her work. The Macmillan Co. 
publish this edition. 


[The following list, containing 71 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.] 


Recollections, 1832 to 1886. By the Right Hon. Sir Algernon 
West, K.C. B. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 442. Harper 
& Brothers. $3. 

Bismarck, and the Foundation of the German Empire. By 
James Wycliffe Headlam. Illus., 12rao, pp. 471. "He- 
roes of the Nations." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

Theodore Beza: The Counsellor of the French Reforma- 
tion, 1519-1605. By Henry Martyn Baird. Illus., 12mo, 
pp. 376. " Heroes of the Reformation." G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $1.50. 

Recollections of My Mother, Mrs. Anne Jean Lyman of 
Northampton : Being a Picture of Domestic and Social 
Life in New England in the First Half of the Nineteenth 
Century. By Susan I. Lesley. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, pp. 505. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $2 50. 

Henry Knox: A Soldier of the Revolution. By Noah 
Brooks. Illus., 12mo, pp. 286. " American Men of 
Energy." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.50. 

Orestes A. Brownson's Middle Life, from 1845 to 1855. 
By Henry F. Brownson. Large 8vo, pp. 646. Detroit, 
Mich.: Published by the author. $3. 


The Puritan Republic of the Massachusetts Bay in New 
England. By Daniel Wait Howe. Large 8vo, gilt top, 
pp. 422. Bowen-Merrill Co. $3.50. 

The County Palatine of Durham: A Study in Constitu- 
tional History. By Gaillard Thomas Lapsley, Ph.D. 
Large 8vo, pp. 380. " Harvard Historical Studies." Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $2. net. 

The Africanders: A Century of Dutch- English Feud in 
South Africa. By Le Roy Hooker. Illus., 12mo, pp. 279. 
Rand, McNally & Co. $1.25. 

Canada. By J. N. Mcllwraith. Illus., 18rao, pp. 252. "His- 
tory for Young Readers." D. Appleton & Co. (50 cts. 


The Hitherto Unidentified Contributions of W. M. 
Thackeray to " Punch." With a complete and authori- 
tative bibliography from 1843 to 1848. By M. H. Spiel- 
raann. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 349. Harper & 
Brothers. $1.75. 

Earthwork out of Tuscany : Being Impressions and Trans- 
lations. By Maurice Hewlett. New edition, with addi- 
tional illustrations in photogravure. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 234. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50 net. 

Nathan Hale: A Play in Four Acts. By Clyde Fitch. 
Illus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 100. R. H. Russell. $1.25. 

The Scarlet Stigma: A Drama in Four Acts. By James 
Edgar Smith. 18mo, pp. 88. Washington : James J. 
Chapman. 75 cts. 


Life and Works of the Sisters Bronte, " Haworth " edi- 
tion. With Introductions by Mrs. Humphry Ward. New 
vols.: Shirley, and Villette. Each illus., 8vo, gilt top, 
uncut. Harper & Brothers. Per vol., $1.75. 

Thucydides. Trans, into English, with an Essay on Inscrip- 
tions and a Note on the Geography of Thucydides, by 
Benjamin Jowett, M.A. Second edition, revised. In 2 
vols., large 8vo, uncut. Oxford University Press. $3.75. 

The Novels and Stories of Frank R. Stockton, "Shen- 
andoah " edition. First vols.: The Late Mrs. Null, The 
Squirrel Inn and The Merry Chanter, Rudder Grange. 
The Hundredth Man. Ardis Claverden, and The Great 
War Syndicate, etc. Each with photogravure frontispiece. 
8vo, gilt top, uncut. Charles Scribner's Sons. (Sold only 
by subscription.) 

Works of Shakespeare, "Larger Temple" edition. Ed- 
ited by Israel Gollancz. Vols. III., IV., V., and VI. 
Each illus. in photogravure, etc., 12mo, gilt top, uncut. 
Macmillan Co. Per vol., $1.50. 

Works of Rudyard Kipling 1 , "Outward Bound" edition. 
New vol.: From Sea to Sea, Part I. Illus., 8vo, gilt top, un- 
cut, pp. 494. Charles Scribner's Sons. (Subscription only.) 

GEuvres Completes de Moliere. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 647. Oxford University Press. $1.25. 

The Jew, and Other Stories. By Ivan Turgenev ; trans, 
from the Russian by Constance Garnett. Kinio, gilt top, 
pp. 322. Macmillan Co. $1.25. 

Temple Classics: Edited by Israel Gollancz, M.A. New 
vols.: The Paradise of Dante Alighieri, the Italian text, 
with a new prose translation bv Rev. Philip H. Wick- 
steed, M.A.; Ramayana, the Epic of Rama, Prince of 
India, condensed into English verse by Romesh Dutt, 
C.I.E. Each with photogravure frontispiece, 24mo, gilt 
top, uncut. Macmillan Co. Per vol., 50 cts. 


The Lute and Lays. By Charles Stuart Welles, M.D, 
16mo, uncut, pp. 103. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 

The Knights of the Cross; or, Krzyzacy : A Historical 

Romance. By Henryk Sienkiewicz ; trans, from the Polish 

by Samuel A. Binion. In 2 vols., illus., 12mo. R. F. 

Fenno & Co. $2. 
The World's Mercy. By Maxwell Gray. 12mo, pp. 287. 

D. Appleton & Co. $1. 
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A Thoroughly Modern and Practical 
Text- Book in 

Composition and Rhetoric 
for Schools 

By ROBERT HERRICK, A.B., Assistant Professor 
of English in the University of Chicago ; and 
LINDSAY TODD DAMON, A.B., Instructor in 
English in the University of Chicago. 
This book embodies the most recently accepted 

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has some distinctive features. 

INVENTIONAL WORK in shaping and arranging 
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follow this method of work, and the student will rap- 
idly mature the power of written expression. 

RHETORICAL THEORY as such is not presented 
until the second part of the book, where it is taken up 
systematically. The study of good use in words, of 
diction, and of the rhetorical laws of the sentence and 
the paragraph, is followed by a general review of lit- 
erary laws as applied to the whole composition. 

THE EXERCISES present many original and 
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ALREADY ADOPTED in the High Schools of 
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Cloth, 476 pages, with full Index and Synopsis for 

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SCOTT, FORESMAN & COMPANY, Publishers, Chicago 


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Criticism, gisoissbit, anb jitformairon. 

EDITED BY ) Volume XXVIII. r\\JT(^. \r\r\ TV/I A "P P IT 1 1 OH A .W e/*. a copy. ( FINE ARTS BUILDING. 
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By WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY. With 48 Full-Page Pictures from the play as 
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HARPER & BROTHERS, Publishers, Franklin Square, New York 


134 THE DIAL [ March 1, 

3fof)ti Eane ***** in *** ^ nimi ****** ( 

Special Notice 

THE " Avon " fount of small pica type, upon which Mr. Bicketts has long 
been engaged, is now complete. It has been specially designed for printing 
the JplapS Of ^&&ak00p0at0 No edition of them at present exists that is nota- 
ble as a finely printed book on paper whose permanence is undoubted. The edition 
of ^>f)ak00p0ar0'0 Plapg which will shortly be issued by the $al0 Pt00$ 
will be printed in this new type, and the fount will not be used for any other 
books, at least until the Plays are completed. 

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water-mark a Mermaid. 

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of print. It will be conservative in its tendencies, being based upon the early 
Folio editions, though the results of modern research will be recognized, and, as 
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Only 310 sets of the $al0 ^>&ak00p0ar0 will be printed, of which 100 sets 
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The imprint in both countries will be identical, viz.: Sold by Hacon & Kicketts, 
London, and by John Lane, New York. The series will never be reprinted. 
The plays will be issued at $6.00 per volume net. The first Play, " Iatttl0t," 
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at intervals of one month from that date. 

The last twelve books issued from the $al0 PC000 have all been fully 
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The whole of the English edition of the $al0 ^)|)ak0$p0at0 has been taken 
up by collectors and the trade. 

A catalogue of such of the Yale Books as are yet obtainable can be had from 

31oim JLan0, 251 JFifti) at)0nu0, J!20to gotk 

1900.] THE DIAL 135 


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[March 1, 

Are You Going to the Paris Exposition? 




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NOTES 160 




It will be remembered by those who take 
account of such things, that in the year 1893 
a number of educational experts from different 
parts of Europe visited our country and studied 
our schools and school systems, often in school- 
houses and in superintendents' offices, as well 
as in the educational exhibit made at Chicago ; 
and that many of them, on their return home, 
published their observations and impressions, 
some in books and some in official reports, the 
whole mass forming a valuable body of informa- 
tion and criticism. Much of this material 
(especially when it took the form of official 
reports) Dr. Harris, the Commissioner of Edu- 
cation, reproduced in a more or less abridged 
form in his Report for the year of the Great 
Exposition. One of the documents that he so 
treated was the Report of Dr. E. Schlee, Direc- 
tor of the Real Gymnasium at Altona, Ger- 
many, who had put his finger thus firmly upon 
the spot where, in his view, American schools 
fail most : 

" If in every office the chief factor is the man, and in 
school the teachers, we have come to the weakest point 
in the American school system: professional teachers 
are wanting. That is to say, that most teachers are 
deficient in the requisite scientific and pedagogic pre- 
paration for their vocation. The greatest number are 
women, and comparatively few make a profession of 

" According to the American way of looking at things, 
no importance is attached to the technical preparation 
for occupations and vocations or professions. Profes- 
sions are changed according to advantages or oppor- 
tunities. In annual reports we repeatedly meet with 
complaints of the fact that the teachers, men and women, 
have little or no normal or scientific education, and that 
they must be appointed without regard to the necessary 
knowledge and pedagogic preparation." 

Reviewing our facilities for providing quali- 
fied teachers for the elementary schools, Dr. 
Schlee said : 

" On account of frequent resignations, the yearly 
demand for teachers in America is astonishingly great ; 
one-third of the number needed annually can scarcely be 
met by the Normal schools." 

His account of secondary teachers is hardly 
more favorable. 

" Teachers of high schools have, as a rule, graduated 
from high schools; and for the most part have for a 
time attended a college, a university, or a normal school, 
before taking the teacher's examination. Generally 



[March 1, 

speaking, however, the situation is about the same with 
them as it is with those of the lower schools." 

That Dr. Schlee's view is the one commonly 
held by the most competent experts who visit 
us from abroad, and that it is also the view 
taken by our own most competent judges, is too 
well known to call for more than the slightest 

How admirably the German specialist puts 
it ! " If in every office the chief factor is the 
man, and in school the teachers, we have come 
to the weakest point in the American school 
system : professional teachers are wanting." 

This judgment involves two main points. 
One is the great lack of our teachers, as a body, 
in respect to academical and professional pre- 
paration ; and the other, the rapid and cease- 
less changes in the body itself. The two defects 
are more closely connected than some may 
think. Poor preparation leads assuredly to 
keeping the body in a state of ceaseless motion, 
while such motion is very unfavorable in itself 
to good preparation. 

The value of the good teacher is one of the 
lessons that mankind has been very slow to 
learn. From the days of Plutarch, we have a 
continuous stream of testimony bearing on this 
point. Again, the good teacher is not as highly 
appreciated in the United States as he is in the 
well-educated countries of Europe. It may 
seem a paradox, but it is the truth, to say that 
American teachers as a class, and the Ameri- 
can people as a whole, earnest as both are, have 
never taken the teacher's calling, as such, very 
seriously. The vast majority of teachers, in 
fact, do not look upon it as a calling at all, but 
only as an episode lying between school and a 
calling or as a prelude to the main action of life. 

It is often said that there are no highly civil- 
ized people in the world who place so low an 
estimate as we Americans do upon expert 
knowledge and skill of any kind. This is per- 
fectly true, although Dr. Schlee indulges in 
some exaggeration in his putting of the case ; 
and it is impossible to tell how much we suffer in 
consequence. Causes that are perfectly famil- 
iar to students of such matters, have operated 
to produce in our country a type of character 
that is remarkably efficient and versatile, so 
much so, in fact, that it is hard for us to believe 
that we cannot do anything we may undertake 
to do, no matter whether we have prepared our- 
selves to do it or know much about it or not. 
That great friend of our country, John Stuart 
Mill, once spoke of this tendency as one of the 
serious defects in our character. That it stands 

in the way of our achieving the highest results 
in many lines of activity, is beyond all question. 

Once more there is reason to believe that we 
have a lower estimate of practical pedagogical 
ability than of any other highly specialized 
form of ability. Upon what other serious call- 
ing do we look so lightly ? Certainly not upon 
medicine, the bar, or the ministry. That 
teaching the formation of the bodies and 
minds, the manners and the morals, of children 
and youth is a refined and delicate art, call- 
ing for much skill and high excellence of char- 
acter, ought to be too plain to make serious 
argument on that point necessary. 

I do not for a moment forget three things 
that are essential to a just view of the subject: 
(1), that many of our teachers do look upon 
the work as a calling, although the number is 
relatively small ; (2), that the number of such 
teachers is increasing steadily, if not rapidly ; 
and (3), that many persons who have done a 
few years' work at teaching, on their way to a 
calling, have rendered the public excellent 
services. Nevertheless, the fact cannot be too 
much emphasized that the United States will 
never become an educational state of the same 
rank as Prussia or Saxony until teaching as- 
sumes a position and a dignity among us that 
it has never yet known. 

One of the facts that give Massachusetts 
her preeminence as an educational state is the 
high standard of attainment that is required 
of teachers. In 1888-89 the teachers in her 
common schools who had attended a normal 
school were 33.3 per cent, of the total number, 
while the graduates of such schools were 26.6 
per cent. In 1897-98 the corresponding per 
cents were 38.5 and 33.5. That is, at the first 
date about a quarter of the teachers were nor- 
mal school graduates ; and at the other date, 
about a third. The Secretary of the State 
Board of Education, Mr. Frank A. Hill, gave 
this account of the 61.5 per cent who had not 
attended a normal school : A few have prob- 
ably been appointed without reference to their 
preparation or fitness for the work ; some had 
had a little preliminary experience in local 
schools for the purpose ; some had begun to 
teach before normal school preparation had 
attracted the attention of school committees as 
an important prerequisite ; while some were 
College graduates. This is certainly an encour- 
aging showing, compared with the day when 
Horace Mann said, in substance, that outside 
of the city of Boston there were not more than 
two hundred teachers who could be said to 




follow teaching as a calling in that state. It 
is also encouraging in comparison with the 
showing that any other American state could 
make. But it is distinctly discouraging when 
considered in connection with Prussia or 

Statistics that would fully reveal the exact 
state of things, the country over, are, unfor- 
tunately, not attainable. We know that a 
great army of teachers is employed, that this 
army is rapidly increasing in numbers, and that 
the average term of service is a short one. In 
1897-98 this army counted 409,193 teachers, 
which was 5,860 more than the year before. 
Again, if ten per cent, of these teachers go out 
of the service every year (a very moderate 
estimate), 41,000 new teachers are required 
to keep up the wastage. Putting the facts 
together, it is safe to say that the annual de- 
mand for common-school teachers at the present 
time is 50,000. Where does the supply come 

For the year 1897-98 the Commissioner of 
Education found 67,538 students in teachers' 
training courses of all kinds, reaching from the 
high school to the university. He also found 
11,255 graduates from normal schools be- 
tween a fifth and a fourth of the total number 
of the recruits required to keep the ranks full. 
This is a liberal view to take of the matter. 
President Schurman, of Cornell University, 
has calculated, from data furnished by the 
Bureau of Education, that in 1891-92 the total 
annual increase in the number of teachers em- 
ployed in the schools was less than two per cent, 
of the whole number, that nearly seventeen per 
cent, of the whole number were wholly inex- 
perienced, that the average length of service 
was between seven and eight years, and that 
only fifteen per cent, of the teachers in the 
schools of the country had passed through a 
normal school. 

While much has been said and written upon 
the two defects in our system that we are con- 
sidering the ill preparation of teachers when 
they enter the schools, and the frequent chan- 
ges within the body not much has been said, 
so far as I am aware, upon their relative mag- 
nitude or seriousness. How do they compare ? 
Probably most persons would lay emphasis, and 
perhaps heavy emphasis, upon ill preparation. 
This may be the true view, but I am not fully 
pursuaded that it is so. Let us look into the 
matter more closely. 

Mr. William E. Anderson, when Superin- 
tendent of the Schools of Milwaukee, ten or 

twelve years ago, found the changes in the 
personnel of the teaching corps of that city to 
be from ten to twelve per cent, annually. A 
well-known Michigan superintendent found 
the ratio to be about the same in his city. 
Applying this ratio to such cities as Chicago, 
Philadelphia, and New York, what an appall- 
ing result we have ! But this is not all : 
changes in tine personnel of the force necesitate 
changes in the assignment of the remaining 
teachers to schools and grades, and these changes 
are probably equal in number to those resulting 
from the other cause. It is easy to say that some 
of these changes are for the good of the schools; 
that some of the teachers who come are better 
than some who go, and that inter-school and 
inter-grade changes are often beneficial. This 
is true enough, but it is no proper offset to 
the evil that flows from unnecessary or un- 
desirable changes. It is undeniable that 
changes in the corps is one of the great sour- 
ces of waste in our public schools. No one 
knows this better than the experienced super- 
intendent. He labors hard to get his force in 
good working order, to effect the necessary 
adjustments upon which the success of the 
schools so closely depends, and only to see 
the whole organism broken up, or seriously 
deranged, at the end of the year. 

This is in the cities. In the rural districts 
the case is still worse. In 1886 a competent 
authority found that the schools in Calhoun 
County, Michigan, required 158 teachers, and 
that 342 different ones were employed in the 
course of the year ; also that the average length 
of the school year in the county was 8.4 months, 
while the average time for which the teachers 
served was but 3.8 months. He found also 
that the ratio of the teachers required to the 
teachers employed was about the same through- 
out the state, the tenure being longer in the 
newer counties than in the older ones. Since 
that time there has been a considerable, if not 
a marked, improvement in the mode of employ- 
ing teachers in Michigan, as well as in other 
states ; but the reform should go still farther. 
Why should not people change their bankers, 
lawyers, ministers, dentists, physicians, once in 
three or six months as well as their teachers ? 

We may scrutinize still more closely the loss 
that unnecessary changes entail upon the pupils 
of schools. We may justly say that a large 
majority of the inexperienced teachers wish to 
do their duty, and make an effort to do it ; 
they try to overcome in some measure their 
limitations arising out of their lack of prepar- 



[March 1, 

ation, for which they are by no means fully 
responsible ; and, as the result of wish and 
effort, they make some commendable progress 
in mastering their art. But by the time they, 
or many of them, come to be really useful to 
their employers, they retire from the work, 
making room for new teachers who are as inex- 
perienced as they were at the beginning, and 
thus the Sysyphian labor is renewed. At what 
cost to pupils is the progress made by these 
successive relays of teachers earned ! Some 
years ago, a Kentucky court, seeking to cut off 
some of the circumventions by which teachers 
strive to evade the law in regard to certificates, 
made these very pertinent remarks : 

" The purpose of requiring a certificate is to be as- 
sured of the qualifications of the teacher in advance. 
He is not to practice on his pupils, keep one day ahead 
of his class, and thus, by going to school to himself, fit 
himself to stand the ordeal of an examination which he 
could not have stood at the beginning. Such a pro- 
cedure is a fraud on the district." 

The principle here involved would bear much 
wider application. The procedure described is 
not only " a fraud on the district," but it is a 
crime on the children. How many teachers in 
the United States at the present time learn to 
teach, so far as they do learn, by " practicing 
on their pupils," and thus " going to school to 
themselves " ! 

In view of all the premises, what should be 
done ? What is the demand of the hour ? The 
comprehensive answer to this question is, Raise 
the teacher's calling in the estimation of teach- 
ers and of the whole people. How shall this 
be done ? Of the numerous points that a full 
answer to this second question would involve, 
I mention only three, and these as briefly as 

1. The character of the teaching function, 
and especially the teacher's calling, must be 
made the subject of constant direct appeal to 
the public. There is urgent need of an educa- 
tional campaign on the subject of education 
under its theoretical, practical, and historical 

2. The preparation of teachers must be im- 
proved by direct efforts to that end. It is an 
undeniable fact, and a cheering one, that as a 
rule the better the work the teacher does, the 
longer his term of service. There can be no 
doubt that one reason why the tenure of city 
teachers is longer than country teachers is the 
fact that, as a class, they represent a much 
higher grade of preparation. 

3. The folly of the incessant changes occur- 

ring in our corps of teachers must be dealt with 
directly and effectively, as far as possible. This 
will conduce to better preparation and to bet- 
ter teaching. It is true, of course, that the 
teaching body as a whole will undergo, and 
ought to undergo, constant changes, since 
changes are incident to human life and society ; 
but this is no defence of the wretched system 
that prevails at present. 

In this struggle there is much to encourage 
the friends of education. Dr. Harris has shown 
that from 1880 to 1897 the enrollment in public 
normal schools increased from about 10,000 to 
over 40,000 pupils, or fourfold ; and that in the 
same period private normal schools increased 
from 2,000 to 24,000, or twelvefold. In 1880 
there were 240 normal students in each million 
of inhabitants ; in 1897 there were 976 in each 
million. We may take courage from the un- 
doubted fact that education in the United 
States, inferior as it may be in many respects, 
is still on the rising grade. 



" I have simply run through the world. I have clutched 
everything by the hair. ... I have longed and attained, and 
then longed again, and thus with might have stormed through 

These words of the aged Faust, who, nearing his 
end, casts a retrospective glance over his past life, 
might well be taken to characterize Byron. But 
only so far as we quote is the passage applicable : of 
the development hinted at in the following lines, he 
was utterly incapable. Flaring up like some strange 
meteor before the gaze of his astonished contempo- 
raries, his sudden plunge from the highest heights 
into death was far more favorable for his fame than 
a gradual decline and a lingering setting would have 
been. It was not without reason that Goethe 

" Although Byron died so young, yet literature has not lost 
materially by him, so far as a more extended range of writing 
is concerned. He had reached the height of his creative 
power, and, whatever he might have written afterward, he 
could not have passed the natural boundaries of his talent." 

The last stage of the development of Byron is 
that of his " Cain," who goes into exile uttering the 
despairing cry, "And I?" The answer to this 
pessimism is to be found in the Second Part of 
" Faust." 

The date of Goethe's first acquaintance with 
Byron's works cannot be exactly determined. It 
must have been, however, sometime between 1812 
(the date of the publication of the first two cantos 

*See note on page 161 of this issue. [EDB.] 



of " Childe Harold ") and 1816. On May 4 of the 
latter year he wrote to Eichstadt, " I have just 
learned of the English poet Lord Byron, who de- 
serves our interest," and inquires after a life of 
the poet. Corresponding to this is an entry in the 
" Tag und Jahresheften," 1816 : 

" My interest in foreign literature centred actively upon the 
poems of Byron, who became ever more prominent and 
attracted me to him more and more, notwithstanding the fact 
that at first he had repelled me by his hypochondriacal pas- 
sion and by his bitter self-hatred, and that it was only with 
difficulty that I could approach his great personality. I read 
the ' Corsair ' and ' Lara ' not without sympathy and admira- 

From this statement we perceive that at first the 
fully-rounded nature of the German Altmeister 
found great difficulty in befriending itself with the 
skeptical, one-sided, misanthropic poet. In the fol- 
lowing year, however, his interest was not less 

"English poetry and literature occupied a most prominent 
place this year. The more the public acquainted itself with 
the peculiarities of Lord Byron's wonderful spirit, the more 
sympathy he gained, so that men and women, youths and 
maidens, appeared to forget their Oerman nationality. As it 
became easier to obtain his works, I also formed the habit of 
busying myself with him more and more. He became to me 
a valued contemporary, and I followed him eagerly upon the 
wandering paths of his life." 

From this time on we find repeatedly in Goethe's 
journals, letters, and conversations references to this 
or that work of Byron. His interest is especially 
excited by the publication of " Manfred," in 1817. 
On the 13th of October of that year he writes to 
Knebel : 

"The most noteworthy publication of recent date was the 
tragedy ' Manfred,' by Byron. This remarkable poet has 
absorbed my ' Faust,' and has drawn out from it the strangest 
food for his hypochondria. He has used every motive in his 
own way, so that not one of them is identical [with mine], 
and just for this very reason I cannot sufficiently admire his 
genius. . . . Yet withal I do not deny that the sullen glow of 
an unbounded despair becomes wearisome after a time. And 
still the vexation which one feels is always coupled with re- 
spect and admiration." 

To Boisse're'e he writes, on the first of May, 1818, 
that " an extraordinary spirit, great talent, insight 
into the world, and self-consciousness reign therein " 
(i. e., in "Manfred") ; and in "Kanst und Alter- 
tum " he devotes a detailed discussion to it, part of 
which runs as follows : 

" We find, then, here the real quintessence of the opinions 
and passions of this most wonderful talent, born to self- 
torment. . . . He has often enough confessed what tortures 
him ; he has presented it repeatedly, until hardly anyone has 
sympathy longer with that unendurable suffering of his." 

These strictures show that Goethe's admiration was 
tempered by a healthy scorn of Byron's unwhole- 
some melancholy. 

Goethe's assertion that Byron had imitated 
" Faust," and his assumption that " Manfred" had 
for its foundation a double murder caused by the 
poet's passion for a married woman in Florence, 
were sufficient to touch the sensitive Englishman 
to the quick. He decided to revenge himself on 
Goethe by an ironical dedication to him of his 

"Marino Falieri." The dedication was written, 
and sent to his publisher, Murray ; but the latter 
had the good sense to suppress it. Ten years later, 
Goethe learned of this dedication through the 
younger Murray. 

From " Manfred " Goethe translated the " Curse " 
(I. 1), and the "Monologue" (II. 2), of which 
latter he said, " Hamlet's Soliloquy appears here 
intensified." It is not without interest to compare 
these two translations with the original. The 
" Curse " is translated into the original metre, but 
without rhyme. The sense of the " Monologue " is 
given for the most part excellently, but one notes a 
few minor errors. 


" Days 

Steal on us and steal from 


" In all the days of this de- 
tested yoke." 



Bestehlend, stehlen sie sich 


" In all' den Tagen der ver- 
wunschten Posse." 

Goethe has evidently read joke for yoke, and it is 
possible that the edition which he used contained 
this misprint, although I have not found it in any 
edition accessible to me. 
Again we read : 


" What is she now ? a suf- 
ferer for my sins 
A thing I dare not think upon 

"Was ist sie jetzt? Fur 

meine Siinden biisst sie 
Em Wesen ? Denk' es nicht 

Veilleicht ein Nichts." 

or nothing." 

Here Goethe has entirely missed the meaning. 


' And champion 



"Der Erde Schreeken puf* 

It is praise rather than blame to say that Goethe 
was not a good translator. His translations lack 
entirely the Byronic tone, and are no longer Byron, 
but Goethe. The transmutation is so complete as 
to be striking in the highest degree. 

For " Kunst und Altertum" Goethe wrote a 
notice of the first two cantos of " Don Juan " (1821), 
and translated the first five stanzas of this work. 
" Cain " also received a full discussion from his 

In spite of noteworthy waverings of opinion, 
Goethe's admiration for Byron grew with his years, 
but from the very first he had estimated the poet's, 
character correctly. From the oft-quoted passages- 
in his letters and conversations we need not again- 
adduce examples as evidence. Byron, for his part, 
seems to have been flattered by so much attention- 
from the older master, and sent him in 1821 a 
proposed dedication to " Sardanapalus," inscribed 
to him in the most flattering terms, and attended by 
a request for permission to print it at the beginning 
of the drama. The dedication was accepted, but,, 
through the carelessness of Murray, was omitted in. 
printing. "Notwithstanding this," says Goethe,. 
" the noble Lord did not give up his intention of 
showing a signal evidence of friendly feeling to his 
German contemporary and literary comrade ; and 



[March 1, 

consequently the Tragedy ' Werner ' hears on its 
front a highly-prized memorial." 

In the spring of 1823 an English traveller brought 
a letter from Byron to Weimar, which Goethe an- 
swered hy the well-known poem, 

" Ein freundlich Wort komrat ernes nach dem Andern," 
mingling friendly admonition with cordial appre- 
ciation. Byron had already set sail for Greece, but 
was detained by a storm in the harbor of Leghorn, 
and here Goethe's answer reached him. He replied 
by a written greeting. 

So much for the personal and literary relations 
of the two during Byron's lifetime. It is not within 
the limits of our task to consider Goethe's influence 
on Byron, however interesting the investigation 
might prove. Byron owes the form at least of his 
" Manfred " and " Deformed Transformed " to 
Goethe, as well as the opening lines of the " Bride 
of Abydos," which he imitated from Mignon's song, 
as translated by Madame de Stae'l into French. 
All of Byron's knowledge of German authors was 
through translations or through the kind offices of 
Shelley and of " Monk " Lewis. On the other hand, 
the youthful and erratic genius of Byron had worked 
as a mighty inspiration upon Goethe, bearing as its 
fruit the character of Euphorion in the Second Part 
of " Faust." Yet even at this late stage the ten- 
dency to blame as well as praise the English poet 
was manifest, for we know that Goethe had at 
one time intended to satirize Byron as one of the 
throng of poets introduced into the Second Part of 
" Faust." 

Besides the traces of Byron which we have just 
mentioned, Goethe has adapted one of Byron's epi- 
grams, a fact which seems to have been overlooked 
up to this time. We quote first Goethe's rendition : 
" Nein, fur den Poeten ist's zu viel. 
Dieses entsetzliche Strafgericht. 
Verdanmit ist mein Trauerspiel, 
Und die alte Tante nicht ! " 

This is first published in 1833. The original is not 
found in Byron's collected works, but in Medwin's 
" Conversations with Byron." 

" Behold the blessings of a happy lot 1 
My play is damned, and Lady is not ! " 

Medwin explains the epigram as an allusion to two 
letters received by Byron in the same mail, the one 
containing the news that " Marino Falieri " had 
failed at Drury Lane Theatre ; and the other, that 
an old woman [Lady Milbanke?], from whom he 
had expected to inherit money, would probably sur- 
vive her hundredth birthday. Without this explana- 
tion, Goethe's epigram, as well as that of Byron, is 
sheer nonsense. 

A satirical stanza, beginning, 

" Lord Byron ohne Scham nnd Schein," 

may be referred to here, merely for the sake of 
completeness. The introduction of the poet's name 
alone connects the verse with him. In Goethe's 
posthumous writings occurs another poem referring 
to Byron, i. e., 

" Stark von Faust, gewandt im Rat." 

Eckermann would have us believe that the Ma- 
rienbad Elegy was influenced by Byron, because 
greater strength of feeling is expressed in it than in 
other of Goethe's poems written at this time ! It is 
true that Goethe told the Chancellor von Mttller that 
everybody in Marienbad was talking about Byron 
and Scott, but is not Goethe's ardor to be ascribed 
rather to his sudden and passionate admiration for 
Ulrike von Levezow than to so remote a cause ? 
This absurd proposition is an excellent example of 
the lengths to which a would-be literateur will go 
when out on a Quellenjagd. 

In the third act of the Second Part of " Faust " 
is Byron's real memorial at the hands of Goethe. 
This third act appeared for the first time in 1827, 
under the title " Helena." The son of Faust the 
exponent of Romanticism, and of Helena the expo- 
nent of the classic spirit, appears here as Euphorion- 
Byron, the exponent of the modern subjective age. 
Goethe himself has given us the key to his charac- 

" As representative of the most recent poetic period, I could 
use no one except him who is to be regarded as without ques- 
tion the greatest talent of the century. And then, Byron is 
not antique, neither is he romantic, but he is like the present 
day itself. I had to have such a character. He suited also 
perfectly because of his discontented nature, and of his com- 
bative tendency, which brought him to destruction at Misso- 
lunghi. ... I had planned the catastrophe formerly in quite 
another manner and once quite well. Then time brought 
me this matter of Byron and Missolunghi, and I let every- 
thing else go." 

And how was Euphorion to be conceived ? Let 
us read a few sentences from Goethe's own charac- 
terization of Byron, one of the most shrewd analyses 
of the poet existent. 

"One may very well say that bis uncontrolled nature was 
his ruin. . . . He lived passionately for each day, without 
thought of the morrow, nor did he consider what he did. . . . 
Everywhere the bounds were too narrow for him, and even 
with the most unlimited personal liberty he felt himself rest- 
ive. . . . He felt ever the poetic impulse, and all that ema- 
nated from the man, especially from his heart, was excellent." 

Goethe said this to Eckermann in 1825, that is, 
just at the time when he had resumed work on the 
" Helena " and was vigorously pushing it forward. 
And all that he expresses here as a critic, he repeats 
in '* Faust " as a poet. 

Let us examine the conception of Euphorion in 

Soon after his miraculous birth the heavenly boy 
seizes the lyre, " already announcing himself as the 
future master of all beauty, in whose members 
eternal harmonies are stirring." At once Phorkyas 
proclaims that the time of the old gods is past, and 
that the time of the new subjective song has come. 
" List ! the fairest harmonies ! Quickly free yourself from 
fables. Away with the old multitude of your gods, their 
day is past. No one will understand you longer : we demand 
a higher tribute ; for that must come from the heart which is 
to work upon the heart." 

Compare with this the last sentence in the quota- 
tion above : " And all which emanated from the 
man, especially from his heart, was excellent." 
Euphorion's restless nature, ever striving upward 




and onward, and forgetting itself only for the mo- 
ment even in love's dalliance, now finds its ade- 
quate expression. This same unrestrained, restless 
longing in the real prototype Goethe excellently 
characterizes as his tendency toward the limitless. 
It is Byron himself, the Byron of " Cain " and of 
" Manfred," who says : " That which is easily gained 
is repulsive to me. Only that which is won by force 
really delights me." 

The all-ruling love of nature, so evident through- 
out Byron's poems, finds beautiful expression in 
Goethe's verses. 

"A crowding of rocks here, between the forest thickets. 
Why these bounds for me, me who am young and strong ? 
The winds are rushing there, the waves are roaring there, 
I hear both from afar, fain were I near." 

" It was too narrow for him everywhere," says 
Goethe. Then follows the allusion to his revolu- 
tionary spirit : 

" Will you bring in the day of peace by dreaming ? Dream 
he who may. War is the watchword." 

And upon this follows the last flight, the fall : 
" Icarus ! Icarus ! Sorrow enough ! " 

Goethe is not the only German who has composed 
a dirge upon Byron. We recall those of Alfred 
Meissner, of Heine, of Wilhelm Muller ; but none 
has equalled his in quiet, sorrowful majesty. 
"Not alone, wheresoe'er thou tarriest." 

Goethe says himself : " The chorus falls entirely 
out of its role in this elegy ; it suddenly becomes 
earnest and highly reflective, and utters that of 
which it never thought and never could think." 
This is a true statement, not, however, a true criti- 
cism. Lovingly, with almost womanly idealization, 
Goethe has set Byron a memorial such as his own 
nation never dreamed of. Banned from his own 
country during his lifetime, wilfully misunderstood 
and misrepresented after his death, he found else- 
where universally recognition and acceptance. 

In conclusion, we venture to assert that what 
really influenced Goethe was Byron's brilliant per- 
sonality and romantic life, to which the fact of his 
being a " noble Lord " undoubtedly lent additional 
charm. Of a distinct literary influence there is no 
trace. But that the greatest German of his age was 
so quick to recognize in Byron a poetic spirit of 
high order, perhaps of the highest order, ought not 
be forgotten at the moment of our somewhat tardy 

Byron-revival. ,., -r, 




(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In his excellent articles on Henrik Ibsen, published 
in THE DIAL during recent years (the last one being 
in the issue for February 16), Mr. William Morton 
Payne seems to delight in referring to the poet as Dr. 
Ibsen. To be sure, it is perfectly correct to do so, as 

Ibsen has received the degree from a university of 
recognized standing, but is it necessary and desirable 
to call a great poet doctor ? Suppose Oxford or Cam- 
bridge had conferred the same degree upon Shakes- 
peare, Milton, Byron, or Shelley : would it not offend 
us to hear the critics speak of Dr. Shakespeare, Dr. 
Milton, Dr. Byron, or Dr. Shelley ? It is true we refer 
to Samuel Johnson as Dr. Johnson, but his case is dif- 
ferent. He courted the title and was flattered by it. 
I have heard many intelligent admirers of the great 
Norwegian dramatist offer protests against Mr. Payne's 
practice of calling him Dr. Ibsen. A great poet needs 
no honorary degree : he is great enough without it, 
and, instead of adding dignity to his name, it seems 
to detract. Ibsen did not court any degree ; his 
countrymen never call him Dr. Ibsen, and are inclined 
to ridicule those who do as pedantic. 

University of Wisconsin, Madison, Feb. 23, 1900. 

[The writer referred to in the above communica- 
tion simply follows the uniform practice of THE 
DIAL in mentioning the names of living men and 
women. We believe it to be a matter of the merest 
good manners to speak of people in print as we 
should speak to them in private conversation. If 
we were addressing Dr. Ibsen personally, we cer- 
tainly should not call him " Ibsen," and are unwill- 
ing to offer him that discourtesy when writing about 
him. If we did not call him " Dr." we should be 
obliged to call him " Herr," which our critic would 
probably think equally pedantic. Thus the cases 
of Shakespeare and Byron, who are not among the 
living, have no bearing upon the question. Our 
practice in this matter illustrates one of those "little 
touches " to use Professor Peck's phrase that 
mean so much to persons of refined taste. The 
habit which Germans and Scandinavians have of 
denying in print to their living fellow-countrymen 
the titles whereby gentlemen designate one another 
is a thing which as far as it goes indicates an 
imperfect civilization, and it is one of the minor de- 
pravities of the American newspaper that it so 
encourages this form of rudeness that we should now 
be taken to task for observing the ordinary ameni- 
ties of social intercourse. EDR. THE DIAL.] 


(To the Editor of THE DIAL.) 

In regard to the question (if question it be) raised 
in Mr. Matthews's letter on " Jane Austen and Thack- 
eray " in your current number, let me suggest that a 
reference to Mrs. Ritchie's " Chapters from Some Un- 
written Memoirs " will clear up the matter. Mrs. 
Ritchie tells a story there, if I remember aright, of a 
meeting between her father and Miss Bronte that may 
well have been floating vaguely in the mind of the New 
York newspaper writer when he described, on Mrs. 
Ritchie's authority, Thackeray's wonderful encounter 
with Miss Austen. The substitution of Jane Austen 
for the author of " Jane Eyre " was an easy matter for 
a trained journalist. 

W. R. K. 

Pittsjield, Mass., Feb. 19, 1900. 



[March 1, 


Mr. Fortescue is a civilian, but his scholarly 
"History of the British Army" cannot fail to 
win the respect of the intelligent military read- 
er. Mr. Fortescue's valuable book is con- 
ceived and thus far carried out in the spirit of 
the scientific historian. The more romantic 
and picturesque side of his theme has for him 
but a secondary interest; and this we must 
consider a fortunate characteristic, since, while 
the exploits in the field of the British Army 
have been more than sufficiently celebrated in 
sounding prose by competent pens, the not less 
important record of its growth or evolution ab 
ovo as a national establishment has hitherto 
been strangely neglected. 

It is to this comparatively unworked field of 
research that Mr. Fortescue mainly applies him- 
self. In thus stating what appears to us to be 
the essential or distinctive feature of the work 
it is not intended to imply that the author has 
neglected the military aspect of his subject. 
It would be impossible to write even what 
may be called the bare natural history of the 
British Army without depicting in some detail 
the great battles and campaigns which materi- 
ally affected its development and character by 
instituting more or less radical changes in 
organization, tactics, or equipments. Mr. For- 
tescue's account of the political and adminis- 
trative side of British military history thus 
runs concurrently with the judiciously com- 
pressed and selective recital of the British 
soldier's achievements in the field, the reader 
being constantly reminded that it is primarily 
the evolution of the Army as a national estab- 
lishment that the author is aiming to trace out 
and illustrate. 

Mr. Fortescue's powers of picturesque descrip- 
tion are moderate ; his analysis of military oper- 
ations is concise and clear ; and the fact that he 
is a civilian has not deterred him from exercis- 
ing a considerable degree of independence of 
judgment. The average reader, accustomed to 
the conventional view of General Wolfe, will 
be surprised at Mr. Fortescue's estimate of 
the much vaunted victory on the plains of 
Abraham, which was due more to good luck 
and the virtual mental collapse of the French 
commander than to good generalship, and was 

Fortescue. In two volumes, with maps. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

essentially a gambler's throw of a general who 
had failed to see his real strategical opportu- 
nity. Says Mr. Fortescue : 

"... It is quite incontestible that the credit for the 
fall of Quebec belongs rather to the Navy than to the 
Army. ... It still remains for enquiry why Wolfe did 
not take earlier advantage of the opportunities opened 
to him by the fleet; and even after allowance is made 
for his constant illness, the answer is not readily found. 
The measures which led to the decisive action were, as 
has been told, taken on the advice of his brigadiers, 
and, if Montcalm had not succumbed to positive infa- 
tuation, would very likely have brought Wolfe to a 
court-martial. " 

It is easy, as the author observes, to be wise 
after the event ; but a careful analysis of the 
whole record of the operations at Quebec goes 
to show that Wolfe's reputation as a soldier 
has been somewhat unduly enhanced by the 
tradition of his virtues as a man and of his 
heroic death in the hour of victory. 

Mr. Fortescup's design is to write, in four 
volumes of about six hundred pages each, the 
history of the British Army down to the year 
1870. The two volumes now ready carry the 
story down to the Peace of Paris in 1763, and 
the two forthcoming volumes will bring it 
forward to the great reforms which virtually 
closed the life of the old Army and opened 
that of the new. The common assumption, as 
Mr. Fortescue notes, that the history of the 
Army begins with the 14th of February, 1661, 
is inaccurate, since the continuity of the ex- 
istence of the Coldstream Guards, a regiment 
of the New Model, was practically unbroken 
by the ceremony of Saint Valentine's day. 
This famous corps therefore forms a link which 
binds the New Model army of the Long Par- 
liament to the army of Queen Victoria. But 
as the very name New Model indicates that 
there was an earlier and older model, the his- 
torian of the Army is not justified in begin- 
ning with the Long Parliament's Ordinance of 
Feb. 15, 1645, but is thrown back to the out- 
break of the Civil War. It is found that at 
that period King and Parliament had avail- 
able for purposes of military organization a 
body of trained and experienced officers who 
had learnt their trade abroad, and mainly in 
the Low Countries. The historian is thus led 
back to the Thirty Years' War, to the tens and 
even hundreds of thousands of English and 
Scots who fought for pay and Protestantism 
under Gustavus and Maurice of Nassau. But, 
having gone back two generations before the 
Civil War for the germ of the New Model, it is 
found to be impossible to pause there. For in 




the earlier years of Elizabeth's reign we are con- 
fronted with an important period in English 
military history, with a break in old traditions, 
with concessions to foreign ideas and adoption 
of foreign practices albeit such concessions 
were then as always distasteful to the nation: 
"For there were memories to which the English 
clung with pathetic tenacity, not in Elizabeth's day 
only but even to the midst of the Civil War, the mem- 
ories of King Harry the Fifth, of the Black Prince, of 
Edward the Third, and of the unconquerable infantry 
that had won the day at Agincourt, Pontiers, and Crec.y. 
The passion of English sentiment over the change is 
mirrored to us for all time in the pages of Shakespeare; 
for no nation loves military reform so little as our own, 
and we shrink from the thought that if military glory is 
not to pass from a possession into a legend, it must be 
eternally renewed with strange weapons and by unfa- 
miliar methods. This was the trouble which afflicted 
England under the Tudors, and she comforted herself 
with the immortal prejudice that is still her main-stay 
in all times of doubt, 

1 1 tell thee, herald, 

I thought upon one pair of English legs 

Did march Three Frenchmen. ' " 

This " immortal prejudice " is proving just 
now anything but a u mainstay," and seems at 
last in a fair way of extinction. 

The origin of England's Elizabethan new 
departures in warfare are to be traced back by 
the historian through the Spaniards, the Lands- 
knechts, and the Swiss, and the old English 
practice and tradition must be followed to its 
source. It is not found at Cre$y, for Edward 
III.'s time was one of military reform. Revert- 
ing to the Battle of Falkirk, the Statute of 
Winchester, the Assize of Arms, the essentially 
English tradition still recedes, till at last at 
the Conquest we can discern a great English 
principle which forced itself on the conquering 
Normans, and eventually on all Europe 
namely, the rule that all men-at-arms must dis- 
mount when in action and as a preparatory 
step for action. The primitive national army 
of Teutonic England consisted of the mass of 
free landowners between the ages of sixteen 
and sixty, and was known as the fyrd. Custom 
fixed its term of service at two months in the 
year. Alfred reorganized this force of Land- 
wehr by dividing the country into military dis- 
tricts, and requiring every five hides of land, 
at the king's summons, to furnish, maintain, 
and pay an armed man. Each owner of five 
hides of land was furthermore required to do 
thane's service, that is, to appear in the field 
heavily armed and to serve throughout the 
campaign. Canute later added a new and more 
distinctly military element in the form of a 
royal body-guard, originally a picked force of 

from three to six thousand Danish troops, 
known as the house-carles. 

" It was with an army framed on this model the 
raw levies of the fyrd and the better trained men of the 
body-guard that King Harold, flushed with the vic- 
tory of Stamford Bridge, marched down to meet the 
invasion of William of Normandy. . . . Yet the force 
was homogenous in virtue of a single custom wherein 
lies the secret of the rise of England's prowess as a 
military nation. Though the wealthy thanes might 
ride horses on the march, they dismounted one and all 
for action, and fought, even to the king himself, on their 
own feet." 

Mr. Fortescue's opening chapters, then, are 
devoted to a sketch of the growth of England's 
military power to the time of its first manifesta- 
tion at Cre$y, and thence to Agincourt ; then 
through its decay under the blight of the Wars 
of the Roses to its revival under the Tudors, 
and to the training of English contingents and 
adventurers under foreign schools and in for- 
eign wars which prepared the way for the New 
Model and the Standing Army. The six hun- 
dred years of English military history from 
Hastings to Naseby have been compressed into 
some two hundred pages, all details being 
omitted save those essential to a coherent ac- 
count of the growth of the national military 
system. The New Model army was voted in 
February, 1645 ; and with the opening chapter 
of Book III., which nearly completes the first 
half of Vol. I., the author proceeds to give an 
interesting and somewhat detailed account of 
the organization of this famous body and its 
exploits in the field. Mr. Fortescue has some- 
thing to say of the common tendency to regard 
the New Model army as primarily a body of 
zealots whose religious enthusiasm made them 
irresistible in battle, without taking into ac- 
count the vital fact that they were disciplined 
soldiers trained under a military code of almost 
unexampled severity. 

" Cromwell's system is generally summed up in the 
word fanaticism; but this is less than half the truth. 
. . . Simple fanaticism is in its nature undisciplined; it 
is strong because it assumes its superiority, it is weak 
because it is content with the assumption; only when 
bound under a yoke such as that of a Zizka or of a 
Cromwell is it irresistible. Cromwell's great work was 
the same as Zizka's, to subject the fanaticism that he 
saw around him to discipline. He did not go out of his 
way to find fanatics. ' Sir,' he once wrote, ' the State in 
choosing men for its service takes no notice of their 
opinions; if they be willing to faithfully serve it, that 
satisfies.' In forming his original regiment of horse he 
undoubtedly selected men of good character, just as any 
colonel would endeavor to do to-day. But Fairfax's was 
by no means an army of saints. One regiment of the 
New Model mutinied when its colonel opened his com- 
mand with a sermon. It is time to have done with all 
misconceptions as to the work that Cromwell did for 



[March 1, 

the military service of England, for it is summed up in 
the one word discipline. It was the work not of a 
preacher hut of a soldier." 

In fact, the contempt with which the Royalist 
soldiers came latterly to be regarded by the 
Parliamentarians seems to have savored rather 
of professional than spiritual pride. The king's 
troopers were despised not so much as profane 
and loose-living " malignants," as ill-furnished 
and ill-disciplined soldiers. This is indicated 
in the satirical accounts in the Parliamentary 
newspapers of the prisoners captured at Bristol, 
one of which says : 

" First came half-a-dozen of carbines in their leathern 
coats and starved weather-beaten jades, just like so 
many brewers in their jerkins made of old boots, riding 
to fetch in old casks; and after them as many light horse- 
men with great saddles and old broken pistols, and 
scarce a sword among them, just like so many fiddlers 
with their fiddles in cases by their horses' sides. . . . 
In the works at Bristol was a company of footmen with 
knapsacks and half-pikes, like so many tinkers with 
budgets at their backs, and some musketeers with ban- 
doliers about their necks like a company of sow-gelders." 

The two chapters comprising Book IV. of 
Mr. Fortescue's opening volume recount briefly 
the military events of the unsettled and transi- 
tional period between the Restoration and the 
accession of William of Orange ; and the clos- 
ing half of the volume is occupied mainly with 
reforms and campaigns of Marlborough's time. 
The Anglo-French struggle for empire in India 
and the New World forms the central theme of 
Volume II. 

Mr. Fortescue's valuable work will be read 
with avidity by English military men, and his- 
torical students generally will find it a most 
convenient repository of the special class of 
facts it deals with. Ample references to the 
authorities consulted are given, for the most 
part at the foot of the page. The volumes are 
elegantly and substantially made, and are pro- 
vided with the necessary maps and plans. 

E. G. J. 


Writing in a playful mood to his sister, in 
the year 1851, Dean Merivale charged Louis 
Napoleon with bribing one of Spottiswoode's 
printers for the advance sheets of the third 
volume of " The History of the Romans under 
the Empire "; and accused him farther of turn- 
ing to account, in planning his own coup d'etat, 

from his Correspondence. Edited by his Daughter, Judith 
Anne Merivale. With a Portrait. London : Edward Arnold. 

the fourth chapter of that volume, wherein a 
somewhat similar movement on the part of 
Octavius is described. The letter also ex- 
pressed the confident hope that the Emperor 
would order a thousand copies of the " His- 
tory " for his regimental libraries, and would 
bestow upon its author the Cross of the Legion 
of Honor. Curiously enough, this bit of pleas- 
antry was taken by some in serious earnest 
which perhaps may go to prove the high repute 
enjoyed by the book in question from its first 
appearance. That the gap between Dr. Ar- 
nold's unfinished work and Gibbon's " Decline 
and Fall " had been filled by a worthy successor 
to those great historians, seems to have been 
very generally acknowledged. 

The main events in Dean Merivale's life 
may be briefly stated. Born in London in 
1808, he was educated at Harrow and Cam- 
bridge ; held a fellowship at that university 
from 1833 to 1848 ; was settled over the parish 
of Lawford from 1848 to 1869 ; and was then 
appointed dean of Ely, a post which he held 
until his death in 1893. In his youth the offer 
of a writership in India led to his spending 
eighteen months of his school life at Hailey- 
bury, preparing for the civil service examina- 
tions and studying Bengali, Hindustanee, Per- 
sian, political economy (under Malthus), and 
general history ; but he and his family then 
wisely decided that he should follow his inclina- 
tion for a life of letters, and soon afterward he 
entered St. John's College, Cambridge. 

The recent " Autobiography " by the Dean's 
daughter closes with the attainment of the fel- 
lowship at St. John's, the remaining two-thirds 
of the volume being devoted to correspondence. 
The whole forms a good record of a life filled 
with high aims steadily and successfully pur- 
sued from the beginning. It is worthy of note 
that when Charles Merivale was but six years 
old he took delight in playing with his brother 
Herman, aged seven, a game which they called 
" Roman history." It was played in Queen's 
Square, the northern end of which they named 
"Italy," and the northeast corner "Rome." 
The trundling of hoops was a leading feature 
of the game, the career of each consul being 
typified by the course which the player's hoop 
chanced to take. " The straight line of pub- 
lic virture was the narrow path of the kerb- 
stone, and few magistrates kept it to the end." 
In his school days at Harrow the future his- 
torian of the Roman Empire committed to 
memory, for his own amusement, all but a few 
hundred lines of Lucan's "Pharsalia," when 




his sudden removal to Haileybury interrupted 
the task. 

That largeness of view and generosity of 
sentiment which characterize Merivale's writ- 
ings may, it seems not improbably, be largely 
owing to the variety of scene and of personal 
intercourse which he enjoyed in his youth. His 
paternal grandparents were dissenters, Presby- 
terians of pronounced Unitarian convictions; 
and there is something admirable in honest 
John Merivale's sturdy refusal to enter the 
Ministry or, indeed, to embrace any profes- 
sion, even when an uncle's fortune was offered 
him as an inducement. He preferred to be 
left to his books and his flute. On his moth- 
er's side Merivale's family was more orthodox, 
but the boy was free to follow his own inclina- 
tion in matters of religion, and he went to hear 
Dr. Belsham in Essex Street fully as often as 
to Dr. Martin's church in Queen's Square. 
The liberality of his faith is well expressed in 
this sentence from his pen : 

" I am well pleased to have had the opportunity of 
testing by my own observation how slight, how shadowy, 
is the pretended difference between the Episcopalian 
and the Presbyterian as such; and how little even far 
wider divergence in speculative opinion on points of 
dogma may affect the graces of the true Christian 

The names of those eminent men with whom 
Dean Merivale was more or less intimately 
acquainted would make a long list. In his 
college days we find him enjoying the society 
of the Tennysons and the Wordsworths 
Charles and Christopher, of Trench, Kem- 
ble, Milnes, Hallam, William Bodham Donne, 
William Hepworth Thompson, Arthur Helps, 
and many more besides. He had the honor of 
reciting Tennyson's prize poem, " Timbuctoo," 
at the request of the young poet, who was " too 
shy or too proud to exhibit himself on such an 
occasion." His letters to and from and about 
persons of whom one likes to hear, are well 
worth reading. The genesis and growth of 
the " History of the Romans, " so far as re- 
corded in these letters, lend them an additional 
interest. Genial humor pervades both the au- 
tobiography and the correspondence. (Among 
his other virtues the Dean's epitaph credits 
him with having been " caustic in wit, " as if 
causticity were likewise a virtue.) In a letter 
to Christopher Wordsworth he refers to Lem- 
priere as 

"A man of the highest imagination, which by a pe- 
culiar idiosyncrasy fell into an alphabetical form, in 
which the advantage of reference is more than counter- 
balanced by the constant dislocation of continuity. He 

was an index-maker of a higher order of beings, a 
vocabulist of the moon, of which he could probably 
have written a most veritable and entertaining history, 
including all the scandal about her paramour, the man 
in the moon." 

The chief fault of the " autobiography " is 
its brevity : it ends abruptly, although design- 
edly, at the most interesting period of the 
writer's life. A less generous selection from 
his letters, on the other hand, might have 
proved equally acceptable to the general reader. 
The care with which Miss Merivale has edited 
the volume is apparent perhaps almost pain- 
fully so in the abundant foot-notes, which 
deal with matters even of the minutest detail. 
On the very first page, however, an error 
probably a misprint has crept into one of 
these notes and assigned a wrong date as the 
year of Merivale's birth. 

Two short passages, culled at random from 
this book in closing, will give a glimpse of 
Dean Merivale's conservatism on the subject 
of education and on the " woman question." 
The first is from the "autobiography." 

" It is sad, and perhaps perplexing, to think that there 
should be no room at the University for combining 
the old-world studies with modern accomplishments; 
but so experience seems to teach us; and if a choice is 
to be allowed between the two, as is the tendency of the 
present day, I would say from my own observation, by 
all means stick to the Old in preference to the New. 
There is no training, I feel sure, equal to that of clas- 
sics and mathematics." 

It should be noted that the above was written 
at least twenty years ago. The next passage 
is from a letter written by Merivale to his sister 
Louisa in 1866. 

" About the comparative opportunities of men and 
women I have this to observe. Looking in the sphere 
of literary occupation most appropriate to the male 
genius, men have the advantage. In matters of wide 
research which lead to and require large inductions, 
men have the advantage not from education and oppor- 
tunities only, but from the natural structure of their 
minds. With the same advantages few, if any, women 
could compete with them. No woman could have 
written the histories of Tacitus or Gibbon, with the 
highest university education and the run of the Bodleian. 
On the other hand, there are other matters in which 
women are unrivaled, from their tact and observation of 
character and clearness of view generally in a narrow 
compass ; and for these you have fair opportunities. " 


Two of the minor dramatic works of Goethe, " The 
Fisher Maiden " and " The Lover's Caprice," have been 
translated in the original metres by Miss Martha Ridg- 
way Barnum, and are published in a well-made volume, 
with illustrations, by the John C. Yorston Publishing Co. 
of Philadelphia. 



[March 1, 


These closing years of the nineteenth cen- 
tury are full of promise for students of the 
sacred Scriptures. The appearance within two 
successive years of the initial volumes of two 
great four-volume Dictionaries of the Bible, 
marks an era in biblical study and research. 
These two comprehensive works place in the 
hands of Bible students, in concise and clear 
form, the best results of all previous critical 
study in this line. They promise to be small 
libraries on all the essential and interesting 
questions of biblical criticism and interpreta- 
tion. And both are edited and issued by en- 
ergetic and aggressive Britons, Hastings' 
" Dictionary of the Bible " in Edinburgh (T. 
& T. Clark), and Cheyne's in London (A. & 
C. Black). 

The raison d'etre of the issuance simultane- 
ously of two such works is found in the fact 
that critically they occupy practically different 
positions. While Hastings' work is progres- 
sive, Cheyne's is described in the Preface in 
the following terms (p. ix.) : 

" The sympathies of the editors are, upon the whole, 
with what is commonly known as ' advanced ' criticism, 
not simply because it is advanced, but because such a 
criticism, in the hands of a circumspect and experienced 
scholar, takes account of facts and phenomena which 
the criticism of a former generation overlooked or 
treated superficially. They have no desire, however, 
to ' boycott ' moderate criticism, when applied by a 
critic who, either in the form or in the substance of his 
criticism, has something original to say." 

The Preface is devoted largely to a eulogy 
upon the late Professor W. Robertson Smith, 
editor of the ninth edition of the " Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica," to whom credit is given for 
the origination, twelve years ago, of the plan 
according to which this work has been executed. 
Some of the best contributions of Professor 
Smith to the Britannica have been brought 
down to date and embodied in this work. 
Other material prepared by him has also been 
used so far as consistent with latest research. 

The chief features of this work, in addition 
to its " advanced " critical position, are : (1) 
the presentation in full, under each word, of 
readings of the Versions, extending in the case 
of the Septuagint, to several of the most im- 
portant MSS.; (2) larger emphasis upon the 

* ENCYCLOPAEDIA BIBLICA : A Critical Dictionary of the 
Literary, Political, and Religious History, the Archaeology, 
Geography, and Natural History, of the Bible. Edited by 
the Rev. T. K. Cheyne, M.A., D.D., and J. Sutherland 
Black, M.A., LL.D. Vol. I., A to D. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

Old than upon the New Testament, especially in 
the lines of textual criticism and biblical archae- 
ology ; (3) the omission of articles which treat 
of biblical theology proper, based on the state- 
ment that we are not as yet sufficiently ad- 
vanced in some other lines of research to 
venture on this field. The emphasis of the 
philological, the technical, and purely critical 
treatment of the themes is everywhere appar- 
ent. Every proper name in the Old and New 
Testament and the Old Testament Apocrypha 
is discussed with as much fulness as the data 

The purely scientific and scholarly character 
of the work has brought along with it a for- 
midable array of abbreviations, symbols, and 
bibliographical notes. These together with 
their explanations cover nine double-columned 
pages, and are an enormous space-saving de- 
vice, though they may be a hardship on the 
reader until he has made himself their master. 

This first volume has a distinguished roll of 
fifty-three contributors. Of these thirty-two 
are British, fifteen are German, Dutch, and 
Swiss, and six are Americans. We find in 
the whole number twenty-two men in the Old 
Testament department, including all the six 
Americans, and only six in the New Testament, 
and of these latter four are Germans. The 
heaviest contributor is, of course, Professor 
Cheyne, the editor-in-chief, whose reputation 
is a guarantee for critical and scientific re- 
search. Prof. George Adam Smith's service is 
especially noteworthy in articles on the biblical 
geography of Palestine. Some of the most 
conspicuous articles in this volume are " Apoc- 
alyptic Literature" by Professor R. H. Charles, 
" Apocrypha " by M. R. James, " Assyria " 
and "Babylonia" by L. W. King, of the 
British Museum, " Canon " by Karl Budde, 
" Canticles " by the Editor, " Chronology " by 
Karl Marti and H. von Soden, " The Book of 
Daniel " by A. Kamphausen, and " Deuter- 
onomy " by George F. Moore. Upon an exam- 
ination of the articles we find that the editors 
have stood by their principle announced in the 
Preface, though there is not everywhere, as 
might, of course, be expected, full agreement 
on critical questions. Professor Cheyne is 
quite in the van on most points, while a goodly 
number of his contributors are not far behind 
him. Together they give us in this volume the 
fin de siecle position of the advanced school, 
if such it may be called, of biblical criticism. 
As the pronouncement of this school it is the 
best up-to-date compendium, and for many 




other purposes will be of real service to biblical 

The arrangement of the matter is admirable. 
The heading of each article is in full-face Clar- 
endon type, and if it is long, it is subdivided 
into sections, and the section-theme is inset in 
dark-faced type. This plan, and a method of 
cross-references from one article to a given 
section of another where the same theme is 
treated, is both a space- saving device and an 
invaluable convenience to the user. The clean, 
clear type, and the use of different sizes for 
matters of minor importance, and a small type 
for notes, make up a solid, substantial, yet 
inviting page to the careful student of biblical 
problems. IRA M> PKICE> 


The proposition, novel not many decades 
ago, has come to be accepted as axiomatic, 
that the written Constitutions of America are 
the result of a process of gradual development ; 
and now it is the details of that process which 
largely engage the attention of constitutional 
students. Landon, Taylor, Stevens, and Coxe 
have shown the origin of many of the funda- 
mental principles of our system; Dicey and 
Macy have explained how principles of iden- 
tical origin have experienced distinctive evo- 
lutions in the politics of Britain and America ; 
and Fisher has traced the American appli- 
cations of these principles, through their 
several stages of use in the charters and con- 
stitutions of various colonies, to their present 
accepted form. The terse and succinct provis- 
ions of the United States Constitution, permit- 
ting an elastic application to changing condi- 
tions and varying necessities, have proved fa- 
vorable also to disputes concerning its proper 
construction. What did the framers of that 
instrument intend? is a question frequently 
asked, and often with much pertinence. The 
recently published essay on " The Growth of 
the Constitution in the Federal Convention," 
by Mr. William M. Meigs, contributes to the 
subject of constitutional evolution, by throwing 
light upon the extent of the application of par- 
ticular principles which was in the minds of the 
Framers. Knowing the objects at which they 
were aiming, and the reasons why certain forms 

CONVENTION OF 1787. By William M. Meigs. Philadelphia : 
J. B. Lippincott Company. 

of expression were selected, we can understand 
better the scope of the changes in our govern- 
ment which followed the adoption of the work 
of that convention. Mr. Meigs has furnished 
a convenient summary, clause by clause, of the 
debates waged in the convention and the action 
finally taken. "Elliott's Debates" of course 
show all this ; but Mr. Meigs has summarized 
these "Debates" topically; and with him we 
can, without personal delving, follow from week 
to week, the presentation of diverse views on 
the same subject, and often trace the changes of 
sentiment leading to the unanimous selection 
of propositions which had previously been seri- 
ously questioned in debate. 

To illustrate fully Mr. Meigs's method would 
be to repeat pages of his book. It will serve 
as an instance, to refer to the subjects of " laws 
impairing the obligation of contracts," and 
"ex post facto laws," the prohibitions concern- 
ing which were presented for consideration 
late in the deliberations of the convention ; and 
per contra, to the proposition which was pre- 
sented but rejected, to apply the "obligation 
clause " to congressional legislation. The de- 
bates disclose a growth of opinion on these 
and other subjects, in the convention. 

An important feature of this work is a fac- 
simile copy of Randolph's draft, in his own 
hand, of a proposed constitution, with notes and 
additions by Rutledge. Both the original draft 
and the emendations are shown to have been 
made while the convention was sitting ; and 
they throw light of their own upon the devel- 
opment of opinion among the delegates. 

Mr. Meigs's Index is brief and simple, as 
he thought an exhaustive one unnecessary ; so 
he has indexed the names of eleven only of the 
delegates. But the present reviewer believes 
that many readers would liberally use an index 
in which the name of every debater in the con- 
vention should be given, and referring to every 
page where his share in the deliberations ap- 

THE " Philobiblon " of Richard de Bury has long held 
a secure place among the classics, but it is a surprising 
fact that in this country at least the chronicles of this 
quaint old bibliomaniac have hitherto been practically 
inaccessible to the general book-buyer. Messrs. Meyer 
Brothers & Co. are therefore to be heartily thanked 
for issuing the work in handsome and inexpensive 
form, as the first volume in a projected series of book 
lovers' classics. The text followed in this new reprint 
is that of Inglis's translation of 1832, and the volume 
is supplied with an Introduction and Notes by Mr. 
Charles Orr, of the Case Library, Cleveland. 



[March 1, 


That redoubtable and indefatigable traveller and 
writer, Mrs. Bird-Bishop, has been touring up the 
Yangzte Valley for " recreation and interest " only, 
but on returning has presented us with two large 
volumes, entitled " The Yangtze Valley and Be- 
yond," packed with geographical, commercial, po- 
litical, and religious information, and well provided 
with map and illustrations and appendices. Mrs. 
Bishop, for the most part alone save for a few na- 
tives, traversed twelve hundred miles in regions 
little visited by Europeans, and in large part un- 
noticed in travel literature. The hardships she 
endured from the curious crowds she thus describes. 

" I sat in my chair in the village street the unwilling 
center of a large and very dirty crowd, which had 
leisure to stand around me for an hour, staring, making 
remarks, laughing at my peculiarities, pressing closer 
and closer till there was hardly air to breathe, taking 
out my hair pins, and passing my gloves round and put- 
ting them on their dirty hands, and on two occasions 
abstracting my spoon and slipping it into their sleeves, 
being in no way abashed when they were detected. . . . 
The crowd which always gathered during my passage 
down the street rolled in at the doorway, blocking up 
the yard, shouting, often times hooting, and fighting each 
other for a look at the foreigner. Fortunately, doors in 
Chinese inns have strong wooden bolts, and when my 
baggage and I were once ensconced I was secure from 
intrusion, unless a few men and boys ran on ahead to 
take possession of the room before I entered it, or 
forced themselves in behind Be-dien when he brought 
in my dinner. If it were merely a boarded wall, a row 
of patient eyes usually watched me for an hour, and 
with much gratification, for these rooms are dark with 
the door shut, and my candle revealed my barbarian 
proceedings. But worse than this was the slow scraping 
of holes in the plaster partition, when there was one, 

Bishop. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

B. Lloyd. Illustrated. New York: Imported by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

THBOUGH UNEXPLORED ASIA. By William Jameson Reid. 
Illustrated. Boston : Dana Estes & Co. 

THE REAL MALAY. By Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham, 
K.C.M.G. New York: John Lane. 

IN INDIA. By G. W. Steevens. New York : Dodd, Mead 

SIBERIA AND CENTRAL ASIA. By John W. Book waiter. 
Illustrated from photographs. New York : F. A. Stokes Co. 

Thomas. Illustrated. New York: Imported by Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

THE AMERICAN IN HOLLAND. By William Elliot Griffis, 
LL.D. Boston: Honghton, Mifflin & Co. 

PEAKS AND PINES. By J. A. Lees. Illustrated. New 
York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

BY-GONE TOURIST DAYS. By Laura G. Collins. Illus- 
trated. Cincinnati : The Robert Clarke Co. 

MEXICAN VISTAS. By Harriott Wight Sherratt. Illustrated. 
Chicago : Rand, McNally & Co. 

HAWAII AND ITS PEOPLE. By Alexander S. Twombly. 
Illustrated. Boston : Silver, Burdett & Co. 

HOLY LAND. By William Bement Lent. Illustrated. 
New York : Bonnell, Silver & Co. 

between my room and the next, accompanied by the 
peculiarly irritating sound of whispering, and eventu- 
ally by the application of a succession of eyes to the 
hole, more whispering, and some giggling." 

Mrs. Bishop's chapters on Chinese Charities, on 
Protestant Missions, and on Opium, and the Intro- 
ductory and Concluding chapters, show large and 
judicious views founded on full knowledge ; and 
the work as a whole is an extremely sane contribu- 
tion to books on China, giving us a definite and 
reliable impression of the most populous river valley 
on the globe, and a glimpse of the Tibetan border 
land beyond. 

" In Dwarf Land and Cannibal Country," by A. B. 
Lloyd, is a record by an enterprising young En- 
glish missionary of a journey across Central Africa 
by the Uganda-Congo route, and includes some 
notes of residence in Uganda and Toro. The title 
is quite misleading, as " Dwarf Land " and " Can- 
nibal Country " play but a small part in these pages. 
The first seven chapters might well be compressed 
into one ; but from Chapter VIII. on the book is 
concisely written and of decided interest as well as 
of considerable value. The author has many ad- 
ventures with wild beasts and men, which he nar- 
rates modestly and well, in some of which a bicycle 
figures prominently. 

" A bicycle which had been sent to me during my 
stay in Uganda was constantly used by me in taking 
my journeys abroad, and often I have had most exciting 
times when on the wheel. One morning I started off 
to visit a village some few miles away from the mission 
station. The road was well cultivated and about 5 feet 
wide. It was, in fact, the main road leading to Uganda. 
I had reached the top of a long hill, and on the other 
side was a gentle slope into the valley beyond ; I knew 
the road well, having often passed that way, and I 
therefore prepared myself for a ' coast.' Near the 
foot of the hill was a slight turn in the road, and as I 
approached it I put my feet again on the pedals. I 
was going at a great speed, and as I rounded the cor- 
ner an awful sight met my gaze; not twenty yards in 
front there lay in the centre of the path a huge lion, 
with head down upon his paws, facing the direction 
from which I was coming. It was impossible for me 
to stop the machine, the speed was too great. To the 
left of the path was a high wall of rock towering some 
twenty feet above my head; on the right was a steep 
incline down, down, down, for 100 feet to a river. I 
had scarcely a second to take in the situation, and to 
make up my mind as to what course of action to pursue. 
It was a critical moment. What could I do ? To turn to 
the right down the steep incline would have meant almost 
certain destruction; to attempt to stop, even if success- 
ful, would have meant pulling up at the entrance to the 
jaws of the King of the Forest. I therefore did the 
only thing that was possible, I rang my bell, and 
shouted at the top of my voice, then let the bike ' go 
at its topmost speed. As I shot into view, the lion 
raised his huge shaggy head, and seeing this unearthly 
creature come racing towards him making so strange a 
cry, lifted up his voice and gave forth a most blood- 
curdling yelp. The apparition was too much even for 
him, and when I was about five yards from him he 
leapt onto the right side of the path, and I had just 




room to scramble past him. Once beyond, I pedalled 
away as I never had before, not even looking round to 
see what next happened to the startled lion. But such 
an experience, if it happen once, is quite enough, and I 
learned the lesson not to ' scorch,' even in Africa, where 
there are no policemen." 

He traverses the great primeval forest and catches 
sight of pigmies, and has some intercourse with 
them, and on his way down the Aruwimi River he 
has some adventures with cannibals, perhaps the 
finest race of men he met. 

" Sometimes one would see part of a limb roasting 
over the fire, or else in a cooking pot, boiling, while the 
warriors sat around watching eagerly until it was cooked. 
But still, notwithstanding the fact of there being a 
superstitious idea in connection with this cannibalism, 
there is no doubt a depraved appetite. I have seen 
the wild, exciting feast, where spirit dances and invo- 
cations have been the principal items, and I have seen 
the warriors in all soberness sit down to a 'joint of 
man ' in exactly the same way as they would do to a 
piece of forest antelope." 

The book is well illustrated and has useful maps. 

" Through Unexplored Asia," by Mr. William 
Jameson Reid, whose veracity has been sharply 
questioned in some quarters is a narrative of the 
first half of a journey made in 1894 through un- 
known parts of Western China and Eastern Thibet, 
and contains interesting accounts of adventures 
with savage beasts and men. He thus describes a 
curious custom of the Su-Chu natives : 

" On our arrival we discovered that we had come at 
a most inauspicious time of the year in which to hope 
to secure hospitable entertainment, as the native popu- 
lation was given up to the enormous undertaking of 
washing the bones of their ancestors. When we first 
saw this operation it struck us as being remarkably 
funny; but it is an exceedingly serious matter to the 
natives themselves, and is a custom pretty generally 
existing among the tribes of Western China and Thibet. 
For many centuries it has been an established rule 
among them once a year to exhume the bones of their 
ancestors and wash them. This annual washing usually 
lasts for a period of two or three weeks, or even a 
month, and is a function attended with much ceremo- 
nious pomp and religious devotion. Huge pots of water 
are placed beside the graves, and one by one the bones 
are taken out, and carefully scoured, and then tenderly 
consigned to their resting-place once more. These 
bones are also looked upon as having a high market- 
value, it being considered a mark of great esteem among 
the members of the tribe to be the proud possessor of 
the largest ' bonery,' so that the trading and bartering 
of them for other objects forms a considerable industry. 
They are frequently seized upon by creditors for debt, 
when at once the unfortunate debtor is shunned by the 
rest of the tribe, and is suffered to remain in disgrace 
until he shall have redeemed them." 

Mr. Reid claims to have been the first to explore 
the remains of an ancient civilization near Hissik 
Karpo, Thibet, but his report is very meagre. The 
author's style is simple, direct, and forcible, though 
we miss the romantic touch which gives glamour to 
travels. The work is furnished with a number of 
illustrations and several maps. 

" The Real Malay," by Sir F. A. Swettenham, 
is an intimate study by a British resident of native 
life in the Malay Peninsula. The atmosphere and 
color of the semi-barbaric country are well depicted. 
We have a series of realistic etchings of the land 
and its inhabitants, animal and human, and the 
episodes are clearly and vividly drawn. He thus 
remarks on the difficulty of understanding the Ori- 
ental character, and on the lack of individuality in 
the inhabitants of the Far East. 

" One who is the outcome of Western civilization and 
Christian teaching, could hardly expect to understand 
the peculiarities of an Eastern character, the product 
of generations of Muhammadan or Hindu ancestors. 
But if you live in the East for years if you make 
yourself perfectly familiar with the language, litera- 
ture, customs, prejudices, and superstitions of the peo- 
ple; if you lie on the same floor with them, eat out of 
the same dish, fight with them and against them, join 
in their sorrows and their joys, and at last win their 
regard then the reading of their characters is no 
longer an impossible task, and you will find that be- 
tween one Eastern and another there is a much greater 
similarity than there is between two Westerns, even 
though they be of the same nationality. There are 
good and bad, energetic and lazy, but you will hardly 
ever meet those complex products of Western civiliza- 
tion whose characters are subordinated to the state of 
their nerves, and those to the season of the year, the 
surroundings of the moment, politics, the money market, 
and a thousand things of which the Eastern is blissfully 

The introductory chapter on the English method of 
expansion in the Peninsula ought to be of interest 
to Americans. The book has no map, illustrations, 
or index. 

The latest book from the prolific pen of the late 
Mr. G. W. Steevens is entitled " In India." In 
this volume he writes with his usual vigor and as- 
surance, and gives in his brisk and vivid way an 
impressionist sketch of India, political, social, and 
industrial. Mr. Steevens draws often with too hard 
and heavy a stroke ; however in this picture of ele- 
phant travel we see him at his best : 

" The elephant knows. When the mahout wants to 
get on her neck, she takes him on her trunk and bends 
it till he can walk up her forehead. When you want 
to get on to her back, she lets down a hind-foot to 
make one step, and curls up her tail to make another. 
She knows that a branch she can walk under will sweep 
you off her back; therefore she goes round, or, if that 
is not possible, pushes down the tree with her trunk as 
gently as you put down a teacup. At every ford she 
tries the bottom, at every bridge she tries the planks: 
she knows better than you do how much she weighs and 
what will bear her. Jerk, jerk, jerk she see-saws 
you at every step, for you are sitting on a blanket just 
atop of her shoulder. Now and again the mahout ad- 
dresses her in a language, banded down from father to 
children, that only mahouts and elephants understand, 
or smites her over the head with a heavy, iron-hooked 
ankus. It falls with a dull thud on her hairy forehead; 
it would crack your skull like an egg-shell, but it hurts 
the elephant as a dead leaf would hurt you. Behind 
her ear you see a crevasse of raw flesh in the armour- 



[March 1, 

plating of hide: that wound is kept open, and through 
it only can she be made to feel. She just tramples on, 
now tilted almost onto her head, now all but standing 
on her tail; over the shallow rivers, along the rutted 
cart- tracks, till the sun begins to bake and the line of 
hills in front changes from a wash of blue to a clearcut 
saw-edge of shaded greens and browns." 

Mr. John W. Bookwalter, in " Siberia and Cen- 
tral Asia," gives us some modest letters of travel 
profusely illustrated from admirable photographs. 
He journeys into Siberia as far as Tomsk by the 
Trans-Siberian Railway, and into Central Asia as 
far as Samarkand by the Trans-Caspian railway. 

" Great as will be the effect upon the world of the 
opening of the Trans-Siberian railway system a fact 
that is generally recognized, the Trans-Caspian rail- 
way system, when completed, will be productive of re- 
sults even far more important in their political and 
commercial consequences. There is a branch of the 
Trans-Caspian railway now completed, some 250 miles 
in .length and running southward to Mervand to Kushk, 
on the very borders of Afghanistan. It is being quietly 
extended to Herat, and it will, when completed, give 
Russia practical control of Northwestern Afghanistan, 
as Herat is the key to that country. These lines, when 
in operation, will thus obviously give Russia a control- 
ing influence in Persia and Northwestern Afghanistan. 
A branch also of the main stem of the Trans-Caspian 
line is being built from Samarkand through Ferghan, 
in the direction of Kokand and Kashgar, in the Pamirs, 
almost in sight of the northern border of India. This 
line in time will, no doubt, be extended into Chinese 
Turkestan, and perhaps into the very center of China 
itself, bringing thus this great and populous country 
into communication with Europe, even more directly 
than by the way of the Trans-Siberian railway line." 

The author gives a very glowing account of the de- 
velopment of Northern and Central Asia under Rus- 
sian auspices, and the account seems as accurate as 
we ought to expect from the passing traveller. 

" Two Years in Palestine and Syria," by Mar- 
garet Thomas, is a fresh and pleasantly written de- 
scription, to which the colored illustrations add 
much embellishment. The account of Jerusalem 
and its environs is specially full and good. 

" Jerusalem has neither street lamps, policemen, post- 
men, nor newspapers; people who go out at night are 
ordered to carry lanterns under a heavy penalty. The 
keeping of three successive Sundays Mohammedan, 
Jewish, Christian leads to much loss of time, for the 
lazily-disposed observe all three. . . . Night in the 
Holy Land is a thing to be remembered. The air is 
soft and balmy, neither hot nor cold ; ' the sun, setting 
like a globe of amber, tinges the top of the blue vapor 
which ever hangs over the Moabite Mountains and Dead 
Sea with iridiscent tints. The sky is literally powdered 
with stars, not gleaming as they do on a frosty night in 
the North, but soft and dreamy." 

" The American in Holland," by the Rev. W. E. 
Griffis, is a fairly readable description of various 
trips in all parts of the Netherlands. He visits 
American friends who have spent years in Holland, 
living at the Hague in winter and in summer at 
Nunspeet " or some other rural paradise." He is 
in love with Dutch civilization. It is delightful to 

his eyes " to find no spoiling of scenery by advertise- 
ments. The study of the people of beauty as a per- 
manent force to life is commendable. The country 
in general induces a spirit of quiet restfulness so 
grateful to the overwrought American." American 
Colonies in Holland may yet he fashionable. His- 
torical associations are enlarged upon, and there is 
an account of the inauguration of Queen Wilhel- 
mina, to which the author was an American dele- 
gate. Mr. Griffis is genial and almost fulsome in 
his appreciation of the land and people. Though 
rather slight and superficial, this volume will serve 
as a popular and pleasant book, and the illustrations 
are of interest. 

" Peaks and Pines," by Mr. J. H. Lees, is a jolly 
narrative of a summer's sport in Norway with rod 
and gun. The book is entertaining and instructive, 
closing with some practical directions which will be 
useful to sportsmen everywhere. 

"By -Gone Tourist Days," by Miss Laura G. Col- 
lins, is a sprightly series of familiar, sometimes rather 
too familiar, letters of travel, mostly from contin- 
ental Europe. The black-letter printing of this book 
is very refreshing to the eye. There is no excuse 
for the iniquity of thin type on highly glazed paper, 
for though illustrations may be on plate paper, they 
should be, as in this book, on separate pages, and 
so not interfere with a continuous text. 

" Mexican Vistas," by Mrs. H. W. Sherratt, is an 
agreeably written description of recent tours not 
personally conducted. The book has a number of 
clear illustrations and may be commended to the 
general reader and tourist. 

" Hawaii and its People," by Mr. A. S. Twombly, 
is a general description and historical account de- 
signed for younger readers and popular use. It is 
fairly illustrated and seems carefully prepared. 

"The Holy Land, from Landau, Saddle, and 
Palanquin," by Mr. W. B. Lent, is thoroughly re- 
ligious and biblical ; but the sentiment is often com- 
monplace and the description quite cursory. While 
the material might serve as letters to a religious 
paper, it is rather light for putting into book form. 


Bismarck ^ r * J ames Wycliffe Headlam's new 

and hi* life of Bismarck (Putnam) adds a 

king thtorie*. somewhat belated volume to the 
" Heroes of the Nations " series. The delay has 
been well utilized, however, for this volume is a 
much more valuable monograph than is ordinarily 
furnished by the series. The history of Bismarck's 
earlier life, and of his labors in the formation of the 
German Empire, up to the close of the Franco- 
Prussian war, brings out nothing new, so that any 
criticism must occupy itself with the style rather 
than the matter of this portion. Briefly, the author 
has done his work exceedingly well. Bismarck's 




purposes, and the means by which they were exe- 
cuted, are stated simply and clearly, without any 
attempt at detailed analysis of diplomatic manoeu- 
vres, and notably without any wearisome effort at 
character painting. Yet the character of Bismarck 
is made manifest in his official acts and in the mo- 
tives which inspired them. The novelty of Mr. 
Headlam's work lies in his treatment of the career 
of Bismarck in his later labors as Chancellor of the 
German Empire, for here the author rejects in a 
measure the opinions held by Von Sybel and other 
authors and follows more nearly modern German 
criticism ; a criticism which is becoming more schol- 
arly as it becomes less contemporary. Bismarck's 
refusal to identify himself with any political party, 
and his constant shifting for support from one to 
another of the parties of the Reichstag, is attributed 
by the author to the earnest conviction that, as 
Chancellor, he could not become a party leader. 
To him the Emperor was still ruler " by grace of 
God," limited in some degree in the exercise of his 
kingly power, but still the centre and sun of all 
governmental activity. He, Bismarck, was merely 
the Emperor's representative, chosen personally by 
the Emperor, and not in any way responsible to the 
authority of votes. The wisdom or unwisdom of 
measures was, in the end, purely a matter for exec- 
utive decision, and freedom of decision could not 
be guaranteed if the Chancellor should ever become 
a party leader. Mr. Headlam maintains in fact 
that it was neither love of power, nor disdain of 
political parties, nor lack of principle that kept Bis- 
marck from adopting a partisan position, but pri- 
marily rather the desire to preserve for the mon- 
archy the right, always strongly manifested in the 
Prussian state, of exercising a controlling influence 
in legislation and in government. Possibly this is 
more didactically stated than is warranted by the 
author's language, but the impression is given, nev- 
ertheless, and as such, furnishes a clearer thread of 
central purpose for Bismarck's political activities 
than is customarily credited to him. The book con- 
tains many excellent illustrations and a map of 
Germany showing the changes made in 1866. 

The new method There has been of recent years a 
of teaching tendency to substitute the study of 

Economics. economic history, correlated with the 

general facts of political and social development, for 
the older-fashioned study of theoretical economics in 
our secondary schools. We have doubted the wis- 
dom of this tendency, for elementary economic the- 
ory has always seemed to us to offer an almost ideal 
form of mental discipline for young people from 
sixteen to twenty years of age. In the hands of 
the right sort of teachers it is equal in value to 
geometry, the mechanical section of physics, and 
the structural study of a foreign language. We 
have feared that the substitution in question might 
mean a substitution of mnemonic cram for enforced 
intellectual self-activity. But we are bound to say 
that this fear is almost dispelled in the presence of 

such a book as Mr. Henry W. Thurston's recent 
" Economics and Industrial History for Secondary 
Schools" (Scott, Foresman & Co.). There is no 
lack of facts in Mr. Thurston's presentation of the 
subject, but there is also no lack of stimulus for the 
best type .of intellectual exertion. The exercises 
planned by the author are so ingenious, and the 
questions he sets the students so searching, that it 
would be difficult to devise a more valuable disci- 
pline than a student would gain from the conscien- 
tious following of the plan of work here prescribed. 
It means, however, a good reference library to- 
gether with freedom in its use, an enthusiastic 
instructor, and a body of students willing to depart 
widely from their ordinary methods of learning 
school lessons. Given these conditions, we know of 
no other text book as good for its purpose as the 
one now before us. It is clear in its exposition, 
yet does not smooth away all the difficulties ; it pre- 
sents many facts of industrial history, yet does not 
preclude the necessity of digging out many more. 
It is, moreover, up to date, and based upon the best 
authorities. In fact, we are acquainted with no 
other elementary book which thus brings within the 
reach of beginners the conclusions of Seebohm and 
Cunningham, of Rogers and Ashley, of Weeden 
and Wright. The work has three parts. The first 
of these offers a series of inductive exercises in the 
economic life that surrounds us. The second and 
most considerable recounts the economic history of 
England and America. The third deals with the 
elements of economic theory, and for this the other 
two sections afford admirable preparation. We rec- 
ommend the book most cordially to all who are 
seeking this particular sort of solution of the prob- 
lem of teaching economics, while those who still 
adhere to the more orthodox method will at least 
find in the book a valuable adjunct to their work. 

" The Redemption of Africa," a 
rather ambitious work, in two vol- 

umes (p R Reyell Q ^ ig another 

one of the ripened fruits of the Chicago Congress 
of Religions in 1893, Mr. F. P. Noble, Secretary 
of the Congress on Africa, set before himself the 
task of preparing "A Story of Civilization" in 
Africa. The entire work is broken into three books. 
The first discusses "The Ancient and Mediaeval 
Preparation," the second " The Religious Partition," 
and the third book, " The Expansion of Missions." 
The author begins with Abraham's sojourn in the 
land of the Nile, and attempts to follow every re- 
ligious influence on that continent of any import- 
ance from that day down to modern times. The 
first book is the least satisfactory of all, especially 
in its earlier chapters, in that it involves too many 
assumptions. " The Religious Partition " is a well- 
considered and tersely-stated estimate of the part 
which each of the great religious bodies of the 
church has had in the evangelization of that dark 
continent. This estimate is based on the works of 
the best and most recent writers on the various 

The religious 

of Africa. 



[March 1, 

phases of the civilizing and evangelizing forces 
at work in Africa. The third book is a still 
hroader view of the whole question. It presents a 
condensed yet very readable description of the re- 
ligious and educational work carried on by all 
bodies of Christians among the negroes of the South 
and in the Antilles, and the part which they must 
take sooner or later in the evangelization of the 
home-land of their ancestors. The importance of 
educational, medical, and literary training is also 
emphasized by the results already achieved on these 
lines, particularly in South Africa. One of the 
most useful features of this work is the large body 
of maps, charts, and tables. The educational sta- 
tistics include colleges and universities, theolog- 
ical seminaries and training-schools, boarding and 
high schools, industrial and medical schools and 
kindergartens. The literary table presents the name 
of the language and the location where the whole 
or a part of the Bible is now in circulation ; also 
statistics of African languages and peoples possess- 
ing Bible-versions. Among the numerous remaining 
statistics we note especially the " Directory of Agen- 
cies for the Christianization of African Peoples in 
Africa, America, the Antilles, and Madagascar," 
the authorities used in the compilation of the work, 
also indexes of persons, places, societies, and sub- 
jects. This work is and for some time must be a 
valuable birds-eye view of all modern attempts to 
civilize and evangelize the untold millions of the 
Dark Continent. 

A Frenchman writing from personal 
French celebrities knowledge of Lamartine, George 

of fifty yean. ' 

band, Victor Hugo, Musset, Chopin, 
and others known to French letters, art, and politics, 
could hardly fail to be entertaining. In the volume 
entitled " The Literary Reminiscences of Edward 
Grenier " (Macmillan), translated by Mrs. Abel 
Bam, there is the glowing enthusiasm of one who 
remembers with a sort of reverent fidelity, the looks 
and accents of the deities of his youth. M. Grenier, 
has written with an easy abandon to the impres- 
sions that are now but memories, and very much of 
the fervor of his personal devotions or his personal 
dislike gives color to the pages. The ready gar- 
rulity that should flow without reserve in such 
reminiscences is natural to him, and the reader can 
not question either his veracity or his sincerity. 
M. Grenier had some successes as a poet himself, 
and the naivete with which he tells of them gives a 
piquant relish to his account of the doings and say- 
ings of others whose larger success gave him no 
rankling jealousy, but only the warm appreciation 
of a kindred spirit in love with art, humanity, and 
the world. A broad, genial charity sweetens every 
unpleasant incident to which his pen must make 
record, and the tone of intellectual and moral health 
and soundness is finely unmistakable. The pleasure 
with which he told Me'rime'e of Goethe's praise of 
him is charmingly fresh in his memory of it, and 
the same happiness beams again in his telling of a 

like pleasure in quoting Ary Sheffer's praise to 
Delacroix, and in telling him of what Goethe had 
written of his lithographs for Stappf er's translation 
of " Faust." Altogether the book is a pleasing intro- 
duction to a sort of personal acquaintance with a 
host of writers, artists, and politicians, who pass 
before the reader in splendid procession. M. Grenier 
does not attempt to fix the rank of any of them, 
merely telling his little stories of them as he knew 
them, bidding us share Mussett's passion, lament 
the " subtle harmony in the three words, fame, 
genius, misfortune," with Lamartine, and pass on 
to wait for a casual word from George Sand. 

One or two of the later volumes of 

Bruce, and other the FamoU8 Scots " series ( im- 
famous Scots. _ ., .V 

ported by ocribner) are less inter- 
esting than their predecessors, sometimes because 
the best subjects have been already handled, and 
sometimes for another reason. In the case of the 
volume on Robert Bruce, the necessity of detailing 
many matters of history makes the biography of 
the thinnest. There is no more famous Scot than 
Robert Bruce : he is the knightly hero of Scotland, 
even more than Sir William Wallace. But he lived 
centuries ago, at a time of which the history is not 
clearly understood in all details. Mr. Murison, then, 
here as in his volume on Wallace, has to spend a 
good part of his book in explanation and contro- 
versy. The result is not entertaining although it 
has value for purposes of information. The vol- 
ume on Alexander Melville, by Mr. William Mor- 
ison, has something of the same drawback. Mel- 
ville was a typical figure, if not a man of remark- 
able character ; and it is proper that he should be 
represented in any general group of Scotch worthies. 
On the other hand, his life is hard to write and not 
very easy to read. He had so much to do with the 
public affairs of his time, that one must spend too 
much space in recounting the stages in a struggle 
of which the results only are clearly remembered. 
Melville was the representative of Scottish Presby- 
terianism as against King James the Sixth of Scot- 
land and the First of England. He was beaten in 
the great cause to which he devoted his life, but it 
was through him and many lesser men like him 
that the cause itself was victorious. 

Two notable 
masters of 

Two new volumes in the " Masters 
of Medicine " (Longmans, Green, & 
Co.) will be welcome, " Claude 
Bernard," by Mr. Michael Foster, M.A., and 
" Hermann von Helmholtz," by Mr. John Gray 
M'Kendrick, M.D. Of the great French physiol- 
ogist to whom we owe our present knowledge of the 
pancreatic functions, the facts concerning his pro- 
fessional life are made sufficiently clear, and in so 
far his life is to be followed with interest ; but after 
a brief insight into his private and personal affairs 
granted at the outset of the book, the rest is per- 
mitted to remain undisclosed. If it is interesting 
to read the man in his work, it is no less interesting 



to read the work through the man, and the book 
leaves a sense of incompleteness. Of the German 
whose investigations in optics and acoustics were 
epoch-making, there is here the opportunity to read 
of what it was he stood for, to his friends as well as 
to the scientific world. But we miss all reference 
to the attack upon Darwinism which is still a matter 
of surprise to those who think with Haeckel, and are 
hardly to be consoled by such a phrase as "... 
the Darwinian hypothesis, with which Helmholtz 
often expressed his general agreement." Both 
books give portraits of the men of whom they treat, 
as frontispieces, and the serene majesty of their 
countenances brings forth the reflection that no- 
where has man found the expression of intellectual 
development more complete than in the faces of 
the modern men of science. It is because they are 
in constant pursuit of nothing less than Truth? 

There is much diversity of interest 

Likings " (Small, Maynard & Co.), 
of which our notice has been too long delayed. The 
dozen or more papers that make up the volume are 
mostly reprinted from the literary periodicals (THE 
DIAL among others), although two of them did 
their previous public duty as lectures. These two 
are discussions of " Washington Irving's Services 
to American History " and " Renaissance Pictures 
in Browning's Poetry." One paper is a study in 
"the literary time-spirit," as illustrated by Herr 
BjOrnson, M. Daudet, Mr. Henry James three 
writers who assuredly were never before grouped 
together, yet who have enough in common to jus- 
tify the present classification. Mr. Burton ventures, 
in another paper, to discuss the perilous subject of 
" The Democratic and Aristocratic in Literature," 
and escapes the extravagance which usually over- 
takes those who essay this theme. A group of three 
short papers on aspects of " Old English Poetry " 
betrays both the scholarly student and the appre- 
ciative reader. " Phases of Fiction " affords a col- 
lective title for four brief essays. Brownell and 
Stevenson are made the subjects of special studies. 
Altogether, there is much vigorous and sensible 
criticism, expressed in admirable English, in this 
volume. Barring the occasional allusions to books 
that are fast sinking into forgetfulness, the matter 
which Mr. Burton offers is worth preservation, and 
speaks well for the critical intelligence of the writer. 

An authoritative That compendium of ancient and 
work on old curious learning concerning silver- 

English silverware. ware< Qj d English pl ate) has 

reached a sixth edition (Francis P. Harper), afford- 
ing, it is to be hoped, some recompense to its author, 
Mr. Wilfrid Joseph Cripps, C.B., F.S.A., for his 
untiring labors in this minor department of history. 
" Sixth edition " in this case means a careful and 
thorough revision in the light of the most recent 
learning, of the entire subject, and the additions 
are both many and noteworthy. First published in 

1878, the work was a pioneer of its kind and it re- 
mains to-day the most authoritative and most inclu- 
sive, covering the plate of churches, colleges, and 
private owners alike. Considerations of the marks 
of many guilds of silversmiths, situated in many 
towns widely removed, are followed by lists of year 
marks, hall marks of all kinds, and the various 
stamps set in the finished work from the beginning 
of the practice in the early fifteenth century. The 
vexed question of the statutory origin of the year 
marks is not yet settled, though the hope is still 
strong among antiquaries that archival researches 
now going on will cast light upon the problem. The 
illustrations are excellent and profuse, and the vol- 
ume, a crown octavo, is an excellent specimen of 
book making. An earlier edition of the same book 
has appeared in America, somewhat abridged, and 
without authorization. 

In " Great Britain and Hanover " 
( xford Diversity Press), Mr. A. 
W. Ward presents the Ford lectures 
delivered by him last year in the University of Ox- 
ford. While Mr. Ward's attention is chiefly devoted 
to the international action of Great Britain as 
affected by Hanoverian interests, he does not fail 
to consider also the effect of the personal union on 
the home policy of the two countries. His analysis 
of the situation leads him to conclude that, in some 
instances, the popular outcry against the use of the 
union for dynastic ends, was justified, notably when, 
at the expense of England's true policy, Bremen 
and Verden were transferred from Sweden to Han- 
over. Taken all in all, however, British interests 
were well conserved by British statesmen, and, in the 
light of those duties of friendship really owed to 
Hanover, there was small ground for the prevailing 
dissatisfaction with the " Hanoverian policy." In 
Hanover, on the other hand, the Union, regarded 
with extreme favor at first, " came very slowly, but 
very surely, to be recognized as having retarded an 
enduring association with the fortunes of the Ger- 
man people, and with the future to which it was 
looking forward." While the author disclaims any 
profound investigation of documentary evidence, 
the book is essentially the work of a scholar, written 
only after careful study,* and distinguished by its 
fairness of view. 

Dutch and 
English in 
South, Africa. 

Mr. Le Roy Hooker expresses the 
general American feeling in respect 
of the war now waging, in his "The 
Africanders : A Century of Dutch-English Feud in 
South Africa " (Rand, McNally & Co.). He began 
the enquiry necessary for his work with strong pre- 
possessions in favor of England, from which he has 
drawn all his blood. But as his investigation deep- 
ened and broadened he lost all his admiration for 
the achievements of the mother country in wonder 
over her tergiversations, broken promises, and wild 
mismanagements. His book is inclusive, and pre- 
sents the British side of the controversy with much 



[March 1, 

Later labors 
oj Mr. Kipling. 

impartiality, nor does he ever descend into mere par- 
tisanship. A brief statement of his concerning the 
question of civilization involved deserves to be sup- 
plemented by the observation that with some persons 
of intelligence who would shudder at the thought 
of " doing ill that good may come " in religious 
matters, the same doctrine finds easy acceptance 
when the ends which justify the means are those of 
patriotism or " civilization." 

The issue of "The Day's Work" 
and " From Sea to Sea," each in two 
volumes of the " Outward Bound " 
edition of the works of Rudyard Kipling (Scribner), 
offers an opportunity, of which we cannot avail our- 
selves at this moment, for a consideration of some 
of the aspects of Mr. Kipling's later work. Since 
" Captains Courageous," which was the last of the 
original twelve volumes of this edition, Mr. Kipling 
has written a good deal that has been variously criti- 
cised. There have been those who thought that 
Mr. Kipling had reached a parting of the ways, and 
had chosen the wrong road. We think ourselves 
that Mr. Kipling's later work has the same funda- 
mental qualities that his earlier work had, that it 
lacks some of the characteristics that were apt to 
mar his first stories, and has gained other charac- 
teristics, some of which are not entirely admirable. 
Really far more interesting (or extraordinary) than 
an understanding of Mr. Kipling is the way in 
which Mr. Kipling has been understood, especially 
in this country. This is one of the most instructive 
things in the history of literature in America. It 
may be remarked that " From Sea to Sea " is not 
illustrated from the models of Mr. Lockwood Kip- 
ling, but from photographs of the places in question. 

An Englishman Had Mr ; George C. Musgrave pub- 
with. the Cuban lished his " Under Three Flags in 
insurgents. Cuba" (Little, Brown, & Co.) a 

year earlier, it is safe to say that it would have 
been regarded as a work of the first importance. 
Even now, with its appearance sadly belated through 
the author's continued illness after the hardships of 
his life in Cuba, it is not a book to be lightly read 
or disregarded. Mr. Musgrave was an Englishman 
holding Spain in high favor when he went to the 
island as a correspondent for a British journal, and 
the knowledge gained on the ground saw him 
within a few months fighting in the insurgent ranks. 
He bears the testimony of an eye-witness to the 
disinterested valor of the Cuban patriots, but he 
makes little prophecy for the future. 

CuMs Relations Sach an enquiry into the facts which 
with. Spain and are of mutual interest to Cuba and 
the United stdie*. the United States as "Cuba and 
International Relations" (The Johns Hopkins Press), 
reflects no little credit upon its author, Dr. James 
Morton Callahan, Ph.D., the Albert Shaw lecturer 
in diplomatic history in the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity. Carefully threading his way between the 
devious diplomacy of Spain and the confused par- 

tisan politics of the United States, he fairly ex- 
hausts his subject within the compass of five hundred 
octavo pages. It is safe to conclude that no future 
historian of Spain, Cuba, or the United States, can 
afford to neglect Dr. Callahan in any of his state- 
ments or conclusions, which appear to be as well 
considered as his researches have been thorough. 


It is not often that a scholar of Professor Paul 
Shorey's rank is found willing to perform the drudgery 
incident to the annotation of an elementary English 
text, and teachers who come into possession of his 
edition of four selected books of Pope's " Iliad" (Heath) 
have much reason to be grateful. The introduction and 
notes supplied by the editor, and the pictures provided 
by the publisher, combine to make this edition one of un- 
usual value. In a general way, the editorial apparatus 
embodies the same ideas that are found in Professor 
Shorey's edition of Horace, which we had occasion to 
praise about a year ago. 

" A Primer of French Verse for Upper Forms " 
(Macmillan), edited by Mr. Frederic Spencer, has for 
its aim " to associate with interesting extracts from the 
work of numerous French poets such hints as to the 
structure of French verse as may tend to secure cor- 
rect and intelligent reading of these extracts themselves 
and adequate appreciation of the distinctive qualities 
of French poetry as therein represented." The ex- 
tracts are usually of some length, and are so happily cho- 
sen as literature (aside from their illustrative function), 
that the book has claimed more of our attention than 
we should ordinarily have given such a manual. In 
fact, the didactic part of the work has been reduced to a 
bare minimum, a feature which will recommend the 
Primer to judicious teachers and serious students. 

The third volume of "The Anglo-Saxon Review," 
dated December, 1899, has just been published in 
this country by Mr. John Lane. The binding is cop- 
ied from an example made for Charles I., and covering 
the "Bavaria Pia" of 1628. The portraits are of 
Napoleon, Canning, Mr. and Mrs. Shelley, Mr. Pad- 
erewski, and Marie de Guise-Lorraine. The text in- 
cludes the following contributions, among others : 
"War Memories," by Mr. Stephen Crane; "Our Sea- 
fights with the Dutch," by Mr. David Hannay; " Notes 
on the Venezuelan Arbitration," by Mr. G. R. Askwith ; 
a review of "Paolo and Francesca," by Dr. Garnett; 
" The Unflinching Realist," by Mr. H. D. Traill; " Past 
and Future in South Africa," by Mr. Lionel Phillips; 
and " Some Battlepieces," by Mr. Sidney Low. 

" A General Survey of American Literature " (Mc- 
Clurg), by Miss Mary Fisher, is an attempt to make 
real the personalities of our authors and to estimate 
their works according to recognized canons of sound 
criticism. Both objects seem to have been attained so 
far as the limits of the book allow. The conventional 
biographical material is treated in a pleasing style and 
with discriminating sympathy. An occasional anec- 
dote adds flavor. There is no unmerited praise of 
American letters, no hero-worship. Handsomely made 
up, and provided with an Index, the volume is a wel- 
come addition to the educational force that is empha- 
sizing things American. 





Mr. W. R. Jenkins publishes a pamphlet called " The 
Poet as Teacher," being an address recently given by 
Dr. Lewis F. Mott. 

"The Tears of the Heliades; or, Amber as a Gem," 
by Mr. W. Arnold Buffum, is published in an American 
edition by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

"Madame Dreyfus," a small volume just published 
by Brentano's, is an " appreciation " of that devoted wife 
and noble woman by Miss Josephine Lazarus. 

The authorized American edition of Count Tolstoi's 
novel " Resurrection," upon which he has been so long 
at work, will be issued by Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. 
on the first of this month. 

" Orestes A. Brownson's Middle Life," covering the 
period from 1845 to 1855, being a continuation of 
" Brownson's Early Life," is published at Detroit by Mr. 
H. F. Brownson, the author. 

Richard Hovey, poet, educator, and lecturer, died in 
New York City, Feb. 26. Mr. Hovey was but thirty- 
five years of age at the time of his death, and had given 
much promise of strong poetic powers. 

Messrs. Small, Maynard & Co. publish a neat edition 
of the "Letters of Thomas Gray," in a selection edited, 
with a biographical notice, by Mr. Henry Milnor 
Rideout. The volume has an etched portrait. 

Volume III. of Mr. Thomas Mackay's " History of 
the English Poor Law" covers the period from 1834 to 
the present time, and completes this important histor- 
ical work. The Messrs. Putnam are the publishers. 

"The Makers of Modern Prose," by Mr. W. J. 
Dawson (Whittaker), is a series of essays upon writers 
ranging from Johnson and Goldsmith to Raskin and 
Newman. It is a companion to the earlier volume upon 
English poets, and will be followed by a third upon 
English novelists. 

The American Book Co. issue " Our Country in Poem 
and Prose," a book of supplementary reading edited by 
Miss Eleanor A. Persons. "Four Famous American 
Writers" (Irving, Poe, Lowell, Taylor), by Mr. Sher- 
win Cody, is a volume of similar intent issued by the 
Werner School Book Co. 

Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co. announce their removal 
to their new building at 35th St. and 5th Ave., where 
they will occupy greatly enlarged quarters. Upper 
Fifth avenue is steadily growing in favor with the New 
York book trade, and many of the leading houses are 
now located in that section of the city. 

" The Rise of Formal Satire in England under Class- 
ical Influence," by Mr. Raymond Macdonald Alden, is 
a doctoral dissertation expanded for publication by the 
University of Pennsylvania. It adds one more to the 
list of scholarly monographs by which our universities 
are doing so much for the scientific study of English 

" Kant and Spencer," by Dr. Paul Carus, is published 
by the Open Court Publishing Co. It is a reprint of 
matter from " The Open Court " and " The Monist," 
and the author is essentially right in the controversy, 
although he seems to inject into his comments more 
acerbity than is strictly necessary for the sustaining of 
his position. 

What is likely to prove the definitive and standard 
library edition of Tennyson has been published in ten 
volumes by the Macmillan Co. It includes the " Life," 
by the present Lord Tennyson, which fills four volumes 

out of the ten. Chaste simplicity and dignity are the 
characteristics of this set of volumes from the mechan- 
ical point of view. The illustrations, of which each 
volume has at least one, are nearly all portraits in pho- 
togravure, and include all the familiar examples, besides 
some of the less familiar ones made by the camera of 
Mrs. Cameron. 

Publishing a Book " (Heath), by Mr. Charles Welsh, 
is one of those small manuals put forth from time to 
time for the practical guidance of inexperienced writers 
for the press. It is a small volume, containing only the 
bare essentials. The directions are clearly given, and 
young writers who follow them will save themselves 
much annoyance. 

Mr. Gold win Smith's "Shakespeare: The Man " 
(Doubleday) is a rather slight essay which seeks to do 
what Mr. Frank Harris attempted a few years ago 
upon a more elaborate scale, and what Dr. Brandes 
makes the essential thesis of his great critical work 
on Shakespeare namely, to find indications of the 
poet's personality in the text of his plays. That the 
essay has both critical value and charm of expression 
may be taken for granted. 

The article on " Byron's Influence upon Goethe," in 
this issue of THE DIAL, derives a sad interest from the 
death of its author, which occurred at Evanston, Illi- 
nois, the 28th of January. Miss Anna M. Bowen, a 
woman of rare qualities of character and scholarship, 
held, at the age of twenty-seven, the responsible posi- 
tion of Dean of the Woman's College of Northwestern 
University, at which institution she was graduated in 
1893, afterwards studying at Cornell University, and 
later at Leipsic and Munich. Some of the results of 
her German studies she had planned to embody in a 
series of articles on Byron's influence on German lit- 
erature, of which series, now interrupted by her death, 
the article in this number was intended as the beginning. 


March, 1900. 

Air Flight, Early Experiments in. Popular Science. 
America's First and Latest Colony. J. G. Leigh. Forum. 
Asia, The Problem of. A. T. Mahan. Harper. 
Benares. Julian Ralph. Harper. 

Berea, Educational Opportunity at. Review of Reviews. 
Brook Farm, A Girl at. Ora G. Sedgwick. Atlantic. 
China, Germany's First Colony in. Poultney Bigelow. Harper. 
China's Development, Western Benefits through. Forum. 
City Government, Unofficial. E. P. Wheeler. Atlantic. 
City Roadways, Modern. N. P. Lewis. Popular Science. 
Criminals, Typical. S. G. Smith. Popular Science. 
Cross-Education. E. W. Scripture. Popular Science. 
Customs Court, A. W. A. Robertson. Forum. 
Englishmen in the United States. F. Cunliffe-Owen. Forum. 
Foreign Policy, Growth of our. Richard Olney. Atlantic. 
French Literature, Place of. G. McL. Harper. Atlantic. 
Geology, A Century of. Joseph Le Conte. Popular Science. 
Germany in 1899. William C. Dreher. Atlantic. 
Government Deposits in Banks. G. E. Roberts. Forum. 
Hampton Roads Conference, The. John Goode. Forum. 
Indian Teacher among Indians. Zitkala Sa. Atlantic. 
International University, An. Angelo Heilprin. Forum. 
Landscape Architecture, Renaissance of. Scribner. 
Mediaeval Credulity, A Survival of. E. P. Evans. Pop. Sci. 
Merchant Marine, American. W. L. Marvin. Rev. of Reu. 
Methuen's Division, Fighting with. H. J. Whigham. Scribner. 
Mohammedan Wards, Our. Henry O. Dwight. Forum, 
Moose-Hunting with the Tro-Chu-Tin. T. Adney. Harper. 
New York at Night. James B. Carrington. Scribner. 



New York "Colony of Mercy." Sidney Brooks. Rev. of Rev. 
Opera Libretti. Andrew Lang. Forum. 
Political Horizon, The. H. L. Nelson. Atlantic. 
Pretoria before the War. Howard C. Hillegas. Harper. 
Race, Transplantation of a. N. S. Shaler. Popular Science. 
"Ribbon Lightning." Orange Cook. Popular Science. 
Ruskin, John. Lucking Tavener. Review of Reviews. 
Russian Advance in Central Asia. A. R. Colqnhonn. Harper. 
" Salamanders " and " Salamander Cats." Popular Science. 
School to College, Transition from. L. B. R. Briggs. Atlantic. 
Sculpture and Architecture. W. O. Partridge. Forum. 
"Sense of Injury," Morbid. W.F.Becker. Popular Science. 
Shipping Subsidies, British. J. W. Root. Atlantic. 
Slaves, Emancipation of, under Moslem Law. Rev. of Rev. 
South Africa, Rights and Wrongs in. Q. F. Becker. Forum. 
Southern Mountaineer, The. W. G. Frost. Rev. of Reviews. 
Steamship Subsidies, Policy of. A. T. Hadley. Rev. of Rev. 
Trolley-Car Mechanism. Wm. Baxter, Jr. Popular Science, 


[The following list, containing 71 titles, includes books 
received by THE DIAL since its last issue.} 


The Life of Abraham Lincoln. Drawn from original 
sources and containing many speeches, letters, and tele- 
grams now first published. By Ida M. Tarbell. In2vols., 
illus., large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Doubleday & McClure 
Co. $5. 

The Early Married Life of Maria Josepha, Lady Stanley. 
With extracts from Sir John Stanley's " Prseterita." Ed- 
ited by one of their Grandchildren, Jane H. Adeane. Illus. 
in photogravure, large 8vo, gilt top, nncut, pp. 461. Long- 
mans, Green, & Co. $5. 

Shakespeare the Man : An Attempt to Find Traces of the 
Dramatist's Character in his Dramas. By Gold win Smith. 
With portrait, 16mo, pp. 60. Doubleday & McClure Co. 
75c. net. 

Thomas Paine. By Ellery Sedgwick. With portrait, 24mo, 
gilt top, uncut, pp. 150. " Beacon Biographies." Small, 
Maynard & Co. 75 cts. 

Madame Dreyfus : An Appreciation. By Josephine Lazurus. 
18mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 54. Brentano's. 50 cts. 


The Anglo-Saxon Review: A Quarterly Miscellany. Ed- 
ited by Lady Randolph Spencer Churchill. Vol III., De- 
cember, 1899. With photogravure portraits, 4to, gilt top, 
uncut, pp. 256. John Lane. $6. net. 

Brook Farm: Its Members, Scholars, and Visitors. By 
Lindsay Swift. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 303. " National 
Studies in American Letters." Macmillan Co. $1.25. 

The Makers of Modern Prose: A Popular Handbook to 
the Greater Prose Writers of the Century. By W. J. 
Dawson. 8vo, uncut, pp. 302. Thos. Whitaker. $2. 

Historical Tales from Shakespeare. By A. T. Quiller- 
Couch. 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 435. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. $1.50. 

Malentendus. Par Th. Bentzon. 16mo, uncut, pp. 325. 
Paris : Calmann L4vy. Paper. 

Indian Story and Song from North America. By Alice C. 
Fletcher. 12mo, gilt top, nncut, pp. 126. Small, Maynard 
& Co. $1.50. 

The Age of Johnson (1748-1798). By Thomas Seccombe. 
16mo, pp. 366. "Handbooks of English Literature." 
Macmillan Co. $1. net. 

The Fisher Maiden, and The Lover's Caprice. By J. Wolf- 
gang von Goethe ; trans, for the first time by Martha 
Ridgway Bannan ; with Introduction by W. Clarke Rob- 
inson, B.Sc. Illus. in photogravure, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 116. Philadelphia: John C. Yorston Pub'g Co. 

The Rise of Formal Satire in England under Classical 
Influence. By Raymond Macdonald Alden. 8vo, pp. 264. 
"University of Pennsylvania Publications." Ginn & 
Co. $1. 

Letters of Thomas Gray. Selected, with a Bibliographical 
Notice, by Henry Milnor Rideout. With portrait, 16mo, 
uncut, pp. 222. Small, Maynard & Co. $1. 

The Story of English Kings according to Shakespeare. By 
J. J. Burns, M.A. Illus., 12rao, pp. 272. " Home Read- 
ing Books." D. Aupleton & Co. 65c. net. 

Stories irom trie Arabian Nignts. Selected by Adam 
Singleton. Illus.. 12mo. pp.248. "Home Reading Books." 
D. Appleton & Co. 65c. net. 

Briar Blossoms: Being a Collection of a Few Verses and 
Some Prose. By Howard Llewellyn Swisher. With por- 
trait, 8vo, pp. 109. Morgantown, W. Va.: Acme Pub- 
lishing Co. $1. 


The Passing of the Empires, 850 B. c. to 330 B. c. By G. 
Maspero ; edited by A. H. Sayce ; trans, by M. L. Mc- 
Clure. Illus. with colored photogravures, etc., 4to, gilt 
top, uncut, pp. 824. D. Appleton & Co. $7.50. 

How England Saved Europe: The Story of the Great 
War, 1793-1815. By William H. Fitchett. Vols. II. and 
III. Each illns., 8vo. Charles Scribner's Sons. Per 
vol., $2. 

The Anglo-Boer Conflict : Its History and Causes. By 
Alleyne Ireland. Kiruo, pp. 134. Small, Maynard & Co. 
75 cts. 


CEuvres Completes de Moliere. Miniature edition, OD 
Oxford India paper. In 4 vols., 32mo, gilt edges. Oxford 
University Press. $3.50. 

Library of English Classics. First vols.: Bacon's Essays 
and Advancement of Learning, and The Plays of Richard 
Brinsley Sheridan. Each 8vo, uncut. Macmillan Co. Per 
vol., $1.50. 

The Compleat Angler. By Izaak Walton. Miniature edi- 
tion, on Oxford India paper. Size 2)4x1% inches, gilt 
edges, pp. 587. Oxford University Press. 75 cts. 

Cassell's National Library, New Series. New vols : Dry- 
den's Poems, Milton's Areopagirica, etc., Sir Philip Sid- 
ney's A Defense of Poesie, and Thomas Lodge's Rosalind. 
Each 24mo. Cassell & Co. Per vol., paper, 10 cts. 


Taliesin: A Masque. By Richard Hovey. 16mo, gilt edges, 

pp. 58. Small, Maynard & Co. $1 . 
Folk Songs from the Spanish. By Helen Huntington. 

16mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 75. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$1.25 net. 


To Have and to Hold. By Mary Johnston. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 403. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.50. 
Yeoman Fleetwood. By M. E. Francis (Mrs. Francis 

Blundell). 12mo, pp. 403. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

$1 50. 
One Queen Triumphant. By Frank Mathew. 12mo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 308. John Lane. $1.50. 
Mary Paget : A Romance of Old Bermuda. By Minna Car- 
oline Smith. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 326. Macmillan Co. 

The Judgment of Helen. By Thomas Cobb. 12mo, gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 320. John Lane. $1.50. 
With Sword and Crucifix. By Edward S. Van Zile. 

Illus., 12mo, pp. 299. Harper & Bros. $1.50. 
The Golden Horseshoe. Edited by Stephen Bonsai. 12mo, 

pp.316. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
By the Marshes of Minas. By Charles G. D. Roberts. With 

frontispiece, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 285. Silver, Burdett 

& Co. $1.25. 

A Man's Woman. By Frank Norris. 12mo, pp. 286. Double- 
day & McClure Co. $1.50. 
The Gentleman Pensioner: A Romance of the Year 1569. 

By Albert Lee. 12mo, pp. 351. D. Appleton & Co. $1.; 

paper, 50 cts. 
Terence. By Mrs. B. M. Croker. 12mo, pp 320. F. M. Buckles 

& Co. $1.25. 
High Stakes. By Lawrence L. Lynch. Illus., 12mo, pp. 368. 

'Laird & Lee. 75 cts.; paper, 25 cts. 
The Fate of Madame La Tour : A Tale of Great Salt Lake. 

By Mrs. A. G. Paddock. 12mo, pp. 310. Fords, Howard 

& Hulbert. $1. 
Aboard " The American Duchess." By George L. 

Myers. 12mo, pp. 341. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.; paper, 

50 cts. 
Thro' Fire to Fortune. By Mrs. Alexander. 12mo, pp. 320. 

R. F. Fenno & Co. $1.25. 




Exploratio Evangelica: A Brief Examination of the Basis 

and Origin of Christian Belief. By Percy Gardner, Litt.D. 

Large 8vo, pp. 521. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 84.50 net. 
History of the Christian Church, A.D., 1517-1648. Vol. 

IH.. Reformation and Counter-Reformation. By the late 

Dr. Wilhelm Mueller ; edited by Dr. G. Kawerau ; trans. 

from the German by J. H. Freese, M.A. Large 8vo, 

uncut, pp. 476. Macmilln Co. $3.75. 
The Apostolic Age : Its Life, Doctrine, Worship, and Polity. 

By James Vernon Bartlet. 12mo, pp. 542. " Ten Epochs of 

Church History." Charles Scribner's Sons. $2. net. 
The Christian Use of the Psalms. With Essays on the 

Proper Psalms in the Anglican Prayer Book. By Rev. 

T. K. Cheyne, M.A. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 273. E. P. Dutton 

&Co. 82. 
Theism in the Light of Present Science and Philosophy. By 

James Iverach, M.A. 12mo, uncut, pp. 330. Macmillan 

Co. $1.50. 
The English Church from its Foundation to the Norman 

Conquest (597-1066). By William Hunt, M.A. 12mo, 

gilt top, uncut, pp. 444. Macmillan Co. $1.50. 
Social Meaning of Modern Religious Movements in 

England: Being the Ely Lectures for 1899. By Thomas 

C. Hall, D.D. 12mo, pp. 283. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

$1.50 net. 
Puritan Preaching in England: A Study of Past and 

Present. By John Brown, D.D. 12mo, pp. 290. Charles 

Scribner's Sons. $1.50. 
An Ethical Sunday School: A Scheme for the Moral 

Instruction of the Young. By Walter L. Sheldon. 12mo, 

pp. 206. Macmillan Co. $1.25 net. 
Christian and Civic Economy of Large Towns. By 

Thomas Chalmers, D.D.; abridged and with Introduction 

by C. R. Henderson. 12mo, pp. 350. Charles Scribner's 

Sons. $1.25 net. 
Sunday Afternoons for the Children: A Mother Book. 

By E. Francis Soule. 16mo, pp. 162. Fords, Howard & 

Hulbert. 75 cts. 
Legalized Wrong: A Comment on the Tragedy of Jesus. 

By Robert dowry Chapman. 12mo, pp. 31. F. H. Re veil 

Co. 50 cts. 

A History of the English Poor Law. Vol. III., From 

1834 to the Present Time. By Thomas Mackay. Large 

8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 617. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

$6.50 net. 
The Mind of the Nation: A Study of Political Thought in 

the Nineteenth Century. By Marcus R. P. Dorman, M.A. 

8vo, uncut, pp. 492. London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triib- 

ner & Co., Ltd. 
How Women May Earn a Living. By Helen Churchill 

Candee. 12mo, pp. 342. Macmillan Co. $1. 


The Principles of Biology. By Herbert Spencer. Revised 
and enlarged edition, in 2 vols. Vol. II., illus., 12mo, 
pp. 663. D. Appleton & Co. $2. 

Outlines of the Comparative Physiology and Morpho- 
logy of Animals. By Joseph Le Conte. Illus., 12mo, pp. 
499. D. Appleton & Co. $2. 

North American Forests and Forestry: Their Relations 
to the National Life of the American People. By Ernest 
Bruncken. 8vo, pp. 265. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. 

Home and Garden: Notes and Thoughts, Practical and 
Critical, of a Worker in Both. By Gertrude Jekyll. 
Illus., large 8vo, uncut, pp. 301. Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Gardens, Ancient and Modern : An Epitome of the Litera- 
ture of the Garden- Art. With an Historical Epilogue by 
Albert Forbes Sieveking, F.S.A. Illus. in photogravure, 
etc. ,8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 423. Macmillan Co. $3. 

Outside the Garden. By Helen Milman (Mrs. Caldwell 
Crofton); illus. by Edmund H. New. 12mo, uncut, 
pp. 234. John Lane. $1.50. 

Popular Studies in Mythology, Romance, and Folklore. 
First vols.: Celtic and Mediaeval Romance, by Alfred 
Nutt ; Folklore : What is It and What is the Good of It, 
by E. S. Hartland. F.S.A. ; Ossian and the Ossinnic Litera- 
ture, by Alfred Nutt ; King Arthur and his Knights, by 
Jessie L. Weston. Each, 18mo. London : David Nutt. 

Kant and Spencer. By Dr. Paul Cams. 12mo, pp. 150. 
"Religion of Science Library." Open Court Publishing 
Co. Paper, 20 cts. 


The Nervous System of the Child: Its Growth and Health 

in Education. By Francis Warner, M.D. 12mo, pp. 233. 

Macmillan Co. $1. 
A Manual of Zoology. By T. Jeffrey Parker, D.Sc., and 

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A Sketch of His Life, His Work, and His Opinions, with Personal 


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Houghton, Mifflin & Company's Spring Books 

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told, also the way in which they are reunited. It is a 
very bright novel, and is likely to excite no little dis- 

A Danvis Pioneer 

By ROWLAND E. ROBINSON, author of " Danvis 

Folks," etc. 16mo, $1.25. 

Mr. Robinson is a thoroughly loyal Vermonter. 
This story deals with the settling of Vermont, the 
struggles between the Green Mountain Boys and the 
" Yorkers," and the beginning of the Revolution. The 
" pioneer " is Josiah Hill, who later figures as 
Granther Hill." 









The Touchstone. By Edith Wharton. 

Author of "The Greater Inclination" (5th edition, 12mo, $1.50). A very unusual and brilliant 
short novel, in which a singular situation is worked out with that searching accuracy and psy- 
chological detail which characterized Mrs. Wharton's short stories. 12mo, $1.25. 

The Grip of Honor. 

By Cyrus Townsend Brady, author of " For 
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Red Blood and Blue. 

By Harrison Robertson. A charming story 
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Toomey and Others. 

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The Garden of Eden. 

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Enoch Willoughby. 

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Smith College Stories. 

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Chopin : The Man and His Music. 

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It2 THE DIAL [March 16, 

Si Co/0 

Spring announcement* tnciufce tlje JFollotmng: 

Bird Studies with a Camera. 

By FllANK M. CHAPMAN, author of u Handbook of Birds of Kastern North America" 
and * Bird Life." With over 100 Illustrations by the Author. 

A History of the People of the United States. 

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Familiar Fish and How to Catch Them. 

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A History of Russian Literature. 

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The Story of the Alphabet. 

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thor of "Red Pottage," "The Danvers 
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A Text Book of Geology. 

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1900.] THE DIAL 175 

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Bird Studies with a Camera. 

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Bird students and photographers will find that this book possesses for them a unique interest and value. It 
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The International Geography. 

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great historical romance." Philadelphia Times. 


A Manx Story. By NORMA LORIMER. "Town and Country Library." 12mo, cloth, $1.00; paper, 50 cents. 

A Maker of Nations. 

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History of the People of the United States. 

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Believing that the relations of private property to the Government and the responsibility of the Government 
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Trusts and the Public. 

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George Eliot's Silas Marner. 

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The Secondary School System of Germany. 

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J. B. Lippincott Co.'s Spring Announcements 


A Sketch of His Life, His Work, and His 
Opinions. With Personal Reminiscences. 

Together with a paper by John Ruskiu entitled " The 
Black Arts." And a note on Raskin, by Harriso